ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science             February 2011 | Vol. 6 No. 2
 

 Title:

Performance of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp) varieties in two agro-ecological zones of the central region of Ghana. I: Dry matter production and growth analysis

 Author (s):

A. A. Addo-Quaye, A. A. Darkwa and M. K. P. Ampiah

 Abstract:

A study on the performance of three cowpea varieties was conducted during the 2008 minor rainy season to compare the effects of location and plant density on growth at two locations, Cape Coast (Coastal savanna) and Twifo Hemang (transition zone) in Ghana. Three density levels: low, medium and high (125 X 103, 1667.7 X 103 and 250 X 103 plants/ha respectively) and the cowpea varieties Ayiyi, Bengpla and UCC-Early were used. The three varieties and three densities were factorially combined and replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. In order to obtain location effect, data were analyzed as a split-split plot design with location as the main plot, density as sub-plot and variety as sub-sub plot. Results from growth analysis indicated that leaf area index, net assimilation rate, crop growth rate, and total dry matter yields were higher at Twifo Hemang than Cape Coast. The variety Ayiyi produced the highest dry matter yield across locations, followed by Bengpla and UCC-Early respectively. Total dry matter production increased linearly with increasing dry matter production across locations.
 

 
 
 
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Title:

Management of Fusarium oxysorum f. sp. rosae using metham sodium, dazomet and brassica biofumigants in greenhouse rose (rosa spp.) production

Author (s):

Oloo G., Aguyoh J. N., Tunya G. O. and O. J. Ombiri

Abstract:

Alternative strategies to manage Fusarium oxysorum f. sp. rosae in greenhouse grown rose plants were investigated at Egerton University, Department of Horticulture Research and Teaching Field in 2005 and 2006. The treatments tested included; Dazomet, metham sodium and brassica biofumigants (Brassica napus and Brassica juncea). dazomet and metham sodium were applied at 83.3g/m2 and 0.12g/l to 1m2 rates respectively. Brassica napus and Brassica juncea were uprooted at the initial flowering stage and chopped into small pieces separately. The chopped brassicas were applied to the respective plots at the rate of 2, 3 and 4 kg/m2. The results of this experiment showed that, Dazomet and metham sodium were effective in managing Fusarium oxysporum f.sp rosae. However their activity was quite inconsistent and short lived. Reinfestation occurred soon after field aeration. Brassica juncea at an application rate of 3 and 4 kg suppressed Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. rosae more than Brassica napus. Brassica juncea at 3 and 4 kg had a similar effect as dazomet and metham sodium in the management of Fusarium oxsporum f. sp. rosae. Although metham sodium was the most effective against Fusarium oxyporium, the Brassica biofumigants especially B. juncea at 3 kg offers a better alternative for the management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. rosae in greenhouse rose production.

 
 
 
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Title:

Tree species diversity in a Nigerian montane forest ecosystem and adjacent fragmented forests

Author (s):

Ihuma J. O., Chima U. D. and Chapman H. M.

Abstract:

The study was conducted at Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve to capture the tree species composition, diversity and richness in a Nigerian montane forest ecosystem, and to compare same between a protected natural forest-Main Forest (MF), and unprotected forest fragments (A, B, and C) within the buffer zone. Vegetation sampling was carried out using the Point-Centred Quarter (PCQ) method. Alpha diversity was measured using both Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices while similarity or otherwise dissimilarity in species composition between the sites was measured using Sorensonís index. A total of 22 tree species were encountered in MF while 19, 18, 17 species were encountered in fragments A, B, and C respectively. Only 5, 3 and 4 tree species were common to MF and A, MF and B, and MF and C respectively. A total of 10 tree species were common to fragments A and B, while 11 species were common to each of fragments A and C and B and C. Tree density (per hectare) was higher in the fragments than MF except for fragment C; though, individuals with larger diameter classes were more in MF. Tree diversity was higher in MF than in the fragments with C being the least diverse. Considering the importance of fragment C as a corridor within a buffer zone, and a source of livelihood to the rural community, the need for its restoration, protection and the introduction of stringent measures to ensure sustainable resource utilization was emphasized.

