ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
 
 
 

 
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science               May  2009 | Vol. 4  No. 3

 

Title:

Generating a digital management map for variable rate herbicide application using the global positioning system

Author (s):

Davood Mohammadzamani and Majid Rashidi

Abstract:

This study was conducted to generate a Digital Management Map (DMM) for Variable Rate Application (VRA) of Cyanazine pre-emergence herbicide using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The main objective of this study was to develop a precision method of herbicide application which eventuates to save herbicide and reduce its adverse effects on the environment and agricultural products. Around 6500 m2 uncultivated field was selected and local and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates of the field were determined using Total Station surveying equipments and four static GPS receivers. Data processing was performed using a Personal Computer (PC) equipped with COMPASS software. By means of LAND software a 42-cell grid was created and laid out on the selected field. Then, soil samples were taken at the center of each cell, and texture and organic matter content (OMC) of each soil sample was determined. Using Kriging interpolation method, soil texture and soil OMC values were determined at other grid points. By considering manufacture recommendations for herbicide application based on soil OMC and soil texture, four management zones with four different herbicide application rates as 1.4, 1.7, 2.9 and 3.5 L ha-1 were determined and eventually a DMM was generated. Using the generated DMM and VRA, total required herbicide for the selected field was determined to be 1.61 L and it was concluded that herbicide application can be decreased up to 13% in compared with a uniform herbicide application rate for the entire selected field.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effects of seed rate, row spacing and fertility levels on growth and nutrient uptake of soybean (Glycine max. L.) under temperate conditions

Author (s):

Bilal Ahmad Lone, Badrul Hasan, S. Ansar and Amarjeet Singh

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Shalimar Campus during kharif seasons of 2004 and 2005 on a silty clay loam soil, medium in available N and K, low in available P to study the production performance of soybean as influenced by seed rate, row spacing and fertility levels under temperate conditions. The experiment comprising 27 treatment combinations viz., 3 levels each of seed rate (40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1), row spacing (30, 45 and 60 cm) and fertility  (40:60:40, 60:90:60 and 80:120:80 of N: P2O5 :K2O  kg ha-1) was laid out in split plot design  replicated thrice. Application of N80 P120 K80 kg ha-1significantly improved the growth parameters viz., plant height, LAI, number of nodules plant-1, fresh nodule weight and dry matter accumulation. Uptake of nutrients both N and P were increased with increase in fertility levels. Significantly more protein and oil content were also recorded at highest fertility level of N P2O5 K2O i.e. N80 P120 K80 kg ha-1.

 
 
 
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Title:

Mercury induced alteration in the phycobiliproteins of cyanobacterium, cylindrospermum stagnale (ktz.) adapted under different light

Author (s):

Velu Vijaya Venkatesan Padmapriya, Narayanaswamy Anand, Balan Karunai Sevi and J.A. John Paul

Abstract:

Phycobilisomes extracted from the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum stagnale grown under different light conditions (white, red, blue and green) were subjected to graded concentration of mercuric chloride 6 然, 9 然 and 12 然. At all concentrations of Hgcl2, partial inhibition in the absorption of the phycobiliproteins was observed, contrarily in 6 然 concentration of red-light, no influence in phycocyanin absorbance was occurred. In comparison phycocyanin and allophycocyanin inhibition was less as 26.2% and 35.7% at higher concentration (12 然) in red light. Major effect was occurred even at low concentration (6 然) in phycoerythrin and phycocyanin of blue light and green light. Whereas higher concentrations of Hgcl2 produced dramatic changes at all other light conditions. Significantly inhibition in green light 56% and blue light allophycocyanin was 53.1%, likely 40.4% in white light phycocyanin. The differential percentage of Hgcl2 inhibition towards the bilipigments at different light conditions shows their influence in the protein configuration of the phycobilisomes.

 
 
 
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Title:

In vivo estimation of carcass components from live body measurements of the Japanese quail (Cortunix cortunix japonica)

Author (s):

Raji A. O., J. Aliyu and J. U. Igwebuike

Abstract:

Breast and thigh weights of mature Japanese quails were estimated in vivo from live body measurements using regression equations. Mean live weight obtained in this study was 113.16g while breast and thigh percent were 34.40 and 24.02%. Live weight(r = 0.85 and 0.78), chest girth(r = 0.63 and 0.60) and chest width(r = 0.62 and 0.60) had high, positive and significant (P<0.01) correlation with breast and thigh weights while they were low and non significant (P>0.01) with breast and thigh percents. Equations D (R2 = 0.83, MSE = 4.95, SDE = 2.22), I (R2 = 0.85, MSE = 4.89 SDE = 2.22), J (R2 = 0.85, MSE = 5.05, SDE = 2.24)  and K (R2 = 0.87, MSE = 4.97, SDE = 2.23) for breast weight estimation and 4 (R2 = 0.68, MSE = 2.29, SDE = 1.51), 6 (R2 = 0.67, MSE = 2.29, SDE = 1.51) and 11 (R2 = 0.77, MSE = 2.24, SDE = 1.30) for thigh weight estimation had higher R2, lower MSE and SDE compared to the other equations. Thus, they produced a better goodness of fit and greater accuracy in prediction of carcass components. Under field conditions, depending on the ease of measurement, these equations can be used to predict carcass components.

