ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science               March 2012 |  Vol. 7 No. 3
 

 Title:

Evaluation and determination of the best time of priming and priming solution levels for germination indexes of Trigonella foenum gracum
 

 Author (s):

Ebrahim Azarpour
 

 Abstract:

Optimal germination and plant establishment is an important problem for agricultural productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Priming is an approach for increasing plant establishment in undesirable conditions. An experiment as factorial in RCBD with three replications was conducted during 2011 at Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Lahijan University in Iran. Factors were time of priming (T1= 12 and T2= 24 hours) and priming Solution levels (S1= water, S2= 250 mg/l humic acid, T3= 500 mg/l humic acid, T4= 250 mg/l vermiwash, T5= 500 mg/l vermiwash). The results showed that time of priming only on plumule dry weight had a significant difference in 5 % probability level. The results showed that priming Solution levels treatment significantly affected all of germination indexes except radicle dry weight to plumule dry weight ratio.

 
 
 
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Title:

Modeling volume from stump diameter of Terminalia ivorensis (A. chev) in Sokponba forest reserve, Edo State, Nigeria

Author (s):

Aigbe H. I., Modugu W. W. and Oyebade B. A.

Abstract:

This study is based on the relationship between tree volumes (V) and stump diameter (Dst). Empirical equations were developed for estimating tree volumes of Terminalia ivorensis from stump diameters, for determining relationship between volumes of Terminalia ivorensis trees from stump diameter. The purpose is to develop a model for Terminalia ivorensis stands in Sokponba forest reserve and to adopt it for sustainable forest management in many other forest reserves in Nigeria. Eighteen temporary sample plots, each of size 20m x 20m (0.04ha) were randomly established and 196 Terminalia ivorensis trees were randomly selected from each of the sample plots. A series of regression equations were all fitted to the data generated and analyzed with the aid of Genstat Computer system. The regression equations were fitted for choosing the best model after critical consideration of model diagnostic criteria such as the coefficient of determination (R2), variance ratio and overall standard error of the various equations. Out of the several regression equations fitted, the non-linear (quadratic) model of stump diameter was considered to be the best. The equation is V= - 34.23 + 39.7509Dst - 6.5416D2st, with R2 = 0.69, RMSE = 0.00992 and F - ratio = 85.875; indicating the significant status of the model for predictive purpose. Residual analysis showed conformity with the assumption of independence of errors in regression analysis and that error is normally distributed. The result of data validation between predicted and observed values from a set of measurements from 48 trees using the paired t-test showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The study showed that stump diameter is appropriate for tree volume estimation for Terminalia ivorensis for sustainable forest management.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on phytoavailability of phosphorus to water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica cv. kankon)

Author (s):

Mejbah Uddin, Md. Abul Kashem and Khan Towhid Osman

Abstract:

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cow manure, city waste, chicken manure and TSP on the growth of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica cv. Kankon) and the phytoavailability of phosphorous (P) in soil. An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with cow manure, city waste, chicken manure and TSP at rates equivalent to 0, 200, 400 and 800 mg P kg-1 soil based on total P. The number of leaf, maximum height, and dry weight of shoot and root of water spinach were influenced by these amendments and their different application rates. The highest leaf number, maximum height, dry weight of shoot and root were obtained with the cow manure treatment of 800 mg P kg-1 and lowest with the control (T0). Among the amendments, TSP produced the least dry matter yield. Like dry matter yield, P concentration in the plant parts increased with increasing rates of P from different amendments. Phosphorus concentration in the shoots and in the roots of control plants were 1, 188 and 1, 171 mg kg-1, respectively. At the highest rate (800 mg P kg-1) of P application, P concentrations in the shoots were 4, 894, 3, 815, 5, 528 and 6, 179 mg kg-1 in the cow manure, city waste, chicken manure and TSP fertilizer treatments, respectively, while in the roots, the corresponding values were 3, 704, 4, 397, 4, 716 and 4, 926 mg kg-1. After the plant harvest, Olsen P of the soil was measured. Irrespective of amendments, Olsen P increased with P application rates. The extractability of P from different amendments was in the order: TSP > cow manure > chicken manure > city waste. Olsen P of soil showed very strong positive correlation with both shoot P (r =0.718, p = 0.000) and root P concentration (r =0.548, p = 0.000) of water spinach that indicate suitability of Olsen P to predict plant available P. These results imply that cow manure could be recommended to use in the agricultural field for producing optimum yield when no additional chemical fertilizers are applied.

 
 
 
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Title:

Provenance variations in Chrysophyllum albidum (G. Don) from six localities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Author (s):

Oyebade B. A., Ekeke B. A. and Aigbe H. I.

Abstract:

The effects of seed sources on early growth of Chrysophyllum albidum (G. Don) was evaluated from six localities in Rivers State of Nigeria. Forty (40) seedlings from each location were transplanted into standard size (12 x 5 x 5cm) polythene bags filled with topsoil, and early growth variables of seedlings height, collar diameter, leaf number and leaf area with mortality and germination rates estimated at the interval of two weeks for a period of twelve weeks after sowing (WAS). There were significant variations (P<0.05) in all the evaluated growth variables across the locations with increases in time of sowing. Seed source from Bori had the highest germination percentage (53 %) and less mortality rate (47 %). Seeds from this location also show the highest resistance to collar disease and therefore were regarded as the most promising provenance. However, genetic studies for tree improvement are recommended for further investigation.

