ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                             April 2017  |  Vol. 12  No. 7
   
Title: Application of SEM method to investigate the cause of effect of elevated temperatures on compressive strength for Ternary Blended Concrete using Metakaolin and Micro Silica
Author (s): Balakrishnaiah D., Balaji K. V. G. D. and Srinivasa Rao P.
Abstract:

The paper aims at using SEM as tool for studying the effect of the elevated temperatures on compressive strength of Ternary Blended Concrete (TBC) applying Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) method on binders’ hydration process and its microstructure. During investigation, the ternary blended concrete with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Micro Silica (MS) and Metakaolin (MK) was prepared and subjected to elevated temperature ranging from ambient to 800oC. The study has revealed the optimum proportions of constituents of Ternary Blended Concrete (TBC) for designing the structure to resist elevated temperatures. The results of the investigations through the SEM method demonstrated the potential of TBC (with 70% of OPC, 20% of MK and 10% of MS) for use as fire resistant structural material and subsequent analysis using SEM has indicated the possible causes for the observed effect of elevated temperatures on compressive strength of Ternary Blended Concrete. The studies also threw adequate light on the possibility of optimization of natural resources in the construction industry in the form of savings in the cement usage and reduction in the emission of CO2 (carbon credits).

   

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Title: Kinematic modelling of a robotic arm manipulator using MATLAB
Author (s): Ruthber Rodriguez Serrezuela, Adrian Fernando Chavarro Chavarro, Miguel Angel Tovar Cardoso, Alejandro Leiva Toquica and Luis Fernando Ortiz Martinez
Abstract:

In this paper the design and implementation of a kinematic model for a manipulator robot arm type with four degrees of freedom is developed, model robot performance can be checked mathematically using results from coordinates frames, which set the proposed matrices by Denavit-Hartemberg method to determine the robot joins angle vector. This procedure describes the direct and inverse kinematics. The goal is to determine the final robot's position and orientation according to the joint angles related to a coordinate system, the final effect or position, where joint angles are located. The results were implemented in a MATLAB application that performs fast calculations, it allows the verification of the theory and at the same time becomes as a tool to simplify the analysis and learning for its friendly interface which displays virtually the movements of the robotic arm AL5A.

   

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Title: Micro aneurysms extraction with vessel neighborhood separation, SVM and connected component extraction
Author (s): S. Srinivasa Reddy, K. N. Prakash and P. V. V Kishore
Abstract:

The severe problem of Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is ever increasing issue in today’s world. In order to get of it, the possible way is to take steps to detect the same at its early stage. The root cause for the disease appears in the form of micro-aneurysms (MA). These MA are minute red dots accumulated near the blood vessels. General techniques are not quite useful in identifying them. In this paper, we first extract the retinal vessels using Coyefilter technique which uses methodologies like PCA and thresholding using an iterative selection method. Then the retinal classified namely as vessel and non-vessel Neighborhood Region. This is done in order to accelerate the performance of SVM for correctly identifying the micro aneurysms. Traditionally, the SVM engine is trained first with positive and negative samples from fundus images. Then by sliding window technique, the entire test image is divided into parts and each part is sent to the SVM engine to identify the micro aneurysms. The computational time of the algorithm is dependent on the image size. To reduce this, the vessel neighborhood regions are only sent to SVM engine and thus reducing the computation time and increasing the accuracy. micro aneurysms in the vessel neighborhood region are extracted using connect component extraction and classified based on features extracted. Thus improving the overall performance and sensitivity of the system. The algorithm has been thoroughly tested on numerous images and it outperformed the existing counterparts.

   

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Title: An experimental investigation on flexural behavior of GGBS and Metakaolin based Geopolymer concrete
Author (s): B. Sarath Chandra Kumar, K. Ramesh and P. Poluraju
Abstract:

Geopolymers are showing great potential and several researchers have critically examined the various aspects of their viability as binder system. Geopolymer concretes (GPCs) are new class of building materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. In this paper, studies carried out on the behavior of ambient temperature cured reinforced GPC flexural members are reported. A total of twelve beams were tested in flexure having varying combinations of GGBS and Metakaolin in the binder phase were considered. The reinforcement was designed considering a balanced section for the expected characteristic strength. All the specimens were tested under two point static loading. The studies demonstrated that the load carrying capacity of most of the GPC beams was in most cases marginally more than that of the corresponding conventional OPC beams. The deflections at different stages including service load and peak load stage were higher for GPC beams. The studies showed that the conventional RC theory could be used for reinforced GPC flexural beams for the computation of moment capacity, deflection within reasonable limits.

   

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Title: An overview of the applications and performance characteristics of the thermoelectric devices
Author (s): Sagar Balasaheb Mane Deshmukh, Arunagiri Krishnamoorthy, Virendra Krishnakant Bhojwani, Amar Pandhare, Ashish Maruti Umbarkar, Gayatri Prakash Patil, Kajal Balasaheb Jadhav and Akshada Rajendra Todkar
Abstract:

Thermoelectric power generation has proven to be the best technology for small scale power generation for portable power systems. Looking at the advantages of the thermoelectric power generation there is a need to review applications and fundamentals of the power generation through thermoelectric set up. Present review emphasizes mainly on applications and parameters affecting performance of the thermoelectric device, which includes materials of thermoelectric, geometry of the thermo electric material and heat source, temperatures obtained from heat source, efficiency of the heat source, efficiency of the thermoelectric device on low temperature and high temperatures, connectivity issues etc. Findings from all the points mentioned above are sorted after every point and collective conclusions are drawn at last. Future modifications/recommendations are suggested in the existing power generating systems.

   

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Title: Shear capacity of RC beams retrofitted with wire mesh and SCC
Author (s): A. Arwin Amiruddin, Parung Herman and Riswal K.
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate shear performances of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted by using wire mesh and Self Compacting Concrete (SCC). Four concrete beams reinforced internally with steel and externally with both wire mesh (Ø4,06mm) and SCC (25mm) applied to the specimens were tested under three-point bending. The shear failure was initiated by a major diagonal crack within the beam shear span. This diagonal crack extended horizontally at the level of the wire mesh. Results show that SCC with wire mesh is very effective for shear retrofitting. Increases in shear capacity of 71.82% for BWS over the BN as control, un-retrofitted beams were noted.