 
 
 
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Title:

Alternative management strategies for weeds and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) in rose plants grown under polyethylene covered tunnels

Author (s):

Grace Oloo, Aguyoh J. N., Tunya G. O. and O. J. Ombiri

Abstract:

A field study on alternative ways to manage weeds and nematodes was conducted for two seasons under polyethylene covered growth tunnels in Horticultural Research and Teaching Field at Egerton University in 2005 and 2006. The treatments tested were: Dazomet (83.3g/m2), Metham sodium (0.12g/1): Brassica napus and Brassica juncea applied at 2, 3 and 4kgs/m2. The two brassica biofumigants were planted and uprooted at initial flowering stage and chopped into 10mm small pieces separately before being applied to their respective plots. The biofumigants reduced the number of nematodes by between 25% and 62% compared to the non treated plots, but their activities were quite inconsistent and were insignificant in the second season of study. In both seasons, reinfestation occurred soon after field aeration. However, the highest reduction of the 2nd juvenile stage of root knot nematodes of between 42% and 81% and up to 88% reduction in the emergence of some weeds were observed in the plots treated with Metham sodium at 0.12g/1. The findings of this study clearly show that, metham sodium and dozamet still remain the most effective means of controlling weeds under enclosed environment. Alternatively, weeds can be managed through seed bank depletion. With continuous uprooting of weeds the seed bank is exhausted in the soil and weed population gets reduced below threshold levels as we observed in the non treated plots.

 
 
 
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Title:

Interactive effects of coating method and storage period on quality of carrot (cv. Nantes) during ambient storage

Author (s):

Majid Rashidi and Mahdi Hosseini Bahri

Abstract:

This study was conducted on the interactive effects of Coating Methods (CM) and Storage Periods (SP) on Nantes carrot during ambient storage at temperature of 25蚓 and 65% relative humidity. Four CM [Carboxy Methyl Cellulose + Cellophane Film (CMC + CF), Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC), Cellophane Film (CF) and No-Coating (NC)] and five SP (0, 4, 8, 11 and 14-days) were investigated for some qualitative characteristics including water content, total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugar and firmness. A factorial experiment design was laid out in completely randomized design with 3 replications for each one of factors and Duncans multiple range tests were performed to compare the means of different treatments. The statistical results of the study indicated that CM and SP significantly (P ≤ 0.01) affected all traits. Interaction of CM SP for all traits was also significant. The statistical results of the study indicated that CMC + CF for water content and reducing sugar, and CF for firmness were the best CM. In addition, water content, reducing sugar and firmness decreased by increasing the SP, whereas TSS increased by an increase in SP.

 
 
 
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Title:

Blue light enhance the pigment synthesis in cyanobacterium Anabaena ambigua Rao (Nostacales)

Author (s):

Velu Vijaya and Narayanaswamy Anand

Abstract:

Light intensity and quality are the most significant environmental factors influencing the photosynthetic pigments in Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterium Anabaena ambigua, was subjected to different light intensities (highlight-48 W m-2, medium light-32 W m-2 and low light 16 W m-2) and different light qualities (blue, red and green light). The content of Chl a decreased with the increase in light intensity and reached the highest amount of 21% at low light 16 W m-2, whereas other biliprotein and total protein were relatively less. It was reversible in highlight 48 W m-2, except Chl 11%; the total protein 90%; phycoerythrin 4%, phycocyanin 25% and allophycocyanin 19% content were found to be relatively high. At ML and LL, PC content remained constant (21%). Since light quality seem to play an important role in regulation of pigment synthesis, Comparatively in RL and GL, 29% and 23% of PC content were found and other pigments were less than BL. Significantly all the photosynthetic pigments content was high in blue light cells, as high as Chl a 22%, total protein 95%; phycoerythrin 11%, phycocyanin 45% and allophycocyanin 17%. Besides other light conditions, blue light triggered high photosynthetic pigments synthesis, especially high PC synthesis of this cyanobacterium.

