ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                   May 2010 | Vol. 5 No. 3
 

Title:

Effects of water deficit on days to maturity and yield of three nerica rainfed rice varieties

Author (s):

Sikuku P.A., Netondo G.W., Musyimi D.M. and Onyango, J.C

Abstract:

Water deficit is a major problem in rice grown under rainfed conditions. It affects plant growth and development and ultimately leads to a considerable yield reduction or crop failure. Although the rice crop is susceptible to water deficit, there is a marked genotypic variation in response to water deficit. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of water deficit on days to maturity and yield development of three recently developed rainfed rice varieties that is, New Rice for Africa ( NERICA  coded as N2, N4 and N11) with a view of establishing the most drought tolerant rice variety that can be grown under rainfed conditions in Kenya. This study was carried out in the University Botanic Garden, Maseno during 2005- 2006. Plants were subjected to water deficit treatments in the green house a factorial set up. The seeds of the three NERICA cultivars of rice were planted in 20 Litre PVC pots arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with four treatments and four replications. The treatments included watering a litre of water once a day (control), Watering every 2, 4 and 6 days. The parameters measured included tiller number, days to 50% heading and flowering, days to harvesting, panicle length and yield. The water stressed plants took the longest to mature and N2 took the least number of days to maturity (109) while N11 took 114 days and N4 took 118 days. The yield component declined with the increase in water deficit, N2 had the highest yield at higher soil moisture deficit (1500 kg/ha) followed by N4 (818 kg/ha) and then N11 (736 kg/ha). Results indicate that under moisture deficit conditions N2 is least affected and had the least reduction in panicle length, tiller number and yield component hence can be recommended for growing under rainfed conditions in Kenya. This will ultimately help in poverty alleviation through increased income and increase in food security.

 
 
 
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Title:

Fertilizer use and cocoa production in cross River state, Nigeria

Author (s):

S.O Agbeniyi, M.O. Ogunlade and K.A. Oluyole

Abstract:

Fertilizer usage is a desirable step towards boosting cocoa production. This is because the nutrients that are being lost from the soil due to continuous usage of the soil are being replenished by fertilizer application. However, out of ignorance or otherwise, some farmers are not using this important farm input and this has resulted to the declining crop yield. This study therefore investigated the usage of fertilizer for cocoa production in the study area. Purposive random sampling technique was used to select three cocoa producing Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Cross River State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 107 respondents from the three LGAs in the state. Information was collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and the data generated from the information collected was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logit model. Results showed that 98.13% of the respondents were not using fertilizer for cocoa production. Also farmerís level of education (p<0.01), cocoa farm size (p<0.01), association membership of farmers (p<0.1) and cocoa output (p<0.01) are significant factors determining the probability of a farmer to use fertilizer for cocoa production. The study concluded that majority of cocoa farmers in the study area do not use fertilizer for cocoa production and it is therefore recommended that farmers should be enlightened on the need to use fertilizer (when required) to enhance their production.

 
 
 
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Title:

Tissue concentration and translocation responses of rice cultivars to applied Cd in hydroponic studies

Author (s):

Abdullah Niaz, A. Ghafoor and G. Murtaza

Abstract:

Four rice varieties, IRRI-6, KS-282, Super basmati and Shaheen basmati were investigated for growth response to Cd application and its translocation from roots to shoots. The test varieties included. The studies were conducted under hydroponic conditions with Cd application rates of 0, 10, 14, 18, 22 and 26 ppm. The cv. Shaheen Basmati produced statistically the highest root and shoot weights followed by KS-282, IRRI-6 and Super Basmati. Shoot Cd was low in KS-282 and Shaheen basmati.  The translocation factor of Cd was recorded to be higher in Super basmati than the other cultivars.