   

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Title: Investigation of metallic oxide catalyst role for up grading biodiesel to bio jet fuel range hydrocarbon
Author (s): S. I. Hawash, E. Abdelkader, Ashraf Amin and R. El-Arabyand G. El-Diwani
Abstract:

This article investigates the upgrading of biodiesel produced from palm oil using different metallic oxide catalysts under relatively mild conditions. Upgrading experiments were conducted at 300ºC, under pressure (3 bar) for 3 hours using2.5 % catalyst dose (wt. /vol.), at 60 rpm stirring rate in a high-pressure reactor. The employed catalysts are Ni/HZSM5, calcium zinc aluminate, and zinc aluminate. It was found that zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) is an efficient and stable catalyst for cracking long chain hydrocarbons in biodiesel to alkanes. High yield of short chain hydrocarbons were obtained, (50.09%jet fuel, 41.34% diesel fuel range hydrocarbon and zero gasoline range hydrocarbon). The upgraded biodiesel was subjected to elemental analysis and GC mass analyses. In addition, physical properties of upgraded biodiesel like viscosity, density, high heating value (HHV) were determined. It was found that more aromatization and isomerization occurs and increases C8–C15 range, which is a jet fuel range hydrocarbons to about 51% using ZnAl2O4.However, preceding the reaction in the presence of hydrogen for more de-oxygenation resulted about 43% C8 – C15.The activity and selectivity of (ZnAl2O4) for jet fuel range hydrocarbon showed high yield after product distillation process at about 280°C.

   

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Title: Gradient hardening chisel plow from nodular iron
Author (s): L. V. Kostyleva, A. S. Ovchinnikov, D. S. Gapich and S. D. Fomin
Abstract:

For plowing hard soils littered with stones, used plows overlaid with a chisel. Chisel must possess high wear resistance and impact resistance. To improve the durability of the bit in harsh environments need to ensure mechanical properties radically different parts of zones. For such a distribution structures necessary to carry out very complex multistage thermal treatment. Theoretically proved and experimentally confirmed the possibility of formation of the given structure and properties of the zones of ductile cast iron products with a volumetric heating of blanks with regard to the technology of mass production. Taking into account the existing structural in homogeneities in the castings the optimum heating temperature for quenching is 880 900°C with duration of exposure 2.5-3 hours. To obtain the desired structure and properties of the hardened casting zone for use as the quench liquid water heat treatment must consist of at least three cycles of "cooling - self-heating" from the duration of cooling in the first cycles of 1-2 seconds.

   

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Title: A combinatorial technique using wavelet and Empirical Mode Decomposition for denoising partial discharge signature
Author (s): G. Suganya, S. Jayalalitha and K. Kannan
Abstract:

Insulation diagnostics has been accepted and applied as a tool for condition assessment of high voltage equipment to identify the weak spots of the insulation. Partial discharge (PD) signal features indicate insulation condition of the equipment effectively. Extracting PD signal is one of the major tasks in PD measurement system. PD signals are characterized by a high-frequency current pulse from the noisy background. Noise detection and removal pose considerable challenges due to unknown sources that cause noise distribution. A Recent literature survey indicates there are only a few methods to detect a few of noises types. Though wavelet threshold function and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique evolved as noise detection tools not much work related to the design of robust techniques which will lead to a simultaneous reduction of types of noise has been reported to literature. This paper proposes a novel hybrid structure that combines wavelet threshold function and EMD technique, which has been applied to both numerically simulated PD pulses and later to the observed data from the laboratory. Quality metrics Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Cross-Correlation (CC), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are used to compare the results. The obtained result indicates the superior performance of proposed hybrid technique in denoising white noise pulses from the PD signatures. The average PSNR value of proposed hybrid technique for removal of white noises has been found to be more than the PSNR values of traditional methods. By fitting statistical distribution, the noise separated from the PD has been proven to be white noise.

   

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Title: AHP method and application example for the robust Multi-Criteria design concept selection
Author (s): M. N. Sudin, M. A. Salim, M. R. Alkahari, M. A. Abdullah, M. R. Mansor, M. Z. Akop and F. R. Ramli
Abstract:

This paper aims at giving an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a Multi Criteria Decision Making method for the selection of a motorcycle tire dismounting tool. Four criteria and four sub-criteria were identified for the selection of the best design concept from three alternative solutions. It was observed that a design concept-1 has received the highest score and selected design to proceed. The selection of the design concept is robust enough as the consistency on the decision made is within the allowable range of inconsistency which is less than 10%.

   

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Title: Capacity and security enhancement in audio based steganography using random location technique
Author (s): Muhammad Anwaar, Wareesa Sharif, Zartashia Shameen and Khalid Bashir Bajwa
Abstract:

Audio steganography has attracted a great attention owing to secure communication for commercial and military purposes due to larger size of their files. Among these, audio based steganography has more potential to conceal information because audio files are larger in size as compare to other media. For audio steganography, mostly Least Significant Bit (LSB) techniques are used to hide the secrete data. LSB techniques hide data in limited capacity. Also, detection of data in lower bits is much easier, thus these techniques has less security. In this paper, audio based steganography technique is suggested. The proposed technique conceals data at the random location of audio signal by using chaotic based technique. The proposed technique enables us to hide the data in lower as well as higher significant bits of the audio data; that increases its capacity. It also enhances the security of the secrete data by placing at random location of the audio data. It believes that the given technique can be useful for secure communication of large amount of secrete data.

   

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Title: Time delay estimation for BIS monitor used in general anesthesia
Author (s): Diego F. Sendoya-Losada, Faiber Robayo Betancourt and Jose Salgado Patron

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present a procedure which is able to estimate the time delay of the BIS monitor. To achieve this, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models of the patients are placed in a simulation scenario with a variable and known time delay and with a reasonable amount of noise, in order to reproduce the conditions of the BIS monitor and the artifacts present in the intensive care unit. This artificial system is used to test the different procedures based on the cross-correlation analysis. Finally, the real signals recorded during clinical trials were used to estimate the time delay of the BIS monitor.

   

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Title: Effectively minimize the overall trip distance using continuous detour query in spatial network
Author (s): A. Sasi Kumar and G. Suseendran
Abstract:

The top-k shortest path discovery is a key process on graphs to determine k-shortest paths between a two nodes with the minimal length. This work precisely holds three processes for ranking the shortest path problem without loop by the way of using top-k shortest path join (TKSPJ) in spatial network. First, Construct transformed graph with side cost by using of input original graph. Second, structural encoding label is used for loop detection and third to find top k shortest path without loop. The main advantage of this work is to reduce the cost and prune the search space. The pre computed shortest paths translating the original graph based on the threshold value has also been introduced, to reduce the search space in a spatial network.

