ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                   April 2012 | Vol. 7 No. 4
 

 Title:

Role of soil texture and depths on the emergence of buried weed seeds

 Author (s):

Allah Bakhsh Gulshan and Altaf Ahmad Dasti

 Abstract:

Glass house pot experiment was performed to test the effect of soil texture and depths on the emergence of seeds of various weeds grow in the fields of wheat. Seeds of different weed species were sown in three different depths (2cm, 4cm and 6cm) of both sandy loam and clay loam textured soil. Pots were fully labeled according to type of species, soil textured class, sowing depths and replicates wise. Pots were placed in the glasshouse in a completely randomized block design. From this study, Avena fatua L. and Vicia sativa L. showed significantly more germination i.e., 463.69, 483.85 respectively than the remaining four other types of weed seeds. The lowest germination i.e., 201.59 was found in the case of Galium aparine L. There were also observed that seed germination (P<000*) significantly decreased with the increase of seed sowing depth. Increasing the depth more and more, decreasing the germination of seeds, because deep sowing seeds were under the less pressure of oxygen, which is very important for the vital activities of seeds. Sandy loam texture soil was best for maximum germination of seeds (P<000*). The aim of experiment was to investigate the suitability of various species seeds under the soil texture and seed sowing depth.
 

 
 
 
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Title:

Culture of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) on artificial media

Author (s):

P. Somwong and J. Petcharat

Abstract:

In this study entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila were reared on four different culture media. Media number 1 contained 45% of dog food, 50% of water and 5% of lard. Media number 2 contained 6% of powdered fish, 85.56% of water and 8.44% of lard. Media number 3 contained 8.75% of silkworm pupa, 85.16% of water and 6.09% of lard and media number 4 in vivo cultures, which were the last instar larvae of the Spodoptera litura. Results showed that the infective juveniles nematode rearing from medium I, II, III and IV yielded 3.04x105, 2.445105, 2.989105 and 5.547105 IJs/gram medium, respectively. The average body width of the infective juveniles rearing from medium I, II, III and IV were 25.331.24, 26.171.98, 25.401.75 and 24.851.73 , respectively. The average body length of the infective juveniles rearing from medium I, II, III and IV were 536.4531.97, 579.8523.91 , 572.3931.57 and 554.5737.06 respectively. The nematode penetration rate into S. litura larvae within 48 hrs. were 5.58%, 4.30%, 5.70% and 5.76% respectively. The percent mortality of S. litura larvae tested with infective juveniles within 24 and 48 hrs. By the nematode reared from medium I, II, III, and IV were 36%, 24%, 38% and 40% and 64, 76, 62, and 60%, respectively.

 
 
 
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Title:

Study effects of nitrogen fertilizer management under nano iron chelate foliar spraying on yield and yield components of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Author (s):

Hamid Reza Bozorgi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2011 in Astaneh Ashrafiyeh Township (north of Iran), to investigate the application of nitrogen fertilizer and nano iron chelate fertilizer on Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Factors of experiment was consist of nano iron chelate fertilizer foliar spraying in three levels (I1: control (without foliar spraying of nano iron chelate fertilizer), I2: 1 g/L and I3: 2 g/L foliar spraying) and nitrogen fertilizer management with four levels (N1: control (without nitrogen fertilizer application), N2: 30 kg/ha, N3: 60 kg/ha and N4: 90 kg/ha pure nitrogen from source of urea (46% pure nitrogen)). In maturity time, fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit length and fruit width were measured. Application of nitrogen and iron fertilizer showed significant effects on all studied traits at 1% probability level. Interaction effect of nitrogen and iron on fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, plant height and number of branches per plant showed significant differences at 5% probability level. Between nitrogen treatments, application of 60 kg/ha nitrogen and between nano iron treatments, foliar spraying of 2 g/L nano iron chelate respectively with 34.63 and 38.03 ton/ha were recorded the highest fruit yield between other treatments in this study.

