ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science         December 2014 | Vol. 9 No. 12
 
Title:

Allelopathic effect of different extract concentrations of two varieties of barley organs on ryegrass weed and wild mustard

Author (s):

Mohammad Reza Baziar, Farhad Farahvash, Bahram Mirshekari and Varahram Rashidi

Abstract:

The use of cultivars with allelopathic potential is one of weed management techniques. With regards to importance and frequency of weed in barley fields, an experiment was conducted to evaluate allelopathy effect of different parts of barley in different extract concentration on weed germination as experiment in randomized complete block design with four replicates in 2013. Three levels of organ extracts including leaf, shoot, root extract of barley in four concentrations composing 25, 50, and 75(g/lit) were used. Distilled water was used as control. All extracts decreased germination and its components in weed. Greatest decreasing effect was belonged to leaf extract. Leaf and shoot plant extracts as 75 concentration inhibited weed germination. Ryegrass and Charlock seedling growth features were under investigation. The results showed that increasing barley plant concentration in both samples, compared to control, leads to the significant decrease in the seedling, radical and plumule lengths, wet and dry seedling weights of both weeds.

 
 
 
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Title:

Economics of combining organic and in-organic fertilizers for maize production under two tillage systems in the northern savanna zone of Ghana

Author (s):

John K. Bidzakin, James M. Kombiok, Samuel Saaka J. Buah and Jean M. Sogbedji

Abstract:

Soils in the northern savanna zone of Ghana are poor in plant nutrients and are prone to compaction. Some amount of tillage and the application of fertilizers to enhance crop yields are necessary. The performance of maize on two tillage systems (Manual and bullock plough) with the application of different fertilizers was assessed for two years by a field experiment laid in a split-plot design with four replicates. The main plots were manual and bullock plough while the sub-plots were NPK (64 kg N/ha, 15 kg P205/ha and 15kg K20/ha), 6 tons/ha of animal manure, half the rate of in-organic and half the rate of animal manure and no fertilizer as the control in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that tillage loosened the soil and thus reduced soil bulk density, increased porosity and could have enhanced the availability of water and nutrients for better crop growth. The results further revealed that the application of animal manure alone increased maize yields in the second year by 57% as compared to 25% and 35% for the recommended fertilizer rates and half the rates respectively. However, maize yields from the recommended fertilizer rates and the half rates of both in-organic fertilizers and animal manure in each year were similar but significantly (p<0.05) higher than the manure and the control treatment plots. The application of recommended in-organic fertilizers rates gave yields which were similar to yields obtained from half rates of the in-organic and animal manure but for sustainability, the combination of both could be recommended to farmers for adoption. Comparably, the net benefit-cost ratios of both tillage systems are more than 1 indicating that maize production on each of them is profitable; however the bullock tillage system is a better option as it had higher net benefit-cost ratios in each year than the manual system.

 
 
 
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Title:

An investigation into the problems of peach growers in district swat

Author (s): Inamullah Khalil, Muhammad Idrees, Fazal Rabi, Shamsur Rehman and Nadia Bostan
Abstract:

Peach is the most important stone fruit with temperate nature. District Swat enjoys the central position as producer of high quality and high production of peach fruit and as supplier in Pakistan. But some serious and considerable problems which are behind low production of Peach fruit in District Swat. This research study is conducted to point out the problems faced by Peach growers in District Swat. District Swat consists of 65 Union Councils. Four Union Councils were randomly selected as named Arkot, Ashary, Bar Thana and Baidara. From each Union Council 15 Peach growers were selected randomly and total sample size was 60 respondents. Software SPSS was used for data analysis. The results indicated middle age respondents above and majority with educational qualification were matric. Under research study area all of the respondents were owner growers of their piece of land. Results show that majority of the respondents face problems as non-availability of extension field services, lack of irrigation water, lack of cold storage facilities, extra commissions, distant markets, scab disease and fruit fly. These problems cause poor peach fruit productivity, in return, affecting the socio-economic study of the respondents. The research study by the recommendations of researcher, suggests the availability of inputs, provision of Agricultural Extension Field advisory services, improving the irrigation system, solution of market related problems with provision of storage and standard packing materials, and termination of pest disease and transportation problems to get high yield production in order to improve the socio-economic status of the respondents.