   

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Title: Dragonfly Optimization based long-term forecasting of electrical energy
Author (s): J. Kumaran Kumar, G. Ravi and J. Sasikala
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Long-term load forecasting plays a significant role in the operation and management of power systems. Accurate estimation of future energy demands for various lead times facilitates the task of generating power reliably and economically. The energy demand depends so many factors such as weather, average temperature, time, number of households, number of air conditioners, amount of CO2 pollution, oil price, economy, population, etc. This paper attempts to suggest a hybrid model based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Dragonfly Optimization (DFO) for predicting the electrical energy demand of India for the future years up to 2025. The model requires the year of the forecast as input, and predicts the net electrical energy demand. The comparison of the results with that of the regression model demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model.

   

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Title: Sierpinski carpet fractal antenna array using Mitered Bend feed network for multi-band applications
Author (s): D. Prabhakar, P. Mallikarjuna Rao and M. Satyanarayana
Abstract:

In the last few decades, there is an incredible growth in wireless communication which has led to the need for antennas with increased gain, bandwidth and low profile. To achieve wideband/multiband antennas, one technique is by applying fractal shapes into antenna geometry. This paper focuses on Sierpinski carpet fractal antenna (SCFA) Array using Mitered Bend feed network to increase the gain. These antennas are designed using HFSS on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4 and fed with 50 ohms micro strip line. SCFA an array has been fabricated and tested using a VNA and the fabrication results are good in comparison with the simulation ones, thereby suggesting the credibility of all the designed antennas.

   

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Title: Throughput optimization for congestion avoidance in Wireless Mesh Network
Author (s): Karunya Rathan and S. Emalda Roslin
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Wireless Mesh Network (WMN), is a upcoming promising technology, that is continuing to boom because of its various advantages like low deployment cost, scalability, efficiency, characteristics of each node being to function as a router, etc.. But there are many challenges that are not addressed, which includes congestion prevention and avoidance. Congestion in any network will or may result in packet loss, delay in queuing, blocking of new connections and resulting in reduced Quality of service. In this paper, a novel Congestion Notification Algorithm is proposed, that will notify the occurrence of congestion and therefore help in avoiding a congested network. Once the congestion is notified, technique for preventing and avoiding congestion is also suggested. Performance evaluation is done based on the metrics to prove the efficiency of the proposed work.

   

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Title: Estimating SUs arrival for channel selection in Cognitive Radio
Author (s): Danilo Lopez Sarmiento, Edwin Rivas Trujillo and Nelson Enrique Vera Parra
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Generating optimal schemes for processing secondary user (SU) requests during the spectrum band selection stage is one of the current challenges of Cognitive Radio (CR), because it directly affects the time needed by a Base Station (BS) to select and assign a channel so SUs can send their data in an opportunistic fashion over the wireless network. Therefore, it’s important to create strategies to reduce the processing time variable and thus improve system throughput. This research proposes the creation of a model for predicting the arrival at a BS of SUs with quality of service requirements, with the purpose of reserving the data transmission channel in advance depending on the required quality of service (real time (RT) or best effort (BE)). A model called SU Arrival Proactive Strategy was developed. It proves it’s possible to optimize CR throughput because the time needed by the central station to assign a channel is less than when using a conventional spectrum band assignment strategy (in this paper, a reactive strategy).

   

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Title: Vegetation identification by using particle swarm optimization
Author (s): Rincy Merlin Mathew, S. Purushothaman and P. Rajeswari
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An image is presented. The required band Landsat 8 (5, 4, 3) and Landsat 7 (4, 3, 2) are considered from the multispectral image for segmentation and identification of vegetation. Two sample images: one from ERDAS format acquired by Landsat 7 ‘Paris.lan’ (band 4, band 3, Band 2) and another image acquired from Landsat 8 (band 5, band 4, band 3) are used in this paper. PSO is used to segment the plane-1(Near infra red spectra) and plane 2(RED spectra). The monochrome of the two segmented images is compared with a monochrome of the images without PSO segmentation.

   

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Title: The impact of the rivers drenica, prishtevke, graqanke on pollution of the River Sitnica with heavy metals
Author (s): Sadija Kadriu, Mehush Aliu, Sylejman Hyseni, Milaim Sadiku, Ismet Mulliqi and Ali Sadiku
Abstract:

One of the three largest rivers in Kosovo is known Sitnica River. This river formed near village Rubovc by the flow called Matica, Sazlline stream and from the river flow of Shtime. At the start, the river is characterized by small water capacity, but during his path across the plains of Kosovo, in the geographic extension south-north, with a length of 90 km, him join the other rivers and springs, who with water flow not only that increase the amount of water of the river, but at the same time, some of these streams, pollute it with black waters, with industrial discharge and preparations of various chemicals used in agricultural activities. The amount of water discharged into the river Sitnica varies from season to season. Water flows more prevalent occur during the late autumn, in the winter and in spring. During this time, as a result of rainfalls and snow melt, increase the amount of water and there are cases when they arise and numerous flood agricultural land, despite the fact that along the flow of the river, in the 70s/80s years in both sides of it were raised levees to discipline these waters. The object of our study is the identification and evaluation of pollution with heavy metals of waters of river Sitnica, throughout flow since its Village Vragoli, located near Fushe Kosove to discharge his bottom in the River Ibri, in Mitrovica city, including six site-sampling.

   

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Title: Quaternary polymeric thermodynamic system and membrane formation mathematical model
Author (s): Heba Abdallah, Ashraf Amin, Ayman El-Gendi and M. El-Bayoumi
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A thermodynamic model of quaternary polymeric solution was developed for membrane formation. It incorporates two mixed solventsN-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), and two high molecular weight polymers cellulose acetate (CA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Also, another polymeric solution was modeled by replacing (CA) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The developed model depends on the extended modified Flory-Huggins model. Gibbs free energy was studied in the range of -200 J/mol at 313K to -450 J/mol at 363K. The polymer blend solution was homogenous in the studied range. In addition, the diffusion model of immersion precipitation process was investigated. The results indicate that the ratio of fCA/ f solvents increases with coagulation time due to removal almost all the solvents from the polymeric solution, while the thickness of polymer membrane decreases due to the coagulation process. The prepared membranes were tested by scan electron microscope and the test results have validated the model results.

