ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                     July 2010 | Vol. 5 No. 4
 

Title:

An assessment of the perception of farmers on cocoa pod husk fertilizer in Cross River state, Nigeria

Author (s):

Ogunlade M. O., Agbeniyi S. O. and Oluyole K. A.

Abstract:

In Nigeria, there has always been a problem of inorganic fertilizer scarcity among farmers especially during the planting season. In order to solve this problem, cocoa pod husk based compost was developed for use on cocoa. Being a new technology, the perception of cocoa farmers on this organic fertilizer was assessed which is the aim of this study. The study was carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three cocoa producing Local Government Areas (LGAs) namely; Etung, Ikom and Boki were purposively selected and 72 cocoa farmers were purposively, randomly selected for the study. Information was collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and the data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics as well as correlation analysis. The result of the descriptive analysis showed that 94.0% of the total respondents agreed that the organic fertilizer is good. Correlation analysis showed that age of farmers (p<0.05), farmersí educational level (p<0.01) and association membership of farmers (p<0.05) were strongly correlated with the perception of farmers on cocoa pod husk fertilizer. The study recommended that the financial capability of the farmers should be strengthened by way of giving them soft loan facility for them to successfully practice the technology.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of plastic mulch and tillage method on yield and yield components of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum)

Author (s):

Majid Rashidi, Mohammad Gholami and Saeed Abbassi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at the Research Site of Varamin Agricultural Research Center, Varamin, Iran on the sandy loam soils to study the effect of black plastic mulch and different tillage methods on yield and yield components of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Mulch levels in the study included were plastic-mulching (PM; black plastic mulch) and no-mulching (NM), and tillage treatments were conventional tillage (CT; moldboard plowing + two passes of disk harrowing), minimum tillage (MT; one pass of disk harrowing) and no-tillage (NT). Yield, yield components (plant population density, PPD; number of fruits per plant, NFPP; fruit weight, FW; fruit length, FL; fruit diameter, FD) and fruit quality parameter (total soluble solids, TSS) were determined for all treatments. Results indicated that mulch levels and tillage methods significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced the yield, yield components and TSS. Results also showed that PPD and NFPP were the most important yield components explaining yield difference under the different mulch levels and tillage methods. The maximum PPD (10481 plants h-1), NFPP (17.6) and as a result yield (11.4 t ha-1) were observed when PM was applied, while maximum values of FW (67.5 g), FL (65.3 mm), FD (56.8 mm) and TSS (6.46%) were noted NM plots. In contrast, minimum PPD (7350 plants ha-1), NFPP (14.2) and hence yield (7.36 t ha-1) were obtained with NM, while the minimum values of FW (61.1 g), FL (63.3 mm), FD (55.9 mm) and TSS (5.21%) were noted in case of PM treatment. Moreover, the maximum PPD (11438 plants ha-1), NFPP (20.4) and consequently yield (14.1 t ha-1) were observed with CT, while maximum values of FW (67.8 g), FL (68.9 mm), FD (58.9 mm) and TSS (6.35%) were noted NT plots. Conversely, minimum PPD (6275 plants ha-1), NFPP (12.2) and hence yield (5.24 t ha-1) were obtained with NT, while the minimum values of FW (60.6 g), FL (60.1 mm), FD (53.1 mm) and TSS (5.41%) were noted in case of CT treatment. As a result, plastic mulch and tillage have pronounced effect on yield, yield components and TSS of tomato in the arid lands of Iran.