 
 
 
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Title:

Price and non-price determinants and acreage response of rice in Cameroon

Author (s):

Ernest L. Molua

Abstract:

Rice is now a commodity of strategic significance in Cameroon, driven by changing food preferences in the urban and rural areas and compounded by increased urbanisation. This study estimates supply response coefficients for rice in Cameroon. It is observed that the rice area grown may increase 1.35% for a ten percent increase in relative world price to producer price. A ten percent increase in relative price of substitute maize crop accounts for 1.17% decline in rice area exploited. Stepwise examination of the effects of price, weather and governmental expenditure reveal that in the short-run a ten percent increase in current governmental expenditure for agriculture will increase area grown by 1.35% and 1.15%, respectively. Irrigation could enhance area by 0.74% for ten percent increase in irrigation effort. The area supply response coefficients provide important implications for both expansions of local market and land resource availability. Increased competition could provide additional incentive for enhancing supply pursuant to changes in policies and institutions.

 
 
 
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Title:

Classification of households into food security status in the north-central Nigeria: An application of RASCH measurement model

Author (s):

Obayelu Abiodun Elijah

Abstract:

The main objective of the study was to classify households in the North-Central Nigeria (NCN) into food security status based on certain demographical characteristics with Rasch model. Data for the study were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 396 household heads from the two selected states (Kogi and Kwara) in October 2006 to January 2007. The results of the analysis show that, only 23.7 percent households are food secure (FS) in the study area. Further analysis revealed that 15.5 percent and 37.4 percent adults and children are food secure. While 18 percent households are FS in the urban areas, only 13.7percent are FS in the rural areas of the NCN. In addition, female-headed households are found as been FS (21.9 percent) compare to 14 percent male-headed. There appears to be an inverse relationship between household size and food security in the study area. Households with a small size of ≤ 3 members are also more FS (25 percent) compared to 15.1percent by those with a larger size of 8-11 members. However, contrary to the adultsí food security status in the NCN, the proportions of children who are FS in both rural and urban are nearly the same. In all the cases, there is a direct relationship between employment status of household heads and the household food security status. To transit from food insecure to food secure status, it is important to pursue policy on birth control and gender empowerments in the study area with the mean household size of 5.89 and standard deviation of 2.24.

 
 
 
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Title:

Seeding rate effect on seed yield and yield components of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Author (s):

Majid Rashidi, Behnam Zand and Saeed Abbassi

Abstract:

A four year field experiment was conducted at the Research Site of Tehran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in Varamin, Iran to study the effect of seeding rate on seed yield and seed yield components of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) during 2005-2008 growing seasons. Seeding rate treatments were 2.5 kg ha-1 (SR1), 5.0 kg ha-1 (SR2), 7.5 kg ha-1 (SR3), 10.0 kg ha-1 (SR4) and 12.5 kg ha-1 (SR5). Seed yield and seed yield components (number of pods per m2, number seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight) were determined for all treatments. The statistical results of the study indicated that seeding rate significantly (P = 0.01) affected seed yield and number of pods per m2, but there was no significant difference in number seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. The maximum value of seed yield (805.0 kg ha-1) and number of pods per m2 (6610) was obtained in case of SR1 treatment. Conversely, the minimum value of seed yield (605.7 kg ha-1) and number of pods per m2 (4620) was observed in case of SR5 treatment. Therefore, 2.5 kg ha-1 was found to be more appropriate seeding rate in improving seed yield of alfalfa in the semi-arid lands of Varamin, Iran.

 
 
 
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Title:

Impact of varietal feeding on samia ricini donovan in spring and autumn season of Uttar Pradesh

Author (s):

Rajesh Kumar and S. K. Gangwar

Abstract:

The Eri silkworm (Samia ricini Donovan) is polyphagous in nature and feeds on leaves of several food plants viz Castor (Ricinus communis), Tapioca (Manihot esculenta), Barara (Jatropha curcas), and Papaya (Carica papaya). It is multivoltine in nature and reared in indoor conditions. We observed the effect of different food plants in relation to the seasons on the larval growth and its economic characters by conducting rearing as per standard rearing techniques. The evaluation of data revealed that castor food plants have shown supremacy over the other food plants, i.e., Tapioca, Barera & Papaya for larval growth as well as economic characters. The data showed that minimum larval duration (days) in spring season (19.0) ERR % (91) SR % (14.55) and other economic characters showed better in the spring season.