   

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Title: The integrated exploration of Raifa lake sediments and dendrochronological analysis of Raifa forestry pines
Author (s): Kosareva L. R., Nurgalieva N. G., Frolova L. A., Gafiatullina L. I., Krylov P. S., Terekhin A. A., Tishin D. V., Batalin G. A., Gareev B. I., Kuzina D. M., Antonenko V. V. and Akhmerov R. D.
Abstract:

The article presents some results of comprehensive research on the properties of Raifa lake bottom sediments and dendrochronological study of Raifa forestry pines (Russia). A preliminary seismic acoustic investigations have been carried out, which allowed to select the sampling site (E 48 ° 43'40.6'' N 55 ° 54'21.7''). The length of core sample was 32 cm. Laboratory studies of the core, including the study of the elemental composition, magneto-mineralogical and carcinologic analysis revealed the features of sedimentation mass formation.

   

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Title: Investigation of sound loss potential of natural fibers and their compositions
Author (s):

Ulhas A. Malawade, Ketan J. Mahamuni, Madhavrao G. Jadhav and Virendra K. Bhojwani

Abstract:

Natural fibers are porous in nature which is useful feature for sound absorption. Natural materials are eco friendly and less harmful. Natural fibers have potential to play important role in acoustic treatments at various sensitive areas like hospitals, classroom, research laboratories, libraries, residential areas and offices. Experiments were conducted on natural fibers to understand its sound loss potential. The present paper also discusses method of sample preparation for the different compositions. Bagasse, Rice husk, Rice straw, Wood dust was tested to measure their sound loss potential. The test setup used for estimating the sound loss potential consisted of an emitter and receiver. Tests were conducted by measuring the sound level at receiver without any obstruction and readings were repeated by placing the sample in between. The difference of the two reading estimated the sound loss for that sample. The sound absorption coefficient for each case was estimated and compared with other similar materials reported in the literature. It was observed that sample made by combinations of rice husk, rice straw and wood dust gave considerable improvement in the performance. The present article discusses the sample preparation method, test setup used and results observed for different natural fibers. The present paper also gives results of compositions of different natural materials under investigation. Maximum sound absorption coefficient of the order of 0.29 was observed for Rice straw and Composition of Rice Straw and Wood dust sample.

   

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Title: Evaluation and validation of chemical industry program using Computer Assisted Instruction
Author (s): Leola Dewiyani, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan and Ery Diniardi
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This research aims to improve the competence of students of the Department of Industrial Engineering in Indonesia in the subject of Chemical Industry, in particular through the model-based teaching materials Computer Assisted Instruction in the form of an interactive CD. In particular, the study carried out for the purpose of: (1) Designing and developing models of devices based learning CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) systematically in prototype form, (2) Produce an interactive CD as a model learning devices Chemical Industry based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) to improve the competence of students Department of Industrial Engineering in Industrial Chemistry courses. A product produced in this research is the design of teaching materials based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) in the form of an interactive CD that includes the implementation of the design and programming of interactive CD. In this research produced interactive CD and Post Production activities which include activities conducted justification expert evaluation, conducted trials on stakeholders, be revised based on input from experts, and do packing and labeling. It also carried out activities Design and Programming interactive CD, so that the resulting interactive CD is ready for use.

   

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Title: Mapping optimization for partial loads of common rail diesel piston engines
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli and Stefano Cassani
Abstract:

Theoretically, from a control design point of view, modern diesel engines are dynamic, nonlinear, MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) systems. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is not correct and a suitable model for predictive control (MPC) of power (torque), NOx and soot emissions based on temperature feedback is perfectly possible on SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) CRDITDs (Common Rail Direct Injection Turbocharged Diesel). The method optimizes the temperature at a selected point of the engine exhaust. This reference point is the turbocharger intake for Euro 0 (aircraft). For Euro 6+/US Tier 3a+ SCR diesels, the reference point is the intake of the “emission control system” usually at the outlet of turbo charging system. The traditional five-inputs are only theoretically independent. In fact, fuel injection duration depends on torque (load) and efficiency. Fuel advance is retarded to obtain the required reference temperature. HPEGR (high pressure exhaust gas recirculation) is adopted only when the emissions cannot be controlled by the fuel advance. VGT (variable geometry turbo) valve positions and low pressure LPEGR maximize the air flow (efficiency) at the engine intake. On the outputs, peak pressure and peak pressure derivative should be kept within structural limits. Soot and NOx are two faces of the same problems. In fact, high NOx means low soot and good combustion efficiency. Temperature and air flow are the keys to obtain optimum engine performance. Air flow is controlled by the turbocharger, while temperature depends on injection. This paper demonstrates that CRDITDs mapping is much easier when the fundamentals of diesel combustion and SCR are simplified to basic concepts. The strategy to retard the injection advance increases efficiency of 30% over traditional LPP (Optimal Location of Peak Pressure)- mapping at low loads.

   

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Title: Numerical solving optimal control problems by the method of variations
Author (s): Igor Grigoryev, Svetlana Mustafina and Vladimir Vaytiev
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In the article based on the method of variations in the space of controls the algorithm is developed and program was implemented to determine the optimal control problems with free right end. As an illustration method, presents the results of numerical solution of the three examples with constraints on the control and phase variables. The advantage of this algorithm is the lack of requirements for the selection of the initial approximation control parameter and phase variables. The algorithm has good convergence and can be used to solve a large class of applications in various branches of the economy. By using the developed algorithm determined the optimum trajectory and the numerical values of the control parameter for the test problems. A comparative analysis of the results of the numerical solution of the examples for different values of initial approximation control and precision.