 
 
 
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Title:

Evaluation energy balance and energy indices of barley production under watered farming in north of Iran

Author (s):

Ebrahim Azarpour

Abstract:

One way to evaluation of sustainable developing in agriculture is using of energy flow method. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy balance and energy indices under watered farming barley in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a face to face questionnaire method during 2011 year in Guilan province. By using of consumed data as inputs and total production as output, and their concern equivalent energy, energy balance and energy indices were calculated. Energy efficiency (energy output to input energy ratio) for seed and straw in this study were calculated 2.70 and 2.89 respectively. Also, energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) for seed and straw in this study were calculated 1.79 and 1.38 respectively, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems barley production.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of irrigation with urban sewage and aqueduct water on heavy metals accumulation and nutritional value of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris  L.)

Author (s):

Gholamali Akbari, Mandana Dadresan and Fardin Khazaei

Abstract:

This research was conducted to study heavy metals assembling and nutritional value of bean in three areas of Tehranís south in 2007 on the base of a completely randomized block design in the form of split plot with 3 replications. The main factor in three levels was included sewage canals in SALEHABAD, TALEBABAD and DEHKHEIR areas; sub factor in two levels was involved sewage and aqueduct water (control). Use of TALEBABADís sewage increased heavy metals assembling in beanís different parts especially in root compared to sewages (SALEHABAD and DEHKHEIR). Because of non standard heavy metals ratio, use of this sewage was not proper and had problem for human and domesticated animal feeding. In three areas, irrigation with sewage in comparison with aqueduct water had no high effect on heavy metals except of Fe and Cr. In beanís pod and seed, only Fe and Cr were higher than standard limit and most of the other metals accumulated like aqueduct water. Heavy metals assembling in beanís root and leaves were almost high, but high control of beanís pod and seed caused that transported heavy metals ratio to grain became much less than quantities of them in root and leaves. So, in respect of heavy metals assembling, use of beanís green pod and grain will not resulted in problem.

 
 
 
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Title:

Particle size evaluation of feed ingredient produced in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

Author (s):

A. Addo, A. Bart-Plange and J. O. Akowuah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the particle size of ground maize for poultry feed formulation in the Kumasi metropolis in Ghana. A survey of 2 commercial and 7 on-farm feed mills was conducted and a questionnaire regarding the operation of the mills was completed. Samples of ground maize were taken from each mill for particle size analysis. The geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the particles ranged from 628Ī1.93 to 1450Ī2.25 μm. The results showed that only one mill produced ground maize with particle size within the recommended range. From this study, it can be concluded that the particle size of ground maize for feed formulation in the metropolis was coarser than recommended for poultry.

 
 
 
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Title:

Micro-finance scenario of eastern part of India under SGSY

Author (s):

Gobinda Mula, S. C. Sarker, Patra Sarathi Patra and Asutosh Sarkar

Abstract:

Microfinance in group approach (SHGs) has become one of the key instruments to reduce poverty and empowering rural poor particularly rural women by shifting them from debt-trap of informal credit sources to formal credit system. Of late, after launching, Microfinance under SGSY flourished very quickly in all parts of the country. The study attempted to examine the growth and promotion of SHGs and performance of financial institution in microfinance in Cooch Behar District. The study revealed that district took the 2nd position in credit linkage in spite of being slower physical growth of SHGs (7th position) in the state. The investigation also revealed a skewed growth of SHGs in the different stages of promotion among the different blocks. Although the overall rate of credit linkage was observed more than 80% over 1st graded SHGs, but the rate of linking with project was only 5.46 % and promotional rate to 2nd grading over 1st grading was found only 27.58 %. But, more than 95 % of PLGs were women SHGs indicated that empowerment of women was highly valued. As far as banking aspects, only one RRB (UBKGB) and two commercial banks (CBI, SBI) took leading role in growth and promotion of SHGs through Microfinance. Further, although the rate of credit linkage to SHGs in most of the banks was found more than75% but their performance in promotion of SHGs to entrepreneurship level, credit disbursement and thereby recovery of credit was too impressive to boost the rural development.

