ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science            October 2011 | Vol. 6 No. 10
 

 Title:

Tourism management in selected ecotourism destinations in the Niger delta, Nigeria

 Author (s):

Ijeomah H. M. and Esaen N.

 Abstract:

The Niger Delta region is yet to derive significant financial benefits from the global tourism market due the nature of her tourism site development and management as most eco-destinations are fragile and require efficient management. The study examined tourism management and its implication on conservation of wildlife and touristsí satisfaction using personal observations, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics in form of percentages, frequencies and Tables, while Chi-square was used to test for significance of relationships. Results revealed that the tourist attractions at Port Harcourt Zoo were 17 different species of wild animals managed in captivity. Among them are Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Lion (Panthera leo), and Nile crocodile (Crocodylus nilotica). The major attractions in Akassa Turtle Station are boating, the annual Akassa beach party and viewing of water turtles that seasonally migrate to Akassa during their breeding season. Having wilderness experience and sighting of the African elephant in its natural habitat are the attractions at the Famous Elephant Sanctuary. Findings from the study also showed that tourist visitations to Port Harcourt Zoo is low and continuously decreasing as majority of the respondents (56.0%) would not want to repeat visits due to limited attractions and boring experiences. Though visitation of tourists to the Akassa Turtle Station was lower than that of the Port Harcourt Zoo, touristsí satisfaction level was higher and visitors have been repeating visits. Household respondents in Akassa community (100.0%) irrespective of gender and age were aware of the Akassa Turtle Station and are so interested and enthusiastic in conserving the water turtles that a turtle club was formed in Akassa community. The managers of the Akassa Turtle Station are indigenes of Akassa community. All the household respondents (100.0%) at the Famous Elephant Sanctuary in Ikuru community were not interested in the protection of the elephants and were ready to kill the elephants if opportuned. Household respondents in Ikuru complained that the site had not benefitted them and even the elephants have been destroying their crops. Chi square tests of relationship between age, gender and willingness to kill the elephants were not significant (p<0.05). These ecotourism destinations will be a major tourist attraction of global attention if properly managed and fully developed.

 
 
 
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Title:

Incidence pattern of ascite syndrome and related losses in broiler chicken farms at Tabriz region, northwest of Iran

Author (s):

Rahim Beheshti, Mohammad Mousapoor and Alireza Lotfi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was estimation of ascite incidence rates and related mortality rate in regional farms (survey on 10 selected broiler farms). We had examined chicken carcass in clinic taken from 10 selected broiler farms. We had separated carcasses with ascite signs and asked some relative question to farm manager about farm capacity, location, and date of mortality onset, ascite incidence history at their farms, daily mortality rate, clinical signs and autopsy signs. At end of rearing period (finishing), weekly mortality and total mortality of each farm were estimated. Next, ascite-related mortality rate were determined according clinical images that have been taken from referred carcasses of these ten observed farms. In six farms, main reasons of ascite incidence were poor ventilation and hypoxia. Onset of ascite-related mortality is 4th week of age and it can be raised to 1.27% at 7th week of age (as peak point of mortality). Estimated mean total ascite-related mortality is 4.38% for farms located at northwest of Iran. Poor ventilation and in other side higher oxygen demands at second half of broiler rearing period are considered as main reasons of ascite incidence at regional farms.

 
 
 
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Title:

Determinants of managerial abilities of small scale cocoa farmers: Akinyele lga of Oyo state, Nigeria

Author (s):

Balogun Olubunmi Lawrence

Abstract:

This study is an empirical adventure into an attempt to increase the production of export crops through better farming practices. Specifically, it looks into the determinants of managerial ability of small scale cocoa farmers in Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo state. Multistage sampling technique was employed for the study. Data for the study were collected from 72 cocoa farmers with the aid of structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive and principal component technique. The study revealed that the first component is observed to contain about one fifths of the total variation in the forty-five variables. Only five components account for the rest of the variation. An index of 0.98 provides how well this particular solution accounts for all the variables taken together and it also shows that the variables are not different from each and account for all the groups. The result further shows that, source of labour, purchase of fungicide, variety of cocoa grown, source of credit, number of man days for land preparation and planting as well as effectiveness of spraying have negative impact on the managerial abilities of small scale cocoa farmers in the study area. Those variables not considered may indicate no influence on management ability of cocoa farmers in the study area. Refocusing policies to enhance emphasis on efficient technological development adequate infrastructural support stable and efficient institutional support efficient input supply and delivery systems and other cost other cost effective support services in agriculture is recommended by this study.