   

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Title: Evaluation of government policy and analysis of quality mobile communications network of FWA-CDMA with low cost for rural areas in Indonesia
Author (s): Yuliarman Saragih, Iwan Setyawan, Eko Sediyono and Robert M. Z. Lawang
Abstract:

Fixed wireless network or abbreviated Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) is a technology for fixed wireless telephone network. In Indonesia, fixed network telecom operators using CDMA wireless instead of cables, due to the high cost of telephone wiring investment. FWA is also known as Radio in the Local Loop (RLL) or Wireless Local Loop (WLL). FWA is used as a substitute for copper wire or partial local loop telephone network. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the government's policy of FWA-CDMA to reduce inequalities in access to communications in rural and analyzes about the quality of the mobile network at a low cost so that it can be applied in Indonesia. Results obtained FWA-CDMA technology is deemed not profitable because the government is not neutral in the use of frequencies and lead to discrimination in fare. Therefore, CDMA operators are required to migrate to the GSM frequency band, in accordance with the Regulation of the Minister of Communications and Information Technology No. 30, 2014. The quality of the GSM network in rural areas is not as good as the CDMA network. This indicates that in order to equalize access to telecommunications, the CDMA network is still needed in the countryside.

   

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Title: High altitude operations with piston engines power plant design optimization: Nozzle design and ramjet general considerations
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli and Stefano Cassani
Abstract:

In stratospheric flights with piston powered aircrafts, the cooling system takes part to the vehicle design optimization process. An integrated design of the cooling duct(s) is strictly necessary. At high altitudes, the cooling air is taken from high-pressure areas into a subsonic ramjet: the Meredith cooling duct. A diffuser reduces the airspeed and increases the pressure of the cooling air. Then a group of high performance finned radiators rejects the heat from coolant, air charge and lubricant. A variable geometry nozzle transforms the added enthalpy into speed and thrust. The nozzle is positioned in a low pressure, high turbulence area. The nozzle design and the duct thrust are discussed in this paper. At first the results from Parts I to IV are summarized and discussed. The resulting data are also exposed and summarized. The pressure recovery and heat rejection are evaluated in function of aircraft speed for a 1-m2vertical-radiator circular duct. The nozzle is then optimized and the total thrust is evaluated.

   

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Title: Multivariate regression analysis of disinfection kinetics using Moringa oleifera defatted seed extract
Author (s): Munirat A. Idris, Ademola Hammed, Saedi Jami and Parveen Jamal
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The objective of this research is to determine the disinfection inactivation kinetics of defatted Moringa oleifera salt seed extract on Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacterial strains using statistical multivariate regression analysis. The disinfection kinetics of the seed extract was carried out using a batch mode treatment of water in shake flasks and the bacterial count of E. coli bacterial cells were used as microbial indicators. The order of reaction as well as the models of different disinfection kinetics were determined. The goodness of fit for each model studied were evaluated using regression analysis in SPSS. The results revealed that modified Homs model better describes the disinfection inactivation kinetics for defatted moringa oleifera seed salt extract and the extract deviated from first order reaction. This is the first study on modified Hom’s law to describe the inactivation of E. coli using defatted Moringa oleifera seed salt extract.

   

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Title: Robust Face Recognition and illumination method using low dimension linear model
Author (s): Sudhan M. B. and Dharun V. S.
Abstract:

Face Recognition is the essential undertaking in picture preparing range and it is a standout amongst the most important feature to detect and identify the person in secured scenarios such as military environments, navy fields, passport offices and many more. Images of confronts, spoke to as high-dimensional pixel exhibits, frequently have a place with a complex of inherently low measurement. Face acknowledgment, and PC vision research as a rule, has seen a developing enthusiasm for strategies that gain by this perception, and apply arithmetical and factual devices for extraction and investigation of the hidden complex. In this part we depict in generally sequential request systems that recognize, parameterize and dissect direct and nonlinear subspaces, from the first Eigen faces strategy to the as of late presented Bayesian strategy for probabilistic closeness examination, and talk about relative exploratory assessment of some of these procedures. We additionally examine down to earth issues identified with the utilization of subspace strategies for changing stance, light and expression.

   

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Title: Substantiation of the technological schemes of intensive development of gas-bearing coal beds
Author (s): Oleg Ivanovich Kazanin, Andrey Alexandrovich Sidorenko and Evgeny Alexandrovich Vinogradov
Abstract:

This paper is focused on improving the economic efficiency and safety of developing gas-bearing coal beads. The main problems with intensive development of pitching gas-bearing coal beds in flanking pillars have been considered. With the Kotinskaya mine of JSC "SUEK-Kuzbass" as an example, it has been shown that in working at gas-bearing coal beads, gas emission management by means of ventilation, degassing, and isolated venting of the methane mixture through the wells drilled from the surface is not efficient and stable enough at the reached depth, and does not always allow to lift limitations by the gas factor on the load on the working faces. Incomplete use of the technical possibilities of the equipment, and deterioration of the performance indicators of development result in losses. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the methods and instruments for gas emission management. To solve this problem, the integrated method was used, which included generalization and analysis of the theory and practice of developing gas-beating beds with long faces, and gas emission management at excavation sites. Based on the results of field and computational studies of the technological schemes parameters influence on the efficiency of gas emission management at an excavation site, nonlinear dependence of allowable loads on the working faces has been established by the gas factor based on the parameters of the technological schemes, and ventilation and degassing in case of intensive development of pitching gas-bearing coal beads. Several recommendations have been given for choosing the location and section size of the intermediate roadway for gas emission management in the goaf, as well as recommendations for choosing the parameters of degassing with drilling wells from squaring up, venting the goaf with two air supply openings and isolated removal of methane-and-air mixture. A process scheme has been developed with the use of an intermediate roadway that ensures effective gas release management and eliminates the need for drilling wells from the surface into the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal beds.

   

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Title: Textile material humidification patterns
Author (s): Aleksandr I. Eremkin, Svetlana V. Bakanova, leksandr N. Koshev, Yuri V. Rodionov and Alexey P. Levtsev
Abstract:

Based on the presentation of a compactly formed textile material as a volume-porous medium with averaged physicochemical and technological parameters, a mathematical model has been proposed for conducting theoretical and numerical studies of textile material humidification patterns. The mathematical model represents a boundary value problem of mathematical physics, the solution of which enables us to calculate relative distribution of conditioned air flow humidity in the porous medium depth. Methods of solving the problem have been discussed. Some results of numerical studies have been provided.

   

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Title: Design and implementation of a photovoltaic solar tracker using fuzzy control for Surcolombiana University
Author (s): Diego F. Sendoya-Losada, Daniel Fernando Murcia and Santiago Ochoa García
Abstract:

Solar tracking systems are a solution to get a higher incidence of radiation throughout the day compared a static photovoltaic system. A tracking system produces a significant improvement in energy efficiency over a fixed system. In this contribution, the design of an automated solar tracking system with diffuse control is presented. This fuzzy control presents two input variables the incidence of radiation both on the azimuth axis and on the axis of elevation. This allows developing a comparative study between a static solar system and the solar tracker that attends to evaluate produced power versus consumed power, efficiency, costs and complexity of the system through the implementation of an experimental prototype.