 
 
 
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Title:

RAPD-analysis of genetic variation of four important rice varieties using two OPR primers

Author (s):

Panagal Mani, T.M.M. John Bastin, R. Arun Kumar and Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed

Abstract:

To assess the genetic diversity in four Oryza sativa genotypes using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genomic DNA from O. sativa leaves was isolated, quantified by UV visible spectrophotometer and amplified using different primers OPR1 and OPR2. OPR1 showed four rice non-polymorphic genotypes, whereas OPR2 showed polymorphic amplified fragments in 2% agarose gel. Above described data phylogenic tree was constructed according to Neiís genetic distance using the free tree software program with help of tree view. Genetic variation of four rice varieties that ADT 38 and ASD 16 followed by IR 20 and PONNI has the highest genetic diversity determined by RAPD. Which are crossed resulting hybrid with maximum heterosis and better characteristic such as high yield is possible.

 
 
 
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Title:

Factors declining cassava production in Ogori-Magongo local government area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Author (s):

A. B. Mohammed, A. Apata, T. Peter and D. Fidelis

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to provide quantitative information on the factor declining the profitability of cassava production in Ogori-Magongo Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Using structural questionnaire, sixty farmers were randomly interviewed within Ogori-Mangongo metropolis in the 2006/2007 farming season. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and farm budgeting techniques. The result shows that the respondents were small scale farmers with no access to improved Cassava stem as well as credit facilities. Cost and return analysis revealed gross margin of N 4,375.30 per respondent and return to naira invested of N 0.37. The implication of this finding is that though the existing level of resources indicates some level of profitability, there is need to intensify production as well as create a viable market for the product.

 
 
 
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Title:

Statistical optimization of operating conditions for the bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent into bioethanol in a 3 litre computer controlled stirred tank bioreactor

Author (s):

Korrapati Narasimhulu and Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was the statistical optimization of operating conditions for the bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent into bioethanol in a three litre computer controlled stirred tank bioreactor and to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries .The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production as 4.5% v/v or 31.6 g/l. Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO2%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.8% (v/v) or 38.6 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 320C, pH of 6, and pO2 of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.8% (v/v) to 6.6% (v/v) or 52.4 g/l with 80% chemical oxygen demand removal.

 
 
 
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Title:

Constraints of farmers in cashew production: A case study of Orire L.G.A. of Oyo State, Nigeria

Author (s):

Uwagboe E. O., Adeogun S. O. and Odebode S. O.

Abstract:

This study examines constraints of farmers in cashew production in Orire Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. There are problems of low yield and utilization of cashew pseudo apple. The study was carried out in 2008 and data was collected from one hundred and ten respondents with the aid of well structured questionnaire. Respondents were selected using purposive and systematic sampling techniques. Data were analyzed using descriptive and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results showed that cashew production in the study area is male dominated with 84.5% of the respondents being males.  Majority (70.00%) of the respondents in the study area ranked inadequate capital (finance) as the most severe constraint while lack of storage facilities was ranked by few (5.50%) of the respondents.  This could be attributed to difficulty in obtaining loan from the banks due to collateral while storage facilities constraint could be attributed to the fact that the cashew farmers in the study area do not store their produce for processing. Also the constraints experienced by cashew farmers negatively relate to the income generated from cashew fruits (r = -0.177, P<0.05). This implies that significant increase in constraints will lead to reduction in income of cashew farmers. These constraints should be considered in developmental plans for cashew farmers in the area. Incentives such as soft loan should be provided for cashew farmers to alleviate the constraints of inadequate financial capital, encourage establishment of processing industries to increase their level of income.

 
 
 
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Title:

Osmotic potentials on water uptake and germination of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculinaceae) seeds

Author (s):

Jo„o F. Braga, Maria Elena Ap. Delachiave, Lķcia F. Braga, Marcilio P. Sousa and Sheila Z. de Pinho

Abstract:

