ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                   May 2011 | Vol. 6 No. 5
 

 Title:

Influence of late planting dates and planting methods on seed production of clovers
 

 Author (s):

Hasina Gul, Beena Saeed, Ahmad Said, Fida Mohammad and Ijaz Ahmad
 

 Abstract:

The present research was conducted for the purpose to find out the effect of different late planting dates (LPD), planting methods and their interaction on seed production of Berseem and Shaftal. The experiment was carried out at Research Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan during 2004-05. The experiment was planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications having split plot arrangements. Four late sowing dates (22nd October, 1st November, 11th November and 22nd November) were allotted to main plots and combination of planting methods (line and broadcast) and clovers (shaftal and berseem) were allotted to sub-plots. Late planting dates had significant effect on biological yield and seed yield  while number of heads m-2, number of seed head-1 and 1000 seed weight were non significantly affected by late planting dates. Maximum biological yield (1717 kg ha-1) was produced at 1st November sowing, while minimum biological yield (797 kg ha-1) was on 22nd October. Similarly sowing at 11th November produced highest seed yield (112 kg ha-1) while 1st November sowing produced lowest seed yield (96 kg ha-1). Significant differences were found among the combination of planting methods and clovers (PMC) for biological yield, number of heads m-2, number of seeds head-1, seed yield and 1000 seed weight. Shaftal, sown by line method produced maximum biological yield (1113 kg ha-1), number of seed head-1 (38.2) and 1000 seed weight (2.00 g). Similarly Berseem, sown by line methods produced highest number of heads m-2 (2046) and seed yield (198 kg ha-1). Shaftal plots planted by broadcast method produced lowest  biological yield (791 kg ha-1) and seed yield (19 kg ha-1) while berseem plots sown by broadcast methods gave minimum number of heads ha-1 (1717), number of seeds head-1 (33.2) and 1000 seed weight (1.76 g). Interactive effects of shaftal showed better performance under the agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar valley, from 1st November to 11th November by line method. It was concluded from the present study that late sowing of Berseem and Shaftal gave best results from Ist November to 11th November by line method of planting under the irrigated areas of Peshawar valley.
 

 
 
 
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Title:

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) effect on physiological parameters and mineral uptake in basil (ociumum basilicm L) under water stress

Author (s):

Mostafa Heidari and Amir Golpayegani

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of water stress and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Proline, soluble carbohydrates, chlorophyll and mineral content in Basil, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2010 growing season. The experiment laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of water stress W1= 80 (control), W2=60 and W3= 40% of the field capacity (FC) as main plots and four levels of bacterial strain consisting of S1= Pseudomonades sp, S2= Bacillus lentus, S3= Azospirillum brasilens, S4= combination of three bacterial and S5= control (without use of bacterial) as sub plots. Results showed water stress and different bacterial strain significantly affected on proline and soluble carbohydrate accumulations in leaves of plants. Proline of the S1= Pseudomonades sp and soluble carbohydrate in S2= Bacillus lentus plants increased significantly with an increasing of water stress. Chlorophyll content was also increased in all the bacterial strain treatments. Among the bacterial strain, the chlorophyll content of the S1 and S4 increased with increasing of water stress. The average concentration of K+ was higher in S2 and S5 bacterial strains in the non-water stress.

 
 
 
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Title:

Energy allocation changes during diapause in overwintering larvae of pistachio twig borer, kermania pistaciella amsel (lepidoptera: tineidae) in Rafsanjan

Author (s):

Hamzeh Izadi, Mohamad Amain Samih, Ehsan Behroozy, Firuzeh Hadavi and Kamran Mahdian

Abstract:

Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella, is a devastating pest of pistachio trees in pistachio producing zone of Rafsanjan, over wintering as last larval diapausing in star. In this study, energy allocation changes in relation to environmental changes were investigated in field collected larvae of pistachio twig borer by measuring total body sugar, glycogen, lipid and protein contents. Glycogen content decreased with decrease in ambient temperature. Decrease in glycogen content was proportional to increase in total body sugar content. In December with mean ambient temperature of 8.5˚C, glycogen content with 26.2 mg/g fresh body weight was at lowest level whereas total body sugar with 22.6 mg/g fresh body weight was at highest level. In the same time, whole body protein content with about 6.7 mg/g fresh body weight was also at lowest level. Total body sugar content increased as temperature decreased from 19˚C to 8.5˚C. Total body lipid decreased during diapause and reached lowest level in full developed diapause larvae. In conclusion, low molecular weight carbohydrates may play a role in winter surviving and adaptation of pistachio twig borer to cold and provide the cryoprotection and most probably, diapausing larvae of pistachio twig borer have ability to reserve energy in the form of lipid and utilize it during over wintering.