   

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Title: Evaluation of reliability of sorghum harvester
Author (s): A. S. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Ryadnov, O. A. Fedorova, S. D. Fomin and R. V. Sharipov
Abstract:

Based on the results of experimental studies of single-module attachment harvester headings sorghum and other crops and with radically new threshing and separating device inertial-type, the stripper reliability combine as a whole and its major systems are defined. Thus, the time to failure of sorghum harvester is 87.22 hours and availability factor is 0.985. It was revealed that limiting of the combine reliability are: Maize, threshed grain handling system in a combine hopper module. The decrease in the reliability of these systems failures and malfunctions is influenced by belting included in their design. During the study were recorded 41 failure of belt transmission. It was determined that 89% of failures occur due to loss of required belt tension and its delayed service. To increase the reliability of systems limiting sorghum harvester it is possible due to maintenance belt drive transmission throwers grain beater ramjet remote threshing chamber at intervals of 90 m ± 20% and the drive of the cutting apparatus reapers at intervals of 45 m ± 20%.

   

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Title: On amorphous phase formation in dissimilar friction stir welding of aluminium-to-steel
Author (s): Sadiq Aziz Hussein and Abd Salam Md. Tahir
Abstract:

The amorphous phase which associated the joining of aluminium-to-steel via friction stir welding was investigated. AA5083, AA6061 and zinc coated steel were welded together by a single pass friction stir welding. Heat cycle measurement and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the effect of using different welding parameter levels on the amorphous phase and intermetallic compound formations. Using of 2000 rpm with 20 mm/min as rotational and welding speeds, respectively, resulted in a long heat cycle. Such long heat cycle could eliminate the amorphous phase and promote thick intermetallic compounds, especially at the AA5083 to steel interface. However, when welding speed was increased, 40 mm/min, a shorter heat cycle was produced, and the amorphous phase was observed. Very high welding speed (300 mm/min) resulted in very short heat cycle with no obvious amorphous phase and very small amount of intermetallic compound at the aluminium-to-steel interface. The formation process of the amorphous phase is schematically explained in this study.

   

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Title: Process parameter optimization of 3D printer using Response Surface Method
Author (s): M. A. Nazan, F. R. Ramli, M. R. Alkahari, M. N. Sudin and M. A. Abdullah
Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to minimize the warp deformation that usually occurs to plastic part produced by 3D printers. The process involved 3D solid modeling to design, 3D printing with coated adhesive applied on the printing platform, warping deformation measurement and statistical analysis. The optimization processes involved Design on Experiment (DOE) technique where Responses Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied by using Minitab software. The experiment produced the minimum result of warping deformation value where the layer temperature, infill density, first layer height and other layer height is 192°C, 13%, 0.20mm and 0.30mm respectively.

   

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Title: Experimental study of Ultra fine particles in mechanical and durability properties of Fly Ash cement composite mortar
Author (s): L. Krishnaraj, Madhusudhan N. and P. T. Ravichandran
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The paper deals with the impact of Alccofine on the strength, durability and characterization of ball milled fly ash based cement mortar. The cement is partially replaced by fly ash in the form of Raw Fly Ash (RFA) and Ultrafine Fly Ash (UFFA). The basic properties of materials were studied. The results showing that RFA mortar samples are showing more normal consistency of 38% than the UFFA samples at 28%. The mechanical strength development of the fly ash mortar with influence of AF are investigated. The OPC was replaced with 50% of RFA and UFFA reduced 30% and 10% of strength comparing with control mortar. The 10% of AF addition in both RFA and UFFA mortar gained better split tensile strength than the control mortar. The water absorption of mortars casted with 0.40 show very low water absorption than the mortars casted with 0.55. Above 24% water absorption is decreased by replacing cement with fly ash and alccofine. Fly ash mortar blended with AF shows better mechanical and durability properties. The microstructural properties of the specimens were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis. Overall the SEM analysis posited that due to the impact of alccofine and the fineness of fly ash facilitated the ball milled fly ash based mortar shows better characteristics of controlled cement mortar.

   

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Title: Energy system simulation of regenerable Molten Alkali Carbonates for gasification of carbonaceous resources
Author (s): Slamet Raharjo, Ryo Yoshiie, Yasuaki Ueki and Ichiro Naruse
Abstract:

This paper discusses the energy system simulation of Molten Alkali Carbonates (MACs) gasifier based on our previous experimental results. They showed that the MACs can be used as catalyst and hot gas desulfurizer in a gasification of carbonaceous resources. Meanwhile, the used MACs sorbent could be regenerated either. The current study was carried out by using HI-System simulator. Two unique components of MACs gasifier (MG) and used MACs regenerator (MR) were created and incorporated into the HI-System software prior to the simulations. Two types of energy system including MACs system without MR and the other one with MR were constructed, simulated and compared. The result suggested that MACs system with MR achieves gross power generation efficiency of around 55 %, which is 6 % higher than that of the other one without MR due to a waste heat recirculation.

   

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Title: Ground reaction force response during running on different surface hardness
Author (s): N. A. A. Abdul Yamin, M. N. Ali Amran, K. S. Basaruddin, A. F. Salleh and W. M. R. Rusli
Abstract:

Adaptation of kinetics response when running on different surface has been commonly measured by the ground reaction force (GRF). GRF was extensively been used in studies related to surface characteristics such irregularity, incline and types. Since surface hardness effects on the ground reaction force response and the foot adaption is remain unclear, the present study was carried out to address this issue. Ten subjects among university students population was selected to perform running on three different surface hardness which is concrete, artificial grass and rubber, with three shod conditions (barefoot, minimally shoe and heeled shoe) in recreational mode. The GRF data of each trial was obtained using force plate and the stance time of running phase was recorded using motion tracking system. In barefoot running, the GRF and stance time were found decreased with increasing of surface hardness. However, the GRF and stance time were not in correlation with the surface hardness for running with minimally shoe and heeled shoe. The results showed surface types and shod conditions contributed to the foot adaptation particularly in viewpoint of GRF response and stance time of running phase.