 
 
 
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Title:

Research concerning the influence of some supplements (spirulina and spirulina with sea buckthorn extract) on quantitative parameters of cocoon in silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

Author (s): B. Vlaic, L. Al. Mărghitaş, D. Dezmirean, A. Vlaic, M. Bentea and Alexandra Matei
Abstract:

The goal of our research is to organize an experiment with 3 variants of silkworms. The biological material was represented by a single silkworm breed: Baneasa 75 (B75), in order to obtain the best genetic uniformity. Only environmental conditions (feeding) were different. This research presents the influence of 2 supplements on quantitative cocoon characters. Spirulina (S) and spirulina with sea buckthorn extract (SB) capsules provided frome S.C Hofigal Export-Import S.A. Spirulina (S) is a rich source of proteins, contains a wide range of aminoacids, fatty acids, vitamins (biotin, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pyrodozoic acid, beta-carotene and vitamin B12), vegetal hormones, enzymes, microelements, biological pigments. Sea Buckthorn (SB) extract is a very rich source of vitamins (vitamins A, E, C, P, carotenoids and B complex), microelemnts (phosporus, calcium, magnesium, potasium) and fatty acids. Regarding raw cocoon weight we can observe that the mean values of the variant treated with spirulina (S) (1.836 g) are higher than the control (1, 685 g). The mean values of shell weight (0, 395 g) are higher than the control (0,387) in the variants feded with mulberry leafs treated with S. Regarding pupal weight the highest mean value was obtained by the variants feded with mulberry leafs treated with S.

 
 
 
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Title:

The effect of BAP and the level of aging stem on the growth of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr) stem cutting

Author (s):

Fitriana Nasution and Sri Hadiati

Abstract:

A Research to find out the effect of BAP and the level of aging stem on the growth of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr.) stem cutting. It was conducted from March to June 2009, at Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute (ITFRI), Solok, West Sumatera. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized block design with 5 replications. Two treatments applied were BAP (0; 100; 300; 500 ppm) and the level of aging stem (young stem; old stem). The Pieces of the stems was soaked into BAP solution in accordance with the treatment for 3 minutes and then dried. Based on the results of observation, it was found that all treatments have not significantly effect to all parameters. From the observation is also known that every stem cutting has the ability to produce shoots. Probably cutting requires longer time soaking BAP (> 3 minutes).

 
 
 
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Title:

Dry matter yield and nutrient uptake of cashew seedlings as influenced by arbuscular mychorrhizal inoculation, organic and inorganic fertilizers in two soils in Nigeria

Author (s):

Ibiremo O. S., Ogunlade M. O., Oyetunji O. J and Adewale B. D.

Abstract:

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn) is an important commodity crop that is grown principally for its nuts in many eco-zones in Nigeria. Cashew productivity as a result of its wide adaptation has been greatly limited by poor soil fertility, pests and diseases etc. Hence, this study assessed the influence of organic fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and Arbuscular mychorrhizal (AM) inoculation on the dry matter yield and nutrient uptake of cashew seedlings in two soils in Nigeria. The three factors investigated were organic fertilizer made from ground cocoa pod husk (CPH) applied at two levels (0 and 2.5t/ha), three sources of phosphate fertilizers (Single super phosphate - SSP, Sokoto rock phosphate - SRP and a control) and two levels of AM fungi inoculation (with and without). Each of the phosphate fertilizers (SSP and SRP) was applied at 11 Kg P2O5/ha while 20g of AM fungus was used to inoculate the cashew seedlings designated for the purpose. Cashew nuts were planted into 5kg top soil (0-30cm) obtained from the two sites. The trial was conducted in the greenhouse using completely randomized design and four replicates. Dry matter yield and nutrient uptake were assessed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and correlation analysis. The results indicated that SSP significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the accumulation of dry matter in Uhonmora soil compared to the control while in Ibadan soil phosphate fertilizers did not significantly affect the dry matter yield of cashew seedlings. The total N uptake of cashew seedlings increased by 25.5 % and 43.9 % as a result application of SSP and SRP respectively compared to the control in Ibadan soil while in Uhonmora soil, shoot N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake by cashew seedlings were positively and significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) as a result of phosphate fertilizer application compared to the control. The shoot P and K uptakes were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by SRP application compared to the control in Ibadan soil. AMF inoculation and organic fertilizer did not affect cashew seedlings dry matter and nutrient uptake within the study period. Organic fertilizer application significantly (P < 0.05) improved the pH of Ibadan soil. The available phosphorus of Uhonmora soil was significantly (P < 0.05) increased as a result of organic fertilizer application by 11.7 % compared to the control. In Uhonmora soil, the addition of phosphate fertilizers significantly (P < 0.05) increased the accumulation of inorganic P above the control but the reverse is the case for organic P where the application of phosphate fertilizers significantly (P < 0.05) decreased its accumulation. SRP had a comparable influence with SSP particularly under AM inoculation on cashew seedling growth performance in the two soils.

 
 
 
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Title:

Studies on animal grazing preference and socio-economic impacts of animals on human population

Author (s):

Allah Bakhsh Gulshan and Altaf Ahmad Dasti

Abstract:

Various animal species have their own preference to graze the variety of plant species. A study was reported first time about grazing behavior of different animals in the regions of Thal and Cholistan deserts Punjab Pakistan. Survey and information regarding animal grazing preference were collected from inhabitants of the area. 300 people were interviewed, who had the different herds of animals such as Cows, Buffaloes, goats and sheep. From the knowledge of informants, 39 species of wild plants were frequently grazed in the area. The level of grazing pressure was found in the order of, herbs and grasses> shrubs and under shrubs> trees by the different categories of animals. Most dominant family was poaceae comprising 9 grass species in both the localities and almost highly palatable for animals. In addition, there were also observed the socio-economic impacts of animals on human population of the study area.

 
 
 
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