 
 
 
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Title:

Farmersí perception of climate change in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district of Ghana

Author (s):

Francis Kemausuor, Ernest Dwamena, Ato Bart-Plange and Nicholas Kyei-Baffour

Abstract:

Sustainable agriculture is embedded in the relationship between humans and climate, especially in attitudes towards climate change, the rates of change and the impact of such change on the entire agro ecosystem, including the soils, crops and animals. The adoption and successful implementation of new technology and husbandry practices and farmersí adaptation to changes in their ecosystems depend on their tendency to perceive and react favourably towards changes in climate and environment. The lack of sufficient knowledge about climate changes and the impact on agricultural production is a setback to long term sustainable agriculture in most developing countries, including Ghana. This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine perception of farmers about changes in climate in Ejura-Sekyedumase district of Ghana, as part of a broader research that assessed farmersí adaptation to climate change in the district. The study compared farmersí perception on climate variability with the actual variations based on climatic data recorded from 1993 to 2009. A survey was conducted and considered interviews with farmers in six of the nineteen operational areas in the district. The targeted populations were adult farmers with at least 10 years of farming experience in the area. Data was collected on perceptions about temperature changes and variability in precipitation over a 10 year period. The results indicated that more than 80% of farmers believe that temperature in the district had become warmer and over 90% were of the opinion that rainfall timing had changed, resulting in increased frequency of drought.

 
 
 
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Title:

Watershed development prioritization by applying WERM model and GIS techniques in Vedganga basin, India

Author (s):

Sachin Panhalkar and C. T. Pawar

Abstract:

Soil conservation is an expensive and cumbersome process, carried out in steps starting from the most vulnerable region. Hence, formulation of integrated water resource management program for sustainable development requires the priority classification of a basin. An area with a higher rate of erosion needs to be given higher priority for appropriate treatment measures. The main objective of the present study is to determine the vulnerability of catchments to erosion for further prioritization of Vedganga watershed. For the present investigation IRS P6 Satellite image of LISS III sensor is used to assess land use/ land cover and vegetation indices by applying NDVI technique, while a GIS system is used to evaluate the topographical conditions in conjunction with SRTM dataset. For assessing the relative vulnerability of different watersheds to soil erosion, the factors responsible for soil erosion were considered using the Watershed Erosion Response Model (WERM). This is an index-based approach, based on the surface factors mainly responsible for soil erosion. The integrated effect of all the parameters is evaluated by applying weighted overlay technique of GIS to find different areas vulnerable to soil erosion. The analysis reveals that about 27 per cent area is most susceptible to soil erosion. Based on the integrated index, a priority rating of the watersheds for soil conservation planning is recommended for watershed development and management.

 
 
 
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Title:

Cropping system analysis using remote sensing and GIS: A block level study of Kurukshetra district of Haryana, India

Author (s):

M. P. Sharma, Manoj Yadav, R. Prawasi, Pavan Kumar and R. S. Hooda

Abstract:

Agricultural sustainability has the highest priority in all countries, whether developed or developing. Cropping System Analysis is essential for studying the sustainability of agriculture. Crop rotation is stated as growing one crop after another on the same piece of land in different timings (seasons) without impairing the soil fertility. A cropping system can be defined as the cropping patterns and their management to derive maximum benefits from a given resource base under specific environmental conditions. Multiplicity of cropping system has been one of the main feature of Indian agriculture and is attributed to rained agriculture and prevailing socio-economic situations of farming community. It has been estimated that more than 250 double cropping systems are followed throughout the country. Thirty important cropping systems have been identified based on rationale spread of crops in each district in the country. Although, it is well known that one of the main advantage of remote sensing satellites is the synoptic and repeated collection of data which facilitate to map multi-year cropping patterns and crop rotations. In the present work, crop rotation and long term changes monitoring in cropping pattern along other spatial and non-spatial collateral data have been done with the help of satellite data at block level of Kurukshetra district of Haryana. Multi-date IRS LISS-III data of different seasons for the year 2007-08 have been used for the study. Cropping pattern maps of Rabi, Kharif and Summer season have been understood to know the spatial distribution and associations between crops or crops and uncultivated land in the same fields (although not in a particular order of sequence). The findings of the study may be used by Department of Agriculture, Haryana for planning of agricultural strategies in the district and for planning agricultural research and extension activities for crop diversification.

 
 
 
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Title:

Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

Author (s):

Mahfuza Khan, M. Aftab Hossain, Shakil A. Khan, M. Saidul Islam and C. L. Chang

Abstract:

A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Baking yeast, soy bran, soy proteins were used at different combinations for the formulation of liquid diet. Sugar, anti-microbial agent (sodium benzoate) and citric acid were also included in the diet. The quality parameters of flies reared on liquid larval diets i.e., pupal weight, pupal density, larval duration, percentage adult emergence, percentage fliers, percentage egg hatch, male-female ratios were comparatively better on modified liquid diet where baking yeast, soy bran and soy protein was used at 2:1:1 ratio. Low cost disposable plastic boxes and sponge cloths used as rearing tray and supporting substrate for larvae which reduce the rearing space and replace the need for the traditional bulking agents (wheat bran/mill feed) for mass production of B. dorsalis under laboratory condition. Benefits derived from liquid diet and its rearing system is discussed in relation to use of Sterile Insect Technique programmes of B. dorsalis.