 
 
 
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Title:

Botanical inventory of some communities in akpabuyo local government area of cross river state Nigeria

Author (s): Ebigwai J.K, Samuel Peace Chiamaka, Ndifreke Eshiett and Asuquo Esther
Abstract:

The quest for a local floristic database and the alarming rate of species loss informed the need for a botanical inventory in seven communities in Akpabuyo Local Government Area of Cross River State. Field work was conducted between May 2011 and March 2012 with a view to obtaining information on species diversity, species abundance, species frequency and ethno botanical uses of the inventoried species. A three - 10 x 30 m modified Whittaker plot was established in each of the seven communities for vegetation  data collection while the use of standard ethno-botanical questionnaires administered to local healers, carpenters, traders and market women was used in obtaining data on Indiginous plant uses. The study indicated a total of one hundred and twenty one species spread across 40 taxonomic families with a Shannon and equitability indexes of 4.65 and 0.97 respectively. Some of the plant species include Alchornea cordifolia, Anthocleista voegelii, Anthonotha macrophyla, Berlina auriculata, Bosweillia dalzielii, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Ekerbergia senegalensis, Funtumia elastica, Klainedoxa gabunensis, Piptadeniastrum africanum, and Raphia hookeri.  Some species with hitherto poor representation in Nigeria were recorded. These are Woodfordia uniflora, Englerina lecardii, Tarpinanthus pentagonia, Crateranthus talbotii, Rourea thomsonii, Santaloides afzelii, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Uvaria chamae, Saba comorensis and Strophantus senegalensis. They accounted for about 8.27% of the total species diversity and 5.18% of the total abundance. The family Euphorbiaceae was the most diverse family with eleven species while Caesalpinoidea, mimoisoidea, and rubiaceae with 9 species each and apocynaceae and meliaceae with 8 members each made up the first 6 most diverse families. On the other hand, myristicaceae, flacourtiaceae, dichapetalaceae, and celastraceae were represented by one species each. The family Mimoisoidea was the most abundant with 167 individuals, followed by rubiaceae with 135 individuals. Conversely, Bursaraceae, Melianthaceae and sapindaceae were the families with the least individuals with 10 individuals each. Correlation analysis between species abundance and species frequency indicated a weak linear coefficient of 0.54. 39.17% of the inventoried species were shown to have ethno botanical uses, with 12.40% of the species used as  roof trussers, rafters and purloins while 11.57% and 10.74% of the species are used as fruits/seeds and medicine respectively while  only one species are used for such economic activities as fodders, fibers and tannins. Canarium schweinfurthii and Pentaclethra macrophyla with five uses each are the most used plants while Allophylus africanus, Strombosa scheffleri, Beilschimiedia mannii, Khaya senegalensis, Uapaca togoensis Oncoba spinosa, Morelia senegalensis and Melia excelsa with one uses each are the least used plants. The inventory of alien species in this study reaffirms the need for a holistic flora study of the area.

 
 
 
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Title:

Diagnostic survey on potato production practices in Eritrea

Author (s):

Biniam M. Ghebreslassie, Githiri M, Tadesse M and R. Kasili

Abstract:

A baseline survey was conducted in Zoba Maekel and Zoba Debub, Eritrea, to determine existing potato production practices and identify areas of intervention for optimization of its productivity. The study will contribute to improved food security and livelihood of poor farmers in the country. Within each Zoba, the Sub-zoba/village (strata) was purposely selected based on their history and coverage in potato growing, while farms (sites) were randomly selected for the study. Farmer respondents were interviewed (by enumerators) based on a comprehensive set of questions on their potato growing practices. Useful information, on house hold characteristics, farm land and crop management practices, seed source, rotation, irrigation and fertilization methods, weed, pest and disease management, and yield were collected. In addition, to structured questionnaires focus group discussion with groups of selected farmers was conducted. Although, the degree and level might vary from growers to growers and Zoba to Zoba, it was noted from the survey that growers face major challenges in obtaining farm inputs especially quality tuber seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. Moreover, pest prevalence particularly, Cut Worm infestation (87%) and Late Blight infection (97%) were observed throughout the visited villages posing major problem to growers. It is, therefore, recommended to secure availability of major farm inputs and provide frequent extension services to improve farmerís knowledge and understanding. Especially, consideration should be given to the establishment of sustainable and standard seed supply scheme at all levels.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on the quality and shelf-life of strawberry jam during storage

Author (s):

Uzair Khan, Javid Ullah, Beena Saeed and Farman Ali

Abstract:

As well as selection of proper preservative, determining its optimum concentration is of paramount importance for maintaining food quality during storage. The present study evaluated the effect of two preservatives, i.e. potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on the shelf-life and quality of strawberry jam. These preservatives were applied separately and in combination with different concentrations making up to a total of 7 treatments plus a non-treated control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The effect was studied at 7 storage intervals starting from day 1 to day 90 after jam development. Various parameters such as ascorbic acid content, pH, total soluble solids, sugar acid ratio, amount of reducing and non-reducing sugars, texture and flavor were studied. Significant differences were observed for all the studied parameters. The combined addition of 0.05 % each potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