 
 
 
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Title:

Probability measurement to estimate forest tree diversity using IRS - p6 satellite images in Caspian broad leaved forests

Author (s):

Mir Mozaffar Fallah Chai, Shohreh Bayat and Seyed Armin Hashemi

Abstract:

In this study, the ability of LISSIII sensor data of IRS-P6 satellite to estimate species diversity of woody plant species of forest was studied in Gombol forests in Lahijan. Ground informations were collected through selective sampling with sample plots of 900 m2 area. Geometric conformity was performed using 20 ground control points and mean root error of 0.32 in x axis and 0.37 in y axis. Chavez model was used for atmospheric correction of data.  Shannon - veiner species diversity was used to study the species diversity. Amount of this index was calculated for each plot. Then amounts of spectral values for each sample plot were extracted in different bands. Best subset regression was used to analyze the relationship between species diversity and mentioned bands. Results of regression indicated that studied polynomilal equations as independent variables could estimate species diversity of trees and shrubs better than other bands or compositions (R2 = 0.449). Results indicate relatively low ability of IRS-P6 satellite data to estimate tree and shrub species diversity in study area.

 
 
 
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Title:

Confirm the status of VCG Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense in west Sumatera Indonesia

Author (s):

Riska, Jumjunidang and Catur Hermanto

Abstract:

The objective of the experiment was to confirm the status VCGs of Foc in West Sumatera by identifying of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolates with Vegetative Compatibility Group test. A total 47 isolates of Foc were Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute collection that preserved in paper sterile technique. Isolation, isolate purification and VCG analysis were held at Pest and Disease Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute and Department of Primary Industry, Plant Pathology Section, Indooroopili, Australia and started from Juli 2008 until December 2009. The testers of VCGs used were from Australia, namely: VCG 0120, VCG 0120/15, VCG 01215, VCG 0123, VCG 0124, VCG 0124/5, VCG 0125, VCG 0126, VCG 0128, VCG 01211, VCG 01213, VCG 01213/16, VCG 01216, VCG 01219 and VCG 01220. The results showed that A total of 47 isolates of Foc collection from West Sumatra grouped into five VCG (01213/16, 0121, 01219, 01218 and 0120) and seven isolates are unknown VCGs. A total of 13 varieties were attacked by Foc are Raja/AAB, Raja serai/AAB, Buai/AAA, P. panjang/AAB, Barangan/AAA, Ambon kuning/AAA, Ambon hijau/AAA, Rejang/AAw, Jantan/AAB, Kepok/ABB/BBB, Manih/AA, Cavendish/AAA, siem/ABB and Mas kirana./AA total of 28 isolates (59,5%) grouped into VCG 01213/16 (TR4), attacked 11 varieties of bananas (Raja/AAB, Raja serai/AAB, Buai/AAA, Panjang/AAB, Barangan/AAA, Ambon kuning/AAA, Ambon hijau/AAA, Rejang/AAw, Jantan/AAB, Kepok/ABB/BBB, and Mas kirana/AA).

 
 
 
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Title:

Determination of energy balance and energy indices in wheat production under watered farming in north of Iran

Author (s):

Ebrahim Azarpour

Abstract:

One way to evaluation of sustainable developing in agriculture is using of energy flow method. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy balance and energy indices under watered farming wheat in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a face to face questionnaire method during 2011 year in Guilan province. By using of consumed data as inputs and total production as output, and their concern equivalent energy, energy balance and energy indices were calculated. Energy efficiency (energy output to input energy ratio) for seed and straw in this study were calculated 2.47 and 2.48 respectively, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems wheat production. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) for seed and straw in this study were calculated 1.50 and 1.29 respectively, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems wheat production.

