ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                     July 2014 | Vol. 9 No. 7
 
Title:

Standardized database of land evaluation for agricultural production

Author (s): Nguyen Xuan Hai, Pham Thi Ha Nhung
Abstract:

This research has built and standardized database of land resources, integrated interdisciplinary fully with the land evaluation framework of FAO. On this standardized database was proposed assessment of suitability with 3 main land use types (rice, vegetable and flower cultivations) in former Ha Tay provinceís districts, serving the proper land use, planning and management. The application of remote sensing methods and GIS showed flexibility in digital data handling, storing, extracting and providing information fully and quickly on the thematic map. Soil map and map of suitability for 3 land use types, presenting the result of land evaluation in 1: 50, 000 scales, were established according to VN2000 projection (2012). On soil maps, in addition to the soil type elements, shows the results of natural factors such as slope, topography, soil depth, soil texture, stoniness and depth of gley.

 
 
 
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Title:

Growth enhancement support scheme (GESS) and the challenges of food security in Nigeria: A review

Author (s):

G.D. Tiri, E.A. Ojoko and A. Aruwayo

Abstract:

Considering the fact that Nigeriaís food insecurity status keeps increasing and with the recent estimates which puts the number of hungry people in Nigeria at over 13 million out of 842 million hungry people worldwide, This paper highlights the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) of the Agricultural Transformation Agenda of the present administration viz a viz the food security situation of the country using relevant information and data collected from the internet, literatures, dailies, libraries, relevant federal ministries, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The findings revealed that Growth Enhancement Support Scheme is an innovative approach to fertilizer subsidy and other input administration through electronic system that ensures that only registered farmers benefit through engagement of the private sector in the delivery and distribution of fertilizer and other input directly to the farmers. Analyses of the Nigerian government effort in tackling food insecurity and the prospects of Growth Enhancement Support Scheme have also been highlighted. Resistance of bureaucrats to change, over dependence on foreign institutions, low technical capacity of farmers and downgrading of National Research Institutes and Universities research findings are the major challenges of the scheme. To sustain this laudable effort of government, this paper recommended an enabling legislation backing the scheme, review of the traditional land tenure system that hinders the acquisition of land for farming, increase government expenditure on agriculture and continuity of the programme without misplacing its priority. These are key issues that will bring about the success of the scheme for the attainment of food security in Nigeria.

 
 
 
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Title:

Impact of crop residue, fetilizer and their placement technique on yield and related traits of maize (Zea Mays L)

Author (s): Farooq Shah, Muhammad Tariq Jan, Jianliang Huang, Lixiao Nie, Kehui Cui, Tariq Shah, Wei Wu, Qiang Wang, Kai Wang, Zafar Hayat Khan, Chang Chen and Lian Yun
Abstract:

Crop residue incorporation is an environment friendly strategy which is becoming a common soil management practice for sustainability of soil fertility. To study the impact of various placement techniques of different crop residues (i.e. legume residue and wheat straw), fertilizer-N and their various combinations on maize crop; an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Research Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar. The crop residue/fertilizer was applied at three-placement depths i.e. surface, shallow (3 cm) and deep (6 cm) incorporation for the utilization efficiency by maize. Randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement was used in the experiment. Placement depths of the residues/fertilizer showed inconsistent results and did not express significant differences for most of the observations. However, shallow incorporation of the treatments showed good results in terms of ears per plant, total aboveground biomass yield, grains per ear and grain yield. Recommended rate of N-fertilizer and mixture of half fertilizer and full rate of legume residues showed better performance than all other treatments. Maize showed better utilization of N-fertilizer and responded with best results in terms of 1000-grain weight, aboveground biomass and grain yield. Mixture of half fertilizer and legume residue increased performance of maize showing good results for ears per plant and grains per ear. Control (no residue/no fertilizer) showed poor results for almost all traits. While wheat straw amended treatments also had poor effect on the overall growth and development of maize.