 
 
 
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Title:

Response of yield and yield components of wheat towards foliar spray of nitrogen, potassium and zinc

Author (s):

Hasina Gul, Ahmad Said, Beena Saeed, Ijaz Ahmad and Khalid Ali

Abstract:

An experimental trail was designed to quantify the response of yield and yield component of wheat toward foliar spray of nitrogen, potassium and zinc. The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during 2002-2003. Yield and yield component of wheat showed significant response towards foliar spray of Nitrogen, Potassium and Zinc. Maximum biological yield (8999 kg ha-1), number of grains (52) spike-1 and straw yield (6074 kg ha-1 ) were produced in plots under the effect of  foliar spray of 0.5% N + 0.5% K + 0.5% Zn solution (once), while control (no spray) plots produced minimum biological yield (5447 kg ha-1), number of grains (29) spike-1 and straw yield (3997 kg ha-1). Similarly maximum thousand grain weight (46 g) and grain yield (2950 kg ha-1) were recorded in plots sprayed with 0.5% N + 0.5% K + 0.5% Zn solution (twice), followed by lowest values (36 g) and (1450 kg ha-1) in plots having no spray (control). Among the treatment of 0.5% N + 0.5% K + 0.5% Zn solution applied either one or two times, gave best response towards yield and yield components of wheat in irrigated area of Peshawar valley.

 
 
 
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Title:

Analysis of catfish farming system and its impact on net farm income in Anambra State, Nigeria

Author (s):

Ugwumba C. O. A.

Abstract:

The study examined catfish farming system and its impact on net farm income in Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 256 respondents were selected through a multistage random sampling technique and interviewed for the study. However, 204 returned useful copies of questionnaire used to collate primary data for analysis. Both non-parametric and parametric statistical tools were employed for data analysis. A mean net farm income of N734, 850 proved catfish farming a profitable enterprise in the study area. Majority of the farmers (76%) favoured the practice of catfish farming using concrete ponds, flow-through water supply method and intensive feeding technique. Net farm income was significantly influenced by age, cost of feed, farm area, pond type and stock size. Measures that would encourage the establishment of more concrete ponds, such as the expansion of extension services and provision of cheap credits, must be pursued to create more employment opportunities and retard the increasing rate of unemployment in the area.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of different levels of phosphorus and sulphur on yield and availability of N P K, protein and oil content in Toria (Brassica Sp.) var. P.T.-303

Author (s):

Ram Bharose, Sunil Chandra, Tarence Thomas and Dharambir Dhan

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season 2008 to Study the effect of different levels of phosphorus and sulphur on availability of N, P, K, protein and oil content in Toria (Brassica Sp.) Var. P.T.-303 on crop research farm department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Allahabad Agricultural Institute- Deemed University, Allahabad. The area is situated on the right bank adjacent to Yamuna river in south of Allahabad city, which is located at 250.80' N Latitude and 810.50' E Longitude and 98 meter above the mean sea level having the mean temperature during the growing period was 4.7 to 37.2 0C. The soil of experimental area falls in order Inceptisol and the experimental field is alluvial in nature. The design applied for statistical analysis was carried out with 32 factorial randomized block design having two factors with three levels of Phosphorus 0, 25, and 50 kg ha-1, and three levels of Sulphur 0, 20, and 40 kg ha-1 respectively, treatments were T0 - 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg S ha-1 , T1- 25 kg P2O5 + 0 kg S ha-1 , T2- 50 kg P2O5 + 0 kg S ha-1  , T3- 0 kg P2O5 + 20 kg S ha-1, T4- 25 kg P2O5   + 20 kg S ha-1, T5- 50 kg P2O5 + 20 kg S ha-1, T6- 0 kg P2O5 + 40 kg S ha-1, T7-25 kg P2O5 + 40 kg S ha-1, T8-50 kg P2O5 + 40 kg S ha-1 and the treatments was replicated thrice. The chemical analysis was done in the laboratory of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, A.A.I.-DU, Allahabad. During the course of experiment, observations were recorded as mean values of the data showed that there was significant increase in % Nitrogen, %Phosphorus, % Potassium, % protein and oil content in treatment combination T5 - (50.00 kg Phosphorus + 40.00 kg Sulphur ha-1) and followed by T4 - (25.00 kg Phosphorus + 20.00 kg Sulphur ha-1) respectively over than  T0 - (Control).