 
 
 
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Title:

Price transmission and market integration of banana and plantain in Oyo State, Nigeria

Author (s):

Adeoye I. B., Dontsop Nguezet P. M., Badmus M. A. and Amao I. O.

Abstract:

This study examined trend in plantain and banana prices in urban and rural market of Oyo State, Nigeria. Secondary data on plantain and banana monthly prices spanning 2004/2007 were sourced from Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (OYSADEP). The data were analyzed using Augmented Dicker Fuller (ADF) test, granger causality test and index of market concentration. The maximum and minimum prices of banana in the rural area were found to be N95.09/kg and N39.60/kg respectively. Similarly for urban banana, the maximum and minimum prices attained were N114.17/kg and N31.5/kg respectively. Furthermore, the maximum price of a kilogram of plantain attained in the rural market was N169.14/kg against N236.39/kg that was obtained in the urban market between 2004/2007. Plantain and banana price were all integrated of order one I (1). Six market links rejected their respective null hypothesis of no granger causality (P>0.05), two of the market links exhibited bi-directional granger causality or simultaneous feedback relationship while four market links exhibited uni-directional granger causality at 5% and 10% level of significance. Urban plantain market occupies the leadership position in the commodity price formation and transmission in the markets investigated. The Index of market concentration (IMC) indicates that the markets exhibit low short run market integration.

 
 
 
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Title:

Growth and survival of clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings in different concentrations of domestic leachate

Author (s):

Agatha A. Nwabueze and Jerimoth K. Ekelemu

Abstract:

Growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus in different concentrations of domestic leachate were investigated. Leachate collected from Ogbeogonogo market dumpsite in Asaba was analysed for its physico-chemical parameters. Leachate was diluted with borehole water to give - 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% strength. Ten four weeks old fingerlings each of C. gariepinus were cultured in the different concentrations of leachate-borehole water in a static renewal bioassay system. Poor growth of C. gariepinus was observed in the treatment tanks compared with growth of fish in the control tank which was progressive as indicated by the higher value of condition factor. Leachate had significantly (P < 0.05) higher BOD, COD, alkalinity and significantly (P <0.05) lower dissolved oxygen than culture water in control tank. All fish in control tank survived till the end of the study while 100% mortality was recorded for fish in 100% leachate concentration by the end of the second week of the study. Slight growth was recorded for fish in the other treatment tanks until the fourth week when drop in fish weight was observed. The poor growth and survival of fish in the treatment tanks may be due to the high levels of BOD, COD, alkalinity and the low level of dissolved oxygen observed in the tanks. The higher the concentration of leachate the lower the survival of fish with time of exposure. The longer the exposure time in leachate the lower the survival of fish with increasing concentration. This study has shown that leachate can reduce growth rate and survival of C. gariepinus. An urgent need for strict legislation regarding waste dumps located close to water bodies is recommended to forestall fish stress and kills.

 
 
 
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Title:

Participatory approach: farmersí competence status in the use of improved cassava stem multiplication technology in Nigeria

Author (s):

K. C. Ekwe and Njoku D. N.

Abstract:

This paper examined the competence status of farmers in the use of cassava stem multiplication technology in Imo State. The three agricultural zones of the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme namely Okigwe, Orlu and Owerri were all selected for the study. From the zones twenty five ADP contact farmers were selected from each zone totalling a sample size of seventy five respondents for the entire study area. Using structured questionnaire, data on farmersí socio economic characteristics as well as extent of knowledge of the cassava stem multiplication technology were collected from the respondents. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Chi square statistics. Result of Chi square analysis performed at 5% significance level shows significant variation (P<0.5) in farmersí competence status in 9 out of 11 practices that comprise the cassava stem multiplication technology. They include land preparations methods , selection and handling of stems, length/size of cassava stakes (1, 2, 3 and 5 nodes), type of chemicals required in technology, chemical treatment of the stakes , soil nutrient management, essential farm tools/ equipment, pre sprouting  of the cassava stakes and hardening process for the pre-sprouted stakes. Moreover, there was generally only a fair knowledge of the various practices in the cassava stem multiplication technology. Thus, it is recommended that the technology be given accelerated promotion and dissemination through extensive training of farmers in various locations in the study area.  Also, multi-locational method demonstration field days should also be organized for farmers. To achieve a wider diffusion of the technology, training of farmersí cooperative societies in the study is very imperative.