This study was carried out in the Germination Lab, Department of Botany, Institute of Biosciences, S„o Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, S„o Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the water uptake curve and to evaluate the germination of Guazuma ulmifolia seeds subjected to different water potentials. For the water uptake curve, seven replicates of 50 pre-scarified seeds were placed onto paper moistened with 15 mL PEG 6000 solution under the potentials 0 (control), -0.3 and -0.6 MPa at 25oC in the darkness. For the germination assay, four replicates of 50 seeds were subjected to the same above-described conditions; however, one lot of seeds was modified when there was variation in the refractometric index, whereas the remaining ones were kept in the same solutions until the end of the experiment. All three phases of water uptake were detected under 0 and -0.3 MPa; however, phase II was prolonged under -0.6 MPa and germination was not observed. For 0 and -0.3 MPa, the adopted statistical models consisted of asymptotic (phases I and II) and exponential (phase III) functions, y = a*[1 - b*exp (-c*t) + exp (-d + e*(t - t0)]. For -0.6MPa, only the asymptotic function y = a* [1 - b* exp (-c*t)] was used since there was no evidence of germination. The germination final percentage and speed index were lower under -0.3 MPa, mainly when solutions were not replaced; besides, germination was not detected under -0.6 MPa, with or without solution replacement.

 
 
 
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Title:

Knowledge attitude and practices of university students regarding hepatitis B and C

Author(s):

Amir Razi, Rameez ur Rehman, Saima Naz, Farkhanda Ghafoor and M. Aman Ullah Khan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of university students, regarding hepatitis B and C and to compare knowledge and practices/attitudes scores between two different groups. This multi-centre cross -sectional study was conducted from January to June 2008. A group of 2800, at least graduate students, studying in six different universities in Lahore was included in the study. Close-ended questionnaire was used to record demographic information and responses to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about hepatitis B and C. Regarding complications of hepatitis B and C, 47.5% of group I and 26.5% of group II had some relevant knowledge. About mode of transmission, contaminated needles/syringes was mentioned by 89.3% of group I and 82.1% of group II. Similarly blood transfusion, used blades, tattooing and ear/nose piercing were stated higher in group I (92.2%, 90.7%, 68.3% and 73% respectively) than in group II (72.2%, 75.6%, 45% and 36% respectively). The availability of hepatitis B vaccine was known to 61.7% in group I and 57.3% in group II. Absence of any vaccine for hepatitis C was known to 36.0% of group I and 13.7% of group II. More than half of both groups wanted to be vaccinated against hepatitis B and almost three quarters of both groups were willing to be screened against hepatitis B and C. In both groups their main source of information was television. Non-biological-sciences group was less informed than the biological sciences group. Health education about risk factors and prevention of hepatitis B and C infections by running awareness programs was found necessary for all students especially for non-biological sciences students in order to improve awareness of these diseases.

 
 
 
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Title:

Characterization of cyanobacteria within the genus anabaena based on SDS-PAGE of whole cell protein and RFLP of the 16s rRNA gene

Author (s):

Anbalagan Ezhilarasi and Narayanaswamy Anand

Abstract:

In this study, ten isolates of freshwater filamentous heterocystous Anabaena spp. has been studied by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis and compared with morphological characters. They were morphologically discriminated two groups, each containing five Anabaena species based on the proximity of the akinetes to heterocyst, adjacent to or away from the spore in the trichome. The amplicons were digested with three restriction enzymes (AluI, HheIII, Taq I) and the banding patterns obtained were analyzed. Cluster analysis showed the separation of all the strains into two main clusters. The clusters for three different enzymes yielded heterogenous groupings of the morphotypes and resulted in unclear delineation of tested organisms.

 
 
 
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Title:

A review on root and tuber crop production and their weed management among small scale farmers in Nigeria

Author (s):

Iyagba A. G.

Abstract:

Weed infestation is one of the constraints the small scale farmers in Nigeria must contend with in the cultivation of root and crop tubers. The effects of weeds on the cultivation and yield losses in root and tuber crops are discussed. The concepts of weed control and weed management are differentiated in this paper. The approaches in weed management include cultural method mainly by hand weeding at different weeding regimes for various crops, biological method using low growing crops, chemical method using various herbicides and suggested ways of over-coming the constraints on herbicide use and integrated weed management practices such as applying herbicides with cultural and biological practices.

 
 
 
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