 
 
 
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Title:

Performance of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp) varieties in two agro-ecological zones of the central region of Ghana. II: Grain yield and its components  

Author (s):

A. A. Addo-Quaye, A. A. Darkwa and M. K. P. Ampiah

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted in two agro-ecological zones (Twifo Hemang in the transition zone and Cape Coast in the Coastal savanna) of Ghana during the 2008 minor rainy season to study the effect of plant density on grain yield of three cowpea varieties. Three density levels: low, medium and high (125 X 103, 1667.7 X 103 and 250 X 103 plants/ha respectively) and three cowpea varieties Ayiyi, Bengpla and UCC-Early were used. The three varieties and three densities were factorially combined and replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. In order to obtain location effect, data were analyzed as a split-split plot design with location as the main plot, density as sub-plot and variety as sub-sub plot. Mean pod length and mean number of seeds per pod were almost the same at both locations. This implied that these characters were least affected by the environment. Mean number of pods per plant, 1000 seed weight and grain yield were higher at Twifo Hemang than at Cape Coast, indicating that with adequate control of insects, higher yields of cowpea could be achieved in more humid locations.  Ayiyi gave the highest grain yield at both locations followed by UCC-Early and Bengpla. The relationship between grain yield and density across locations was parabolic.

 
 
 
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Title:

The effect of planting medium on the growth of pineapple seedling

Author(s):

Ni Luh Putu Indriyani, Sri Hadiati and A. Soemargono

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to ascertain the influence of media on pineapple seedling growth. The research was conducted at the Aripan Experimental Field of Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute from November 2006 until August 2007. This research was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments and four replications. These treatments were (a) soil, (b) soil + manure (1:1), (c) soil + sand (1:1), (d) soil + manure + sand (1:1:1), (e) soil + manure + sand (1:1:2), and (f) soil + manure + sand (2:1:2). The results showed that the medium of soil + manure (1:1) gave higher growth of the pineapple seedlings than the other media consistently started from three months after planting. This medium was also the best medium for the growth of pineapple seedling as it gave the highest parameters in terms of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf numbers, and seedling wet weight. This result suggested that soil + manure (1:1) is useful medium for accelerating the growth of pineapple seedling.

 
 
 
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Title:

Assessment of climate shift and crop yields in a semi deciduous forest in the central region of Ghana

Author (s):

J. D. Owusu-Sekyere, M. Alhassan and B. K. Nyarko

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to assess the variability and trend of major climatic elements in the Cape Coast metropolis and the possible impact of these changes on the yield of major crops produced in the metropolis. Climatic data covering a period of sixteen years (1993-2008) was obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Cape Coast. Crop yield data spanning a period of eight years (2000-2008) was obtained from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), Cape Coast. Probability analysis of rainfall data was used to predict the probability of occurrence and exceedance of rainfall of a certain amount in the future as well as the return period. The study revealed that over the period under scrutiny, temperature and evaporation have been increasing gradually and this may be attributed to global warming due to the green house effect. It was also discovered that peak monthly rainfall is also declining and there is a higher probability of lower amount of rainfall occurring in the future. Based on the observed trend, recommendations were made to help adopt the necessary adaptive measures to mitigate the adverse effect of climate change and to enhance the productivity of major crops produced in the metropolis.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on floral induction and associated hormonal and metabolic changes of biennially bearing mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars during off year

Author (s):

Adil O. S. Abdel Rahim, Osman M. Elamin and Fritz K. Bangerth

Abstract:

The physiology of floral induction in mango is still controversial and thus further work is needed for a better understanding of reproductive physiology of this important fruit tree. The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of a gibberellins biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol on floral induction of biennially bearing mango during off year and to examine the possible correlated hormonal and non-structural carbohydrate changes. Three distinctly biennially bearing mango cultivars were tested for two years under North Sudan climates. Results indicated the advantage of paclobutrazol on inducing flowering of the biennially bearing mango cultivars, Miska, Mahmoudi, and Totocombo during off year. Similar trends of hormonal changes were observed during the floral induction period on the tested cultivars. More-specifically, the levels of cytokinins (zeatin (z) + zeatin riboside (zr) and isopentenyl Adenosine (i-Ado) + isopentenyl Adenine (i-Ade)), and to a less extent the levels of abscisic acid (ABA) generally showed trends of increase during the floral induction period, while those of gibberellins (GA1+3+20) and auxin (IAA) were decreased during the same period. Starch levels in most of the cases were increased by the paclobutrazol treatment. Moreover, sucrose levels were generally increased during the floral induction period. To close, possible roles for some of the tested hormones and non-structural carbohydrates on mango flowering are probably implicated.

 
 
 
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