 
 
 
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Title:

Interactive effects of packaging and storage temperatures on the shelf-life of okra

Author(s):

Joyce W. Ngure, Joseph N. Aguyoh and Liu Gaoquiong

Abstract:

A study aimed at evaluating the potential benefits of pre-packaging and storage temperature in extending the shelf life of okra was conducted at Egerton University Horticulture Field and Biotechnology Laboratory. Okra pods were subjected to different combination of packaging and storage temperature. Three levels of packaging were used consisting of perforated (punched) polyfilm bags, non-perforated polyfilm bags (0.03mm thickness) and unpackaged to modifying the storage atmosphere. Pods weighing 100g were put in the various packages and the unpackaged pods were placed on flat cartons. Four levels of storage temperature, 4oC, 8.5oC, 13oC and room temperature storage were used for storing okra pods. The temperatures of 4oC, 8.5oC and 13oC were attained in refrigerators while room temperature was obtained by placing the pods on tables in the open. Pods stored at 4oC were unmarketable 21 days after storage as they were frozen and had the highest electrolyte leakage due to high chilling injury. All unpackaged okra pods stored at all temperatures were also not marketable by day 21 of storage as they were dry and shriveled. These pods had the greatest weight loss (79%) at 13oC compared to weight loss of less than 30% observed in the pods stored at the same temperature (13oC) but kept in perforated packages. The best marketable pods that were not frozen and had the least off odour were those kept at 13oC storage temperature treatment in non perforated and perforated packaging. Blackening was inhibited under these storage conditions resulting in the best visual appearance of okra pods. It is possible that pod discoloration was controlled by atmosphere modification provided by packaging thus resulting in enhanced quality and marketability of the pods for 21 days.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of blue green micro algae (spirulina) on cocoon quantitative parameters of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

Author (s):

Venkatesh Kumar R., Dhiraj Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar and S. S. Dhami

Abstract:

Spirulina is blue-green micro algae. It contains 18 amino acids and vital vitamins like biotin, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pyrodozoic acid, beta-carotene and vitamin B12 etc. These nutrients which are very easy to digest protein (biliprotein), carbohydrates (mucopolysaccharides, rhamnose and glycogen), 50 different minerals and trace minerals, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, GLA omega-3 fatty acid, and many other nutrients found in spirulina. Under the present investigation the effect of blue green algae (Spirulina) on cocoon quantitative parameters (cocoon weight, shell weight, pupal weight, shell percentage and silk filament length) of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was studied. Three treatments (100ppm, 200ppm and 300ppm foliar spray) one control were taken for the study. Data were collected and subjected to the statistical analysis on comparative analysis of the results. Differences between the treatments were found significant in all the quantitative cocoon characters except shell percentage. Single cocoon weight, single shell weight, pupal weight, and silk filament length are significantly higher at 300ppm concentration compared to control, 100ppm and 200ppm.

 
 
 
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Title:

Genetic evaluation of rams for total milk yield in Iraqi Awassi sheep

Author (s):

Firas Rashad Al-Samarai and Nasr Noori Al-Anbari

Abstract:

This study was conducted at the Improvement of Sheep and Goats Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq. A total of 344 milk records of the Awassi ewes collected during 2006-2007 were used to investigate the effect of non-genetic factors (year of calving, parity, lamb sex and litter size) on total milk yield (TMY), average daily milk yield (ADMY)and lactation period (LP). Data were analyzed by using GLM in SAS program. Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by MIVQUE method. Harvey program was used to estimate Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) values of sires for all studied traits. Results showed that the total milk yield (TMY), average daily milk yield (ADMY) and lactation period (LP) was significantly affected by parity and production year. Litter size affected only LP, whereas the effect of lamb sex was not significant on all traits. The averages of total milk yield, average daily milk yield and lactation period were 73.16 kg, 0.81 kg and 85.78 day, respectively. Heritability estimates (h) of TMY, ADMY and LP were 0.47, 0.44 and 0.33 respectively. BLUP values of sires for total milk yield were between 48.49 and-39.17 kg. These results provide evidence that Awassi sheep will response to genetic improvement process.

 
 
 
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Title:

Zoometrical body measurements and their relation with live weight in matured local muscovy ducks in Borno State Nigeria

Author (s):

Raji A. O., J. U. Igwebuike and M. T. Usman

Abstract:

Zoometrical body measurements and their relationship with body weight of matured Muscovy ducks were determined. The effect of sex and plumage was significant (P < 0.05) for all body measurements. Drakes showed significantly higher body weight (2.71kg) than ducks (1.46kg) while black colored ducks had significantly higher weights than the other color types. High, positive and highly significant (P < 0.01) correlations were observed between body weights and all body measurements. Though chest girth (r = 0.85) and body length (r = 0.87) had the highest correlation with body weight, the most reliable prediction from regression analysis was between body weight and body length + chest girth + chest width (R2 = 0.856, SE = 0.290). These parameters may be used to evaluate the body weight of ducks, in addition to being used as selection criteria.

 
 
 
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