ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science          September 2014 | Vol. 9 No. 9
 
Title:

Activity of coconut-shell liquid-smoke as an insecticide on the rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata Lugens)

Author (s):

F. X. Wagiman, Arik Ardiansyah and Witjaksono

Abstract:

Laboratory trial proved that the genuine of coconut-shell liquid-smoke grade II was very toxic against the rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and phytotoxic to the rice plants. The genuine liquid smoke is very acid (pH 1.2). It could be neutralized (pH 6, 46) by adding it with calcium oxide at rate of 7 grams per 100 ml. LC50 of the neutral coconut-shell liquid-smoke grade II against N. lugens at 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment were 12.89, 11, and 9.94%, respectively. The concentration rate of 12.5% was feasible to be developed into application dosage at which this concentration rate of neutral liquid smoke was not toxic to the plant.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of Jatropa leaf powder amendment against leaf spot (Alternaria solani) on Lycopersicum esculentum L.

Author (s):

Roshan Regmi, Ravi Jha, L. Sobita Simon and Abhilasha A Lal

Abstract:

Experiment was conducted in the Department of Plant Protection, SHIATS to evaluate the efficacy of Jatropa leaf powder at concentration 1, 2 ad 3 % w/w against Alternaria solani inciting the leaf blight of tomato. Pathogen was isolated from the research field of SHIATS and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar medium.  Mass culture of pathogen was carried out in Sorghum grains and soil was sickened it with the mass culture of pathogen @ 40g (4103/g of soil). The Jatropa leaf powder (JLP) was amended in sickened soil (100g/pot) before 2 days of seed sowing. The tomato seeds were sown in 4 treatments and 5 replications in the fiber cup including control. The Symptoms started as yellowing and browning of leaves after 15 days of germination and the symptoms progressed upwards with the growth of plants. Disease incidence and Percentage Disease intensity was checked at regular intervals in 15, 30 and 45 days after germination. The results showed that JLP at all concentration was found to be effective in suppressing the disease intensity. However, 3 % concentration was found to be significantly superior in controlling of disease as well as favoured the growth of tomato plant over other treatments including control.

 
 
 
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Title:

Weed destruction in cotton fields using hot foam method and its comparison to certain other methods

Author (s):

Ferhat KUP and Ramazan SAGLAM

Abstract:

Alternative weed control technology has developed rapidly in recent years in order to ensure sustainable agriculture. In our study, a comparison was made between the results obtained by destructing certain weeds in cotton fields using hot foam method with the results of spraying, hoeing, and control variables. Stoneville-468 cotton was cultivated in a field of approximately 2 decares. Weeds in cotton field were determined to be couch grass (Cynodon daktylon), and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). As a result, licorice destruction rate was determined to be 94, 3%, 84.1%. and 82.5% for hoeing, spraying, and hot foam methods respectively. However, couch grass destruction rate was 95.1% for hoeing and foam methods, while it was 94.5% for spraying method. Furthermore, LSD test was applied and the differences between the averages of spraying and hot foaming were determined to be 0.32 and 0.272. And in terms of their effect on cotton yield, hoeing ranked the first place with 0.4 kg cotton yield per a field of 1 m2, and was followed by spraying method with 0.36 kg, and hot foam method with 0.35 kg; while the control method was determined to be the last with 0.09 kg yield. As a result, these close values indicate that hot foam method can be an alternative for spraying method.

 
 
 
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Title:

Plant derived smoke promotes seed germination and alleviates auxin stress in carrot

Author (s):

Sajjad Asaf, Q.M. Imran, Amana Khatoon, Lubna, Rahmatullah Jan,Hee-Young Jung and Shafiq-Ur-Rehman

Abstract:

The stimulation of seed germination by smoke and aqueous smoke extracts has received much attention in recent years. An application of aqueous smoke solutions stimulates seed germination in a number of plant species. The present study was designed to investigate the reversion of negative effect of auxin by smoke treatments. It was observed that smoke solutions of Acacia nilotica (A. nilotica) improved seed germination percentage of Dacus carota (D. carota) at 500 and 1000 times (1000X) dilutions while Cymbopogon jwarancusa (C. jwarancusa) smoke solution significantly improved germination percentage at 300X and 500X dilutions. However, concentrated smoke solutions of both plants had inhibitory effect on germination percentage of D. carota. Smoke solution from Acacia plant at 100 times dilution significantly increased root length, while no significant effect was observed for shoot length compared to control. C. jwarancusa smoke solutions at 300X and 500X dilutions significantly increased root length while shoot length was increased at 50 times dilution but the difference was not significant. Auxin solutions at dilutions of 15, 30 and 50 ppm inhibit germination of carrot seeds that was alleviated by using both alleviating solutions (auxin 15 ppm + C. jwarancusa 1:500 and auxin 15 ppm + acacia 1:100) which improved germination percentage and reversed the inhibition of auxin. In present investigation it has been observed that smoke solution can alleviate the negative effects of auxin.

 
 
 
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Title: Needs assessment of sweetpotato production in northern Ghana: Implications for research and extension efforts
Author (s):

John Kanburi Bidzakin, Kwabena Acheremu and Edward Carey

Abstract:

The study was carried out to generate baseline information on production, marketing and utilization of sweetpotato in Northern Ghana. The assessment was carried out using Rapid Rural Appraisal tools, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews, seasonal calendars, problem solving tree, decision making matrix, problem census and prioritization matrix. Northern and Upper East Regions reported higher yields ranging from (3 - 3.6) tons/acre of fresh sweetpotato per acre if fertilizer was applied. Upper West had lower yields of about (1.4 -1.8) tons/acre of fresh sweetpotato (No fertilizer applied). Northern and Upper East Regions also had a benefit-cost ratio of 2.5 compared with that of the Upper West Region of 2.05. Lack of planting material was a major limiting factor to the expansion of sweetpotato production especially in Northern and Upper West Regions. Lack of good market sources was an important limiting factor to production in all regions. 5 varieties were identified in upper east region with 3 and 4 identified in Northern and Upper West Regions, respectively. This was mainly based on flesh and skin colour of the sweetpotato, with orange-fleshed sweetpotato being well-known at each location.

 
 
 
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Title: Efficacy of eucalyptus essential oil against leaf spot (Alternaria solani) of Solanum melongena L.
Author (s): Ravi Jha, Roshan Regmi, L. Sobita Simon and Abhilasha A. Lal
Abstract:

With a view to explore the efficacy of Eucalyptus essential oil against leaf spot (Alternaria solani) of Solanum melongena L, an experiment was conducted in the poly house at Department of Plant Protection SHIATS, Allahabad. Essential oil of Eucalyptus at different concentrations was evaluated against Alternaria solani causing leaf spot of Brinjal. Pathogen was isolated, identified and mass cultured and was artificially inoculated in the soil @40g (8 10 3/g of soil). The Brinjal seeds were soaked in Eucalyptus oil at 4 different concentration @1, 2, 3 and 4 % for an hour before 24 hours of sowing and then treated seeds were sown in small fiber cups (100g/cup) in 5 treatments and 6 replication including control. Diseases manifests on 30days old seedling under control characterized by blight, small, circular, brown necrotic leaf spot with a chlorotic halo, which gradually enlarged and coalesced causing withering and shedding of the leaves while in others found less. The results revealed that at 1 % and 2% concentration of Eucalyptus oil favoured the growth of plants which were healthy suggesting inhibitory effect of essential oil against disease symptom. However at higher concentration of 3 and 4 % essential oil of Eucalyptus it becomes toxic to the growth of plants since plants shows yellowing and stunted growth.

 
 
 
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