 
 
 
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Title:

Impact of credit on poultry productivity in south-western Nigeria

Author (s):

Olagunju F. I. and Babatunde R. O.

Abstract:

Livestock is important for increased productivity in Nigerian agriculture. It provides food, fuel, fertilizer and draught to sustain the rural economy. Among livestock-based vocations, poultry occupies a pivotal position because of its enormous potential to bring about rapid economic growth. The neglect of the livestock sector led to the decline in poultry production over the years. There is therefore low productivity in the sub sector. The focus of this study is to assess the impact of credit on poultry productivity. The study was carried out in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states of southwestern Nigeria. Data collection was by personal administration of questionnaires designed to obtain information on poultry farmersí characteristics, flock size, production characteristics and economic aspect of production. Data were collected from three hundred poultry farms but data from two hundred and eighty respondents were used for the purpose of analysis. In the selection of the data used for analysis, emphasis was placed on the use of farms that kept fairly good and accurate records of their operations. These farmers were selected through multi stage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, Logit and multiple regression models were used for the analysis of the data. Results of the analysis showed that the mean age of the poultry farmers was 46 years while 60% had up to secondary school education. Average period of poultry experience was 8 years while the average farm household size was 7 members. About 55% of these farmers sourced their funds from personal savings while 20 % used loans from co-operative societies. The sigma square (σ2) value of 33.141 indicated a good fit for the model and a normal distribution of the error term. Many small scale poultry farmers complained of limited access to funds which is often linked with their low level of farm income and insufficient collateral securities. Level of education, years of experience in poultry keeping and number of poultry birds were positively significant variables. It was realized that credit acquisition by the farmers had a significant impact on the productivity of poultry. Furthermore, household size, feeds, source and amount of credit had a significant direct relationship with poultry productivity. 

 
 
 
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Title:

Assessment of Nile crocodile utilization in selected communities of rivers state, Nigeria

Author (s):

Ijeomah H. M. and Efenakpo O. D.

Abstract:

Nile crocodile, a species endemic to Africa is threatened and the rate of its utilization in Nigeria, particularly in coastal areas is unknown. Assessment of crocodile utilization was therefore conducted in Choba, Aluu, Abonema and Emohua, being communities located around the fresh water/saltwater transitional river, with the aim of determining its rate of utilization in the study area. Structured questionnaires, field observations and in - depth interviews were used for the study. Two sets of questionnaire were purposely administered to three categories of respondents in the study area. The first set was administered to all crocodile consumers and all the fishermen/hunters in the study area while the second set was administered to the only crocodile farmer found in Abonema. In all, a total of 167, 70 and 1 consumers, fishermen/hunters and farmer respondents were respectively sampled. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results revealed that 77.0% of respondents utilized crocodile for consumption alone. A cumulative of 1239 individuals of crocodile were consumed as at 2010 in the study area by consumers. About 57.0% consumers are willing to buy crocodile meat and the preferred sizes for consumption are sub adults (60.0%) and adults (30.5%). Most respondents (81.0%) do not hunt but know crocodile hunters (69.0%). Most consumers (60.0%) are not willing to engage in crocodile farming. The willing respondents are interested in crocodile farming for money making (64.2%), food (19.4%) and hobby and money (16.4%). Approximately 77.0% of crocodile hunters and consumers perceived that the population of the species was decreasing in the study area. All respondents did not want crocodile to finish as its meat is desirable to consumers in the study area. About 63.0% had not recorded any form of injury from crocodile. In all only 37.0% of accident cases had been recorded with crocodile. This shows that many of the respondents can handle crocodiles without being hurt and that rearing of crocodiles in captivity could be effective in the study area if properly planned. However only 51.0% are interested in crocodile farming, Moreso, only one crocodile farm exists in the study area and is still at the rudimentary stage even though it has been in existence since 1967. Challenges to crocodile farming were high cost of feeding, space requirement and lack of expertise.

 
 
 
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Title:

Estimating the supply response of main crops in developing countries: The case of Pakistan and India

Author (s):

Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen and Vves Dronne

Abstract:

The production of main crops in developing countries is an important factor concerning farmers, population revenues and economic development. To contribute to better knowledge on the synthetic parameters describing supply response, this article exploits annual data set following Pakistan and India over 42 years (1966 - 2008) to develop two classic translog models estimating the responses of areas for wheat, cotton, rice, maize, sugarcane, dry beans, rapeseed, soybeans, sorghum and millet to changes in their gross product per hectare. The coefficients of each cropís equation in the system are estimated with the Full Information Maximum Likelihood. The own and cross gross product elasticities for each crop are calculated and compared to the data existing in literature, showing two results: firstly, the major crops areas are found to be weakly gross product-responsive as compared to minor crops, as well as to developed countries and secondly, Pakistani producers have responded weakly to gross product as compared to Indian producers. Policy reforms could help producers respond more easily to price changes, as well as to raise average productivity levels.

 
 
 
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