   

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Title: Improving the availability of the national electricity network: Principles and concepts for Live Work application in LRSS maintenance model
Author (s): Z. Bouzoubaa, J. El Alami and A. Soulhi
Abstract:

In the present paper, we plan to examine the potential of the concept of Live Work in the development of new strategies for the maintenance of electrical facilities in HV transformer stations, in order to protect their operational characteristics from operating-related degradation, while preserving service availability and continuity. For this purpose, we expose the principles of Live Work which incarnates the projection of the concept of Live Work in our LRSS maintenance model; we also illustrate its potential based on concrete examples. This methodology, thus, represents a high operational flexibility in the maintainability of facilities and makes it possible to carry out a wide range of maintenance operations under the best possible safety conditions and with no impact on the system availability.

   

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Title: Energy Management System for educational buildings using the prime narrowband PLC standard
Author (s): Ann E. Dulay, Alexandra D. Bautista, Ericson T. Ong, Nicole Alexis G. Pineda, Maria Ysabel V. Urbano and Pierre Stanley L. Uy
Abstract:

Energy Management System (EMS) plays a big role in the realization of the Smart Grid. In this research, an EMS for a school building is implemented using the narrowband Power Line Communications (NBPLC) technology based on the PRIME standard. This study demonstrates the utilization of the NBPLC for EMS application. Four C2000 PLC modem from Texas Instrument are used as base node (BN) and service nodes (SN). The base node is connected to the host PC while the service nodes are connected to the appliances in the corresponding rooms of the building. The host PC contains the program that sends a command to a particular service node depending on the class schedule in that room. The program is a graphical user interface developed using Matlab. The commands are the basic turning ON and turning OFF of appliances. The program through the base node sends the ON command to the specific service node of the room where a class is scheduled. A motion detection feature is included to anticipate events where the room with a scheduled class may be empty because of alternative classes, called-off classes, or class suspension. The motion sensor is connected to the service node. The BN requests for the motion sensor status thirty minutes after the start of the class period. If no motion is detected, the program sends an OFF command to the corresponding service node. This positively reduces power consumption and consequently reduces energy wastage. To determine the energy wastage without the system in place, kiloWattmeter was installed in three rooms and the energy consumption was recorded for the whole term comprising 14 weeks. The total consumption read from the meter was 2,736.2 kWhrs. An average consumption per hour was computed based on the first reading of the kWhr meter whereby all the appliances in the rooms are turned on. This is the basis in determining the consumption of three rooms considering only the times where the room has a schedule class. The consumption could have just been 2,089.7 kWhrs. This translates to wastage of 646.5 kWhrs. While this value is relative, if the whole campus with more than a hundred rooms is considered, the impact of such wastage is huge.

   

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Title: Design of thin film's geometry by annealing algorithm and coherent formulation
Author (s): S. A. A. Oloomi
Abstract:

In this paper, the directional, spectral, and temperature dependence of the radiative properties including the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient and emissivity for the multilayer structures consisting of silicon were examined. Optimum structures for different industrials requirement are obtained by Simulated Annealing Algorithm. The results show that the radiative properties of thin films depend on the wavelength strongly. It causes selective wavelength radiative properties. From the results, it may be concluded that industrial requirements are supported by selecting coating’s material and thickness. It can analyze the specified wavelength by the Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SA). Coating thickness is increased to reduce the emittance coefficient. The emittance reduction is 0.628 at a wavelength of 0.5 and 0.673 at a wavelength of 0.7 , respectively. The appropriate structure with the appropriate number of layers, appropriate type and combination of thin film coating will be chosen by Simulated Annealing Algorithm.

   

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Title: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form of Flowfield Dependent Variation method for fluid-structure interaction application
Author (s): Mohd. Fadhli, Syariful Syafiq Shamsudin, Ashraf Ali Omar and Waqar Asrar
Abstract:

In this study, Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) method is coupled with Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method in order to solve fluid-structure interaction problems. FDV method is a mixed explicit-implicit numerical scheme where its implicitness is determined by several parameters that are dependent on the physical properties of the local flow. The scheme which is called as ALE-FDV method is discretized using finite volume method to give flexibility in dealing with complicated geometries. The formulation itself yields a sparse matrix, which can be solved using any iterative algorithm. Several numerical tests have been conducted and the results are in good agreement with exact and available numerical solutions in the literature.

   

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Title: Vehicle aerodynamics analysis of a multi purpose vehicle using CFD
Author (s): Mohammad Firdaus Mohammed Azmi, Mohammad Al Bukhari Marzuki and Mohd. Arzo Abu Bakar
Abstract:

The aerodynamics analysis on a vehicle has become a major concern nowadays. This is due to its effect on vehicle driving characteristics, fuel consumption, etc. This study will analyse the aerodynamics characteristics of a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) generic design using ANSYS Workbench. Fluent is utilized in this study in order to investigate the aerodynamics of generic MPV design, attaining coefficient of drag and lift and observing the airflow streamline across the body of the vehicle. The turbulence modelling selected is realizable k-e with enhanced wall treatment. Based from the result obtained, the coefficient of drag and lift recorded for the car modelled is 0.28 and 0.05 respectively after the solution converged. This study can be used as reference for car manufacturers and designers especially when designing a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) design.

   

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Title: Effect of sinusoidally heating on mixed convection in square cavity filled with a porous medium
Author (s): N. Zainuddin, N. A. Bakar, A. Karimipour and R. Roslan
Abstract:

Unsteady mixed convection flows in a lid-driven square cavity filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium is investigated numerically. The two vertical walls of the enclosure are insulated while the bottom wall is cooled. The top wall is heated sinusoidally and moving at a constant speed. The governing equations are solved numerically by using finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm. The results with different parameters of Darcy and Richardson numbers are obtained and shown graphically. The presence of porous medium has influence to the movement of heat transfer and fluid flow inside the cavity. While, the effect of sinusoidal heating causes the flow patterns of streamline and isotherm increase and look strength.

