ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                               August 2017 | Vol. 12  No. 8
 
Title:

Characterization and the activity of bacterial cellulose prepared from rice waste water by addition with glycerol and chitosan

Author (s):

Eli Rohaeti, Endang Widjajanti Laksono FX and Anna Rakhmawati

Abstract:

Bacterial cellulose (BC) and its composites were synthesized from rice waste water (RWW) by addition of glycerol (G) and chitosan (Ch). The BC, BC-G and BC-G-Ch were characterized by several methods including Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermo gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA) and tensile tester. The data of FTIR, XRD, and TGA-DTA confirmed the presence of glycerol and chitosan in BC composites. The antibacterial activity of BC and its composites were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 by clear zone method. The experimental data shows that BC-G-Ch exhibits a higher antibacterial activity in comparison to BC and BC-G.

 
       
 
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Title:

Potentials and constraints of garlic production in southern region, Eritrea

Author (s):

Daniel Zeru Zelelew, Tesfai Tsegai Kidane, S. Danish Y. Naqvi and Ananta Suryanarayana K.

Abstract:

Garlic is the second most important bulbous vegetable crop used as spice, condiment and has medicinal value. In Eritrea it is a commercial vegetable crop growing in the midland and central highlands by small scale farmers. Despite its importance and significant potential to boost production; its production, productivity and thus supply of the crop in the market are very limited and remain seasonal. The current study is therefore designed to investigate the trend, potentials and constraints of garlic production. The survey was conducted in the main garlic producing areas of the Southern region. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and group discussions through participatory rural appraisal method with garlic growers and interviews with staff members of the Ministry of Agriculture. The result indicated that garlic is produced with low input and low output practices. Farmers have indigenous knowledge of garlic production developed through experience. Farmers prefer to grow the crop because of easiness to grow, long time storability, high selling price and market demand. Most common insect pest and diseases are reported viz. thrips, rust and purple blotch, may responsible for 25 up to 100 percent yield loss in favourable environmental conditions. The result also showed that lack of high yielding certified seed, lack of fertilizers both in kind and quantity, lack of plant protection facilities, land insecurity, lack of fuel and poor extension services are among the main bottleneck of garlic production. It is therefore recommended that to improve the production and productivity of garlic, standard national and regional seed supply system and storage facilities has to be established; availability of main farm inputs have to be secured and regular extension services should be provided.

 
 
 
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Title:

Annual diversities changes of pests that caught on the light trap in relationship with pests community in the rice crop

Author (s):

Baehaki. S. E, Eko Hari Iswanto2, Usyati and Nia Kurniawati

Abstract:

Research of annual diversities changes of pests that caught in the light trap in relationship with the pestís community in the rice crop was carried out at the Sukamandi Research Station of Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR) from 2000 to 2013. The results showed that the annual abundance of yellow stem borer (YSB), brown planthopper (BPH) and rice black bug (RBB) on the light trap were always high compared to the other rice pests. Abundance of BPH and YSB on the light trap had signaled high population of both pests in the rice crop, this is due to the flights of both pest originated from the outbreak pests area. Abundance of RBB on the light trap did not signaled of high RBB pest populations in the rice crop, because although the populations RBB the highest that caught in the light trap did not caused outbreak in the rice crops. In accordance with the passage of time from 2000 to 2013, the diversity index of pests and natural enemies decreased from moderate to low diversity, and the evenness index declined from balanced community stability to the distressed communities. Similarities index of insects community that caught in the light trap did not increased, due to increasing of rarity of species and the other hand species richness declined. Instability of the community that caught in the light trap was signaled by low diversity index, evenness index declined, high of species rarity, low of species richness as a consequently of pests explosion in the rice field.

 
 
 
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