 
 
 
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Title:

Antagonism and primary in vitro probiotic evaluation of lactic acid bacteria (Lab) recovered from ergo

Author (s):

Anteneh Tesfaye

Abstract:

Ergo is a naturally processed indigenous fermented dairy product, which is commonly prepared at household level and consumed in Ethiopia. The fermentation of this product is lactic acid bacterial dominated process. During this study 500 lactic acid bacterial isolates were recovered from ergo  and tested for antagonism against four foodborne pathogens (E. coli O57:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, Shigella shigelea SH10-1 and Staphylococcus aureus MERSA). Based on screening agar spot test method 41.8% of LAB formed lysis zone against the test foodborne pathogens on modified MRS agar medium. Crude extracts of 40 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that inhibited the test pathogens with ≥ 10 mm lysis zone were tested against the pathogens. Of these 40 LABS, 55% (22 LAB isolates) of extracts were observed inhibitory to the test pathogens with the well diffusion method. Purified extracts (ammonium sulfate precipitated) of 72% (16 isolates) of those shown active with crude extracts test were exhibited inhibitory activity against the test foodborne pathogens. From inhibitory LAB from purified extracts, 17.5% were found antagonistic to three or four of the test foodborne pathogens. The same 16 LAB isolates with antagonistic characteristics were tested for acid tolerance at pH 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 for 3 and 6 hrs. Of these 16, none of the LAB isolates survived exposure to pH 2.0 for 3 hrs. Only 7 LAB isolates survived (with survival rate of >50%) the exposure at pH 2.5 for 3 and further incubation for 6 hours. All 16 isolates tolerated pH 3.0 for 3 hours. Further incubation for 6 hours reduced the survivors to 12. The 7 LAB isolates those survived exposure to pH 2.5 for 6 hrs were tolerated 0.3% bile (with survival rate of >95%) for 48 hours. The study indicated that the LAB isolates that are observed antagonistic to foodborne pathogens with purified extract could serve to formulate starter culture that can produce bioprotective ergo.

 
 
 
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Title:

Phytoplankton fauna abundance and diversity in aquaculture pond, Jimma Town, Jimma zone South West Ethiopia

Author (s):

Tesfaye Koricho and Eba Alemayehu

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess the abundance and diversity of phytoplankton communities in the aquaculture pond in Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine campus Jimma Town. The study was conducted from April 1-30, 2013 by selecting three central ponds. Phytoplankton samples were identified using stereo microscope in Zoological Sciences Laboratory in Jimma University main campus. Physical parameters were measured using portable PH and Dissolved Oxygen meter in situ. From the collected samples 25 phytoplanktons genera, belonging to 5 classes were identified. Chlorophyceae (green algae) was the most dominant and abundant phytoplankton group which contributed 49%-76.6% of the total observed phytoplankton community. In Pond-I the total contribution of the group was about 75.7%, in Pond - II 59.7% and 49% in Pond-III. Interestingly among the observed Chlorophyceae taxa the genus Pediastrum was the most dominant and abundant group in all the three Ponds. The second most dominant and abundant Chlorophyceae genus was Scenedesmus in Pond-I and Pond-II. The second most dominated and abundant phytoplankton group was Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) which contributed 18.9%-40.4% of the total observed phytoplankton population.

 
 
 
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Title: Effects of non-uniform airflow distribution on grain moisture contents during aeration
Author (s): Desmond Essien, Richard Bani and Edward Sabi
Abstract:

Maintaining the quality of grains in storage over long periods of time is dependent on several factors, including the provision of a functional aeration system and an adequate management strategy. The growth and activities of insects in stored grains is a function of time, grain moisture content and grain temperature, but this can be controlled with effective aeration. To ensure effective aeration the conditions of the grains in storage must be monitored. Though several models exist for the prediction of grain moisture contents during aeration, most of these models assume airflow to be uniform during aeration. Thompsonís model which is commonly used for predicting grain moisture content assumes uniform airflow during aeration. Conversely, airflow is non-uniform in hopper bottom silos and partially perforated floors. Therefore the objective of this study is to modify Thompsonís model used for natural drying so it could be used to predict the moisture contents of grains during aeration when non-uniform flow of air is considered. A hopper bottom silo of 3m radius filled to a grain height of 1.8m was used for this study. Four tests, each test under different testing conditions and lasting 120 hours, were carried out to investigate the non-uniform movement of air. The investigations revealed that the modified model presented in this study is useful for predicting moisture content to within 0.5% of measured moisture content when non-uniform airflow is considered. The coefficient of determination (R2) between the measured and predicted values obtained for the moisture tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.98.

 
 
 
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