   

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Title: Recent progress on the development of a particle method for incompressible single- and multi-phase flow computation
Author (s): K. C. Ng, Y. H. Hwang and T. W. H. Sheu
Abstract:

The use of particle method in solving the Navier-Stokes equation is attractive from the viewpoint of avoiding the explicit discretization of the nonlinear convection term adopted in the commonly used Eulerian approach. In this paper, we shall report on the progress of our recently developed particle method in solving the Navier-Stokes equation. Starting from the conventional Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, several numerical deficiencies have been realized and this has prompted us to venture into a new hybrid particle mesh method (Moving Particle Pressure Mesh) which involves no artificial numerical treatments to ensure numerical instability. Several incompressible single phase and multiphase flow cases are studied to validate our numerical approach. It is found that the numerical results agree considerably well with the reference solutions.

   

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Title: CFD simulation of flow control with energy promoters in S-shaped diffuser
Author (s): Raed A. Jessam, Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and Mohammed Shakir Nasif
Abstract:

This paper presents the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation results for an S-shaped aggressive diffuser. Energy promoters (EPs) were distributed in different locations and configurations along this diffuser to establish its effectiveness in improving flow patterns. The simulated flow field was generated within a normal S-shaped diffuser with a high curvature of 45°/45°, and the total length of this diffuser was reduced by 22%. CFD simulation was performed on both normal and aggressive diffusers, as well as with and without EPs, through ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. The renormalized group k–e model was used to simulate turbulence. The simulation results were validated and were consistent with the findings of previous experimental and numerical studies. Results obtained in the current study indicated that the combination of EPs effectively controls flow distortion in S-shaped aggressive diffusers. Performance parameters, such as the coefficients of static pressure recovery and total pressure loss, suggested that the performance of the five pairs of promoters attached to a specific location at the top and bottom surfaces was optimized; pressure recovery was increased by 47% and total loss coefficient was reduced by 56% in comparison with the case of a normal diffuser.

   

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Title: Validation framework for fluid-particle-structure-interaction solver
Author (s): Nazri Huzaimi Bin Zakaria, Mohd. Zamani Bin Ngali and Eng Pei Ying
Abstract:

Verification and validation (V&V) framework has always been an essential part in solver development. In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), fluid, fluid-particle and fluid-structure solvers have already embraced specific benchmark case studies for the V&V framework. For the more complex fluid–particle-structure- interaction (FPSI) solver however, the V&V framework is still on its infant phase. Therefore, a standard framework to validate the FPSI is thoroughly developed in this work. Granular fertilizer boom sprayer is presented as the case study since the system design includes all the important interaction characteristics. The V&V framework has to be obliged to include all V&V procedures for fluid, fluid-particle and fluid-structure solvers earlier before the fully integrated FPSI solver is evaluated. Therefore the benchmark studies of driven flow in a square cavity, the experiment of particle trajectory in a lid-driven cavity and two-dimensional flow over a thin elastic beam attached to a rigid and fixed square block are used to validate the fluid solver, fluid-particle solver and fluid-structure solver respectively. Once the supposed initial procedures are verified, the framework is concluded with the validation for the FPSI solvers. The developed V&V framework is extremely practical to assure the accuracy of the solvers involved without compromising the accuracy at any of the two-way couple interactions.

   

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Title: Numerical study of variable length exhaust pipe in small engine
Author (s): Akmal Nizam Mohammed, Mohd. Azahari Razali, Azwan Sapit, Mohd. Faisal Hushim, Shahrul Azmir Osman, and Mohamad Farid A. Rahman
Abstract:

Small engines, with capacity not exceeding 150 cc, can be divided into two types: two-stroke and four-stroke engines. The exhaust pipe has significant influences on the performance of the engine. Thus, it is necessary to study factors that affect the exhaust in order to improve the performance of the engine. For this early stage, it would be appropriate to conduct the research by using simulations since they only require minimal resources and can be conducted in a short period. The objective of this study is to conduct the simulation for determining the required velocity and pressure in the exhaust pipe. The comparison is done between parameter values from different configuration of exhaust pipes; the most appropriate configuration is then proposed. Three types of exhaust pipe is proposed using computer software and simulations are carried out using ANSYS Workbench 15.0. Results show that the velocity and pressure fluctuate according to the diameter and length of the exhaust pipe. Model 3 exhaust pipe configurations have been selected as the most suitable exhaust pipe for obtaining the maximum pressure and velocity.

   

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Title: Effects of asymmetric intake valve lift configuration towards in-cylinder air flow behavior
Author (s): Mohd. Aizad Sazrul Sabrudin, Mohd. Farid Muhamad Said and Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff
Abstract:

Air motion in a cylinder of a spark ignition engine affects the air-fuel mixing behavior, combustion quality and the production of the exhaust gas emission. With upcoming stringent market regulations for petrol engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion. Air-fuel mixing in an engine combustion chamber is studied by assessing the induced air flow swirl motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and contouring the intake manifold, valve ports and even the piston face. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of the asymmetric intake valve lift configurations towards in-cylinder air flow swirl behavior. The study is done on 4 cylinders, 1.3L engine. The engine has 2 intake valves in every cylinder. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used as a tool to assess the swirl motion in the case study models. At the end of this paper, the characteristics of the swirl flow motion on every case study models is studied by measuring the swirl ratio value inside the combustion chamber. Also, the pattern of the swirling flow inside the combustion chamber is studied by analyzing the velocity vector and turbulent kinetic energy plots.

   

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Title: Numerical study of velocity and pressure drop in a microchannel using water and Al2O3 nanofluid
Author (s): Azlizul Aizat Razali and Azmahani Sadikin
Abstract:

This paper present a numerical simulation of velocity and pressure drop in a single flow square shape microchannel. The ANSYS Fluent 2015 was used to predict the flow in the microchannel. The simulations were undertaken to inform on how the fluid flow within the microchannel using water, 1% Al2O3 nanofluid and 2% Al2O3 nanofluid in water. The microchannel was model using Solidwork 2014 with 0.5mm wide and 0.5mm height which is in square shape. The temperature inlet was constant at 303K and uniform heat flux used at bottom of microchannel was 100 W/m-2. The results show significant difference between working fluid used on velocity, pressure drop and the change of temperature. Comparisons also were made on velocity and pressure drop with previous study to validate present results. It has been observed the velocity was increased due to increase of Reynolds number. However, the pressure drop results show there is no much different at lowest Reynolds number (Re=0.1) for both fluid used but when increase at Re=100, water has high pressure drop. The velocity and pressure drop affected the temperature value in microchannel. This present analysis shows that the addition of nanoparticles to water leads to increasing of temperature and pressure drop compare to water.

   

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