 
 
 
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Title:

Role of religious education on decreasing environmental destruction trend at Guilan province, Iran

Author (s):

Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari and Seyed Ali Noorhosseini

Abstract:

Human attitudes towards environment, to a great extent, result from human's being affected by celestial cultures, as one of the critical issues. Islam, as a religion that is beyond time and place, is able to meet all human needs at all eras and contains perfect contents, trainings and strategies about how to face and how be consistent with environmental phenomenon. Assessing different texts and documents of Islam represent existence of specific attitudes along with environmental and natural resources. The current study was undertaken in order to assess religious education on decreasing environmental destruction trends in Guilan province. Thus, some of the university's religious experts and seminaries of Guilan province were interviewed. We used this statistical method in order to analyze represented responses, since multi-response analysis is a good technique to analyze data resulting from open questions. Results showed that thoughts taken from Islam plays have important roles in keeping with the environment. In this regard, most important presented cases, by experts, were: considering consumption savings, identifying human rights and considering public resources, responsibility and management taken from religion in relation with surroundings, recognizing moral and religious values, futurism, considering next and future generations, love of god and thanksgiving, and also keeping Gods gifts, considering religious utterances, emphasizing violence decrease in religious education and its effects on environmental protection, importance given to Health and cleansing by Islam.

 
 
 
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Title:

Pre-planting treatments for management of banana fusarium wilt

Author (s):

Catur Hermanto, Eliza, I. Djatnika, Deni Emilda, Mujiman and Subhana

Abstract:

Fusarium wilt is one of major constraints of Indonesian banana production. Land management before planting was objected to reduce Fusarium inocula in the soil and wilt incidence, and improve banana growth. Research has been conducted from 2005 to 2007 at Aripan experimental farm, where was naturally-heavily infested by tropical race 4 of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were 1) solarization: plots were covered with transparent polyethylene plastic for 10 months, 2) rotation with maize: plots were planted with two periods of maize, 3) bare: no crop for 10 months, and 4) control: continuous planting of banana. Maize rotation and baring condition reduced Fusarium population in the soil, but could not escape from fusarium wilt of banana. Continuous planting of banana retained the population of fusarium in the soil. Solarization increased soil temperature until 52.35oC, which consequently suppressed Fusarium population in the soil, and reduced fusarium wilt incidence on banana. Fusarium wilt emerged at three months after planting on plot previously rotated with two periods of maize, bare for 10 months, and continuous planting of banana, while solarization was able to delay the disease emergence until six months. The first-three treatments resulted in logarithmic trend of disease development and reached peak at six months after planting, while the last treatment performed linier development until the end of observation. Among the treatments, solarization was the only treatment that produced yield.

 
 
 
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Title:

Re-evaluation of the relationships within some Egyptian species of soil cyanobacteria

Author (s):

A. D. El-Gamal, E. A. Kamel, N. A. E. Ghanem and Ehab F. Shehata

Abstract:

In the present work, morphological and ecological characteristics of three Egyptian Cyanophyceae genera; Oscillatoria (five species), Lyngbya (three species) and Anabaena (three species) were analyzed using numerical taxonomic system of multivariate statistical program. Data were analyzed by clustering method and similarity coefficients using NTSYSpc version 2.02i. Three different phenograms were produced for the studied genera and the relationships between the species were discussed.

 
 
 
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Title:

Assessment of heavy metal pollution from the industrial dust on the reforestation of pine (Pinus halipensis Mill) in the Tell Setif

Author (s):

Tedjar Lamri, Kaabeche Mohamed, Djirar Nacer and Bouharathi Saddek

Abstract:

The present work aims to analyze heavy metals in the cones, bark and needles of Aleppo pine in 05 stations in the area of Ain El Kebira in order to evaluate pollution level and impact on reforestation. Analysis of heavy metals showed that the concentration of lead rose to 1.61 mg/l at the station of the BCR which is above the accepted international standards of 1mg / l. Fe concentrations are at the upper limit of the WHO standards of 1.5 mg / l at the station on the edge of the forest ranging from 1.03 to 1.65mg/l against the cement between 1.36 and 2.21 mg / l and the BCR between 1.31 and 2.19 mg / l are the most polluted. It is noted that with the exception of the BCR is to say that the industrial zone where the values found on analysis of copper are too high between 1.11 and 2.59 mg/l and far exceed the required standards set 1 mg / l. The levels of zinc at the station of the BCR and are highest between 3.05 and 6.47 mg / l where the required standards are 5 mg / l. We can infer from our results that urgent care should be initiated to preserve the national park above the Babors bordering our study area and is ranked world reserve.