 
 
 
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Title:

An investigation on heterosis and inbreeding depression in the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

Author(s):

E. Talebi, G. Subramanya and Shivakumar Bakkappa

Abstract:

The aim of our study was to define heterosis and inbreeding depression in the four silkworm races namely C108, NB4D2, Pure Mysore and Nistari for four important characters including larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight and shell percentage. Larval weight and cocoon weight showed highly significant heterosis in F1 hybrids ranging from 11 to 23% and 14 to 27 %, respectively, while inbreeding depression in the F2 progeny ranged from -0.366 - 10.814% and 2.682 - 12.312%, respectively. Shell weight showed low level of heterosis in F1 hybrids (14 to 20 %), whereas the effect of inbreeding depression in F2 progeny was -4.369 to 8.467% for this character. C108 ◊ NB4D2 hybrids proved that can be a good specific combiner by making higher contribution towards heterosis both in F1 hybrids and in F2 generation.

 
 
 
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Title:

Fruits/seeds weights, flight patterns and dispersal distances of some Nigerian rainforest tree species

Author (s):

Dike M.C. and Aguguom A.C.

Abstract:

Fruits/seeds weights, flight patterns and dispersal distances of 17 plant families consisting of 30 tree species and 180 individuals were studied at the rainforests at Umudike and Oban Forest Reserve, Nigeria. The weight was measured using the Ohus Scout sensitive weighing balance; while the length and width of 30 fruits and 30 seeds of each tree species were measured using Digital Mitutoyo Japan Caliper. Cup anemometer was used in measuring wind speed. The flight pattern was observed using Audubon Swift binocular. A total of 33.33 percent of the tree fruits/seeds had dispersal appendages. Dust fruits/seeds were not observed. Ceiba pentandra had the furthest dispersal distance of 95.63 m because of itís possession of the silk cotton. Pterocarpus soyauxii, Terminalia superba and Hildegardia barteri had 89.70, 56.99 and 56.88 m, respectively. Weight of fruit/seed had a lot of adverse effects on the dispersal of plant fruits/seeds. A negative co-relationship existed between the dispersal distance and the weight of fruits observed. The plant species producing drupe fruits had a weight range of between 2.02 and 106.88 g. The drupe fruits dropped vertically down. Plant species having samara/capsule fruit types had a weight range of between 0.23 and 83.77 g. The weight and the position of the seed such as those of the genera Entandrophragma favoured helical trajectory at the general wind speed of between 0.1 and 3.0 ms-1. It was observed that many fruits such as those of Milicia excelsa have no dispersal appendage and dropped vertically down. It was observed that such a drupe, berry and achene fruits clustered under the crown of the dispersing tree. Such fruits depended on gravitational force, bats and animals for dispersal. These vertebrate animals were not frequently seen feeding on the fruits and most of the fruits fell vertically down due to gravitational force. Their entry to adequate microsites for seed germination and seedling establishment depended on chance. Most seedlings of the dispersing tree species under the crown of dispersing tree rarely establish and grow to pole size. There is the need for man to assist in the selection of adequate microsite best for each plant speciesí seed germination and seedlingsí establishment or these plants species could become listed as endangered or rare. If the tropical rainforest is to survive, potential sources of desirable seeds are required for plant colonization of abandoned areas.

 
 
 
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Title:

Study on the incidence of powdery mildew disease in agro-climatic conditions of Lucknow region of Uttar Pradesh

Author (s):

Seema Chauhan, Amit Srivastava and Krishna Singh

Abstract:

Mulberry is the sole host plant of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linn which produces silk. The disease caused by fungus Phyllactinia corylia makes mulberry leaves unsuitable to feed the silkworm. The Disease severity is ranging from a few individual spots to numerous lesions nearly covering entire leaves as a result there decrease in the production of quality leaves by 50% which greatly effects silkworm rearing as well as sericulture industry.  With a view of adopting control measures, the incidence of powdery mildew were studied for eight different mulberry varieties namely Tr-10, S-1, S-146, S-13, S-1635, AR-12, AR-14, Br-2 in autumn season. The results of the present study revealed that powdery mildew is significantly less prevalent in Br-2 variety (F=21.84; p<0.01) of mulberry during autumn season of Lucknow.

 
 
 
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