ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science             February 2014 | Vol. 9 No. 2
 
Title:

Toxicological study of heavy metals on early growth responses of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

Author (s): Muhammad Imran Atta, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Nazir Ahmad and Sadia Saeed
Abstract:

Environmental contamination due to heavy metals is a major problem in recent time. We studied effects of Pb, Hg and Cr heavy metals on two sunflower varieties (Hysun-33 and SF-5009). Application of these heavy metals significantly (p<0.05) affected seed germination time and seedling growth. Plant tolerance index (T.I) also reflected negative impacts of heavy metals on plant vigor. In sunflower seedlings, Pb accumulation was less than Hg and Cr but its toxicity was more (Pb>Hg>Cr). Present study suggested heavy metals induced seed dormancy, phytotoxicity on meristemetic cell division and inhibited activity of growth hormones due to which seedlings attained stressed growth along metal concentration gradient.

 
 
 
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Title: Mineral composition and properties of modified flyash
Author (s): Pham Anh Hung and Nguyen Xuan Hai
Abstract:

Fly ash is one of the surplus product created in the combustion process. In industry, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal and is usually taken from the chimneys of thermal power plants. Currently, in Vietnam burning coal to generate electric energy are necessary. Fly ash discharged occupied huge area and polluting the environment. Thus the study of fly ash recycling reasonable to reuse waste enormous resources will have significant economic and environmental. Fly ash of Pha Lai Thermal Power Plant (FA-PL) was modified in strong alkaline conditions (NaOH 3N), stirred at a temperature of 1000C for 1h obtained with a mixture of minerals including: quartz accounts for 24 - 26%, accounting for 22-24% mullite, zeolite Na-P2 accounted for 24-26%, other types of small mineral occupies 10-16%, the rest is amorphous accounted for 8-20%. This modified product has cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 170 cmol/kg, its 5.6 times larger than the original fly ash (30 cmol/kg). With high CEC values open up new vistas in using modified fly ash material to handle with polluted soil and water environment.

 
 
 
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Title:

Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi metarhizium anisopliae and beauveria bassiana on larvae of the legume pod borer maruca vitrata (lepidoptera: crambidae)

Author (s): Joelle Toffa Mehinto, Pierre Atachi, Ouorou Kobi Douro Kpindou and Manuele Tam
Abstract:

Objectives: Experiments were performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of conidia from seven isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bb6, Bb115, Bb116, Bb17, Bb42, Bb362, Bb24) and four isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma361, Ma29, Ma356, Ma 359) on larvae of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata in order to select the most promising isolates to be used in cowpea fields. Methodology and results: Pathogenicity was evaluated under laboratory conditions by applying 2 l of conidia suspension, formulated in peanut oil, on different larval stages (first, second, third, fourth and the fifth instars) of M. vitrata. The concentrations of 107, 108, 109 and 1010 conidia/ml were used and mortality and sporulation of dead larvae were recorded. Taken separately, each isolate caused less mortality among fifth instar larvae than in younger instars. Mortality rates and high sporulation were recorded for Bb 115 and Ma29. Mortality rates ranged from 65.8 3.5% (fifth instar) to 79.0 3.0% (first instar) for B. bassiana isolate Bb 115. The M. anisopliae isolate Ma 29 showed significantly higher mortality rates ranging from 31.7 3.3% (fifth instar) to 50.4 1.5% (second instar). Host development stage at inoculation affected both survival times compared to controls (control and absolute control with oil). Conclusions and application of findings: The results of the presented study showed that the isolates of Beauveria (Bb 115) can be promising isolates for the control of the legume pod borer, M vitrata.

 
 
 
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Title:

Investigation on monthly and annual changes of forage production and consumption of Platychaete Aucheri (boiss.) boiss. in the coast of Persian gulf and Oman sea, hormozgan province, Iran

Author (s): Kian Najafi Tireh Shabankareh, Morteza Akbarzadeh, Ehsan Zandi Esfahan and Khadijeh Abbaszadeh
Abstract:

Forage production in rangelands differs at different times of the grazing season and also in the same months of different years. In the present, grazing capacity is calculated for one time during the grazing season which coincides with the maximum growth of rangeland species. This causes more livestock entry in to the rangeland during the grazing season and consequently more degradation is occurred. Since it is not possible to measure the range production during the grazing season each year, therefore, it is necessary to measure it during the months of grazing season in a few years and, based on it, the long-term grazing capacity of key range species could be calculated. The aim of this study was to determine the seasonal changes of forage production and consumption of Platychaete aucheri (Boiss.) Boiss. during the growing season in different years. This research was performed for four years in the vegetation type of Gymnocarpos decander-Euphorbia larica, in Jevengane region of Genou, located at an altitude of 265 meters above sea level and 40 km from Bandar Abbas. For this purpose, the production of this species was measured in a one-hectare exclosure with one month intervals until the growth dormancy. The rest of production was measured outside the exclosure, and the amount of consumption was calculated by subtracting it from the production of inside the exclosure. The amount of forage production and consumption, after air-drying, were analyzed by SAS software. Results showed that, due to the high variability of monthly and annual rainfall in the region, forage production and consumption of P. aucheri showed significant differences at the 1% level.

 
 
 
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Title:

The introduction impact of predatory bird Lanius Schach Linn. on population of long horn grasshopper sexava nubila stal. and leaves damage of coconut

Author (s): Fredy Lala, Fransiskus Xaverius Wagiman and Nugroho Susetya Putra
Abstract:

The predatory bird Lanius schach Linn. (Passeriformes: Laniidae) was introduced from Yogyakarta in August 2011 for the control of long horn grasshopper Sexava nubila Stal. (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Salibabu Island, Talaud Islands Regency, North Sulawesi Province. Moronge Districts was chosen as the release site. Ten females and 30 males of the predatory bird were released in the district. The predatory bird was well established. The grasshopper populations and leaf damage of coconut were observed at one month before and 10 consecutive months after the release on the 120 sampled trees which were attacked by pest insect. Within 10 months after the release of predators, the S. nubila populations and the leaf damage intensity showed downward trend. Trend of declining population of S. nubila increasingly evident in the more severely damaged coconut. Introduction of the predator did not change the population structure of S. nubila. The mean population of S. nubila at 10 months after release (21.05 individuals/tree) was significantly lower than at one month before the release (23.65 individuals/tree).The intensity of light damage, moderate, and severe turned into light damage at one, three, and five months after the release of  L. schach.

 
 
 
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Title:

Small scale maize production in northern Ghana: stochastic profit frontier analysis

Author (s): J. K. Bidzakin, S. C. Fialor and D. Asuming-Brempong
Abstract:

The importance of small scale maize production to the development of Ghana is quiet clear however very little is known about their profit efficiency and its determinants. The study used the stochastic efficiency frontier model. A multistage random sampling method was used to obtain 144 small scale maize farmers across northern Ghana. The average measure of profit efficiency of 61% was recorded in the area with a minimum and maximum efficiency of 11% and 100% respectively. This implies there is an opportunity to increase profit by 40%. The inefficiency model showed that educational level, farming experience, and household size have negative coefficients, meaning that as these variables increases the profit efficiency of the farmer increases. Whiles the variables sex of farmer and age are positive and vice versa. This implies female farmers are more efficient than their male counterparts.

 
 
 
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