 
 
 
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Title:

Identification and distribution of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense isolates through analysis of vegetative compatibility group in Lampung province, Indonesia

Author (s):

Jumjunidang, Riska and A. Soemargono

Abstract:

The use of Vegetative Compatibility Group (VCG) analysis in this study was to identify the isolates and the distribution of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) as well as the infected banana varieties. Samples of Foc isolates were collected from the diseased banana plants in Lampung province. While isolating and purifying the isolates with single spore techniques and analyzing the VCG were performed in the laboratory. Fifteen testers of VCGs used were from Australia. The results revealed that 30 isolates of the pathogen Foc have been found at all surveyed locations on 10 banana varieties. These varieties were seven varieties of dessert bananas i.e., Seribu (AA), Muli (AA), Ambon Kuning, Ambon Hijau and Cavendish (AAA), Raja Sere and Raja Bulu (AAB) and three varieties of cooking bananas i.e., Nangka (AAB), Jantan (AAB) and Kepok (ABB/BBB). Seventeen of these 30 isolates were VCGs 01213/16 (TR4) found in seven banana varieties. The other isolates comprised five isolates of VCGs 0120/15 (subTR4) in three banana varieties, three isolates of VCGs 01216 (TR4) in two varieties, one isolate of VCG 01213 (TR4) in one variety and four isolates of unknown VCGs in three varieties. Since VCGs 01213/16 (TR4) was the most prevalent, managing and preventing further spread of the disease in Lampung province should be taken into account.

 
 
 
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Title:

Evaluation energy balance of canola production under rain fed farming in north of Iran

Author (s): Ebrahim Azarpour
Abstract:

Energy in agriculture is important in terms of crop production and agro processing for value adding. Canola is one of important rapeseed that it is tilled in dry farming systems in north of Iran. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy indices under rain fed farming canola in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a face to face questionnaire method during 2011 year in Guilan province. By using of consumed data as inputs and total production as output, and their concern equivalent energy, and energy indices were calculated. The average seed yield of canola was found to be 780 kg/ha and its energy equivalent was calculated to be 1820 MJ/ha. Energy efficiency (energy output to input energy ratio) for seed in this study was calculated 1.29, showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems canola production. Nonrenewable energy was 94.48% total input energy that concluded that canola production needs to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in production and to employ renewable energy.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effects of humic acid foliar spraying and nitrogen fertilizer management on yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Iran

Author (s):

Maral Moraditochaee

Abstract:

In order to study effects of humic acid foliar spraying and nitrogen fertilizer management on yield and yield components of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). An experiment in factorial format based on randomized complete block design with three replications, during 2011 year in Astaneh Ashrafiyeh (north of Iran) was conducted. Factors of experiment includes two levels of foliar humic acid spraying (H1: 0 (control) and H2: 40 mg/l) and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer levels consist of (n1: 0 (control), n2: 25 kg/ha, n3: 50 kg/ha, n4: 75 kg/ha pure nitrogen from source of urea). In maturity time, seed yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Effects of humic acid foliar spraying and nitrogen management on all traits were significant at 1% probability level. Interaction effect of humic acid and nitrogen management on seed yield, straw yield and harvest index showed significant differences at 5% probability level. Also, on biological yield was non significant. With attention to results of experiment, with increase nitrogen application up to 75 kg/ha all studied traits were increased. In all measured traits, the treatment of 40 mg/l humic acid foliar spraying was superior.

 
 
 
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