 
 
 
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Title:

Physiological and biochemical responses of eight wheat cultivars under salinity stress

Author (s):

Mostafa Heidari

Abstract:

Effects of NaCl salinity was studied in eight wheat cvs, Shirazi, Toss, Roshan, Hirman, Bolani, Falat, Kavir and Star, grown under salt stress (nutrient solution containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl) conditions. The results revealed that salinity caused significant decreases in the growth parameters such as root and shoot dry weight. Toss and Falat cultivars had the highest decreasing. The negative effect of salinity on plant was due increasing Na+ and decreasing K+ content in the leaves. Bolani and Toss cultivars had the highest Na+ and lowest K+ content. In leaves of plants, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activity increased and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) decreased with salinity. Changes in proline and soluble carbohydrate content in wheat cultivars showed that at 300 mM NaCl, Toss and Star cultivars had the highest carbohydrate and proline content. The results suggest that cv. Roshan, exhibits a better protection mechanism against salinity.

 
 
 
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Title:

Micronuclei as an evidence of DNA damage in fresh water catfish heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) exposed to synthetic sindoor

Author(s):

Tahir M. Malla, C. S. Senthilkumar, Sameena Akhtar and N. Ganesh

Abstract:

Fish serve as useful genetic models for the evaluation of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Plenty of commonly available synthetic sindoor is being used in the religious rituals especially during the idol immersions in India, which contains lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and industrial dyes and can be harmful to the fishes. The present study was an attempt to explore the genotoxicity of synthetic sindoor in freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) by micronucleus assay. Healthy fishes were collected and housed in well aerated aquaria. Different groups of fishes were treated with different concentrations of synthetic sindoor and the toxicity produced was compared with the control group. Significantly increased frequency of micronuclei in the renal and peripheral blood erythrocytes, observed in the present study suggests that synthetic sindoor is a potential clastogen at higher concentrations.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effects of graded levels of maize bran on the growth and carcass characteristics of weaned rabbits

Author (s):

Onakpa M. M., Onuh F. and Gode D. S.

Abstract:

A total of sixteen weaned rabbits of different cross breeds and of age 6-7 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatment groups containing 0 (control) T1, T2 17.5%, T3 26.5% and T4 25% levels. They were grouped into four treatments with each group having four replicates each. The rabbits were fed with graded levels of maize bran. The initial weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio were significantly (P <0.05) by the treatment. There was no significant difference in daily weight gain (P>0.05). The cost per kg feed intake were significantly (P<0.05) influenced. For carcass analysis, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) across the dietary treatment with respect to pre - slaughter weight, dressing%, liver, kidney weight, heart weight, small intestine, length, large intestine length, shoulder, pelt weight, head, rack weight, lungs weight, spleen and legs. There was significant difference (P˂0.05) in carcass weight, thigh weight, loin, weight and caecum length showed that graded level of maize bran could be influenced at 35% dietary inclusion in growing rabbits ration without deleterious effect.

 
 
 
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Title:

The effect of mother plant nitrogen on seed vigour and germination in rapeseed

Author (s):

Bita Oskouie and Maryam Divsalar

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted in laboratory and field to evaluate the effect of top-dress nitrogen fertilizer application in mother plant of rapeseed on germination and vigour of produced seeds. The field test was conducted in factorial on the basis of complete randomized block design in three replications. The treatments consist of top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer in three levels of 0, 50 and 100 Kg/ha that exerted on mother plant and cultivar in six level including Talaieh, SLM046, Okapi, Orient, locord and Zarfam and the emergence rate, mean emergence time and seedling emergence percentage were measured .Studied factors in laboratory were standard germination, mean germination time, coefficient of velocity of germination and electrical conductivity test. Field tests results showed that the effect of cultivar, top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer application and the interaction effect of cultivar and top-dressing fertilizer on emergence rate, mean emergence time and field emergence percentage was significant and the highest rate of emergence, the lowest amount of mean time for emergence and the highest percentage of field emergence were for cultivar of Zarfam and application of 100 Kg/ha top-dress nitrogen fertilizer in mother plant. The lab results also showed that standard germination of seeds was not affected by application of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer but the effect of cultivar, top-dressing fertilizer and interaction of cultivar and top-dressing fertilizer on mean time for germination, coefficient of velocity of germination and electrical conductivity was significant. The highest mean time for germination observed in no-fertilizer application treatment and the lowest was in 100 Kg/ha treatment. Cultivar of Okapi had the highest mean time for germination in all levels of nitrogen fertilizer application The highest amount of coefficient of velocity of germination was in cultivar of Zarfam and 100 Kg/ha application of top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer and the lowest amount was in cultivar of Okapi without top dress fertilizer application. Electrical conductivity test results also indicated the highest amount of exudation from seed in cultivar of Talaieh and without nitrogen fertilizer application in mother plant and the lowest amount in cultivar of Zarfam with 100Kg/ha application of nitrogen fertilizer in mother plant. The regression results of electrical conductivity and measured characters in field conditions showed that electrical conductivity has significant correlation with all measured indexes in field and this test could apply for determining seedling emergence percentage and seedling establishment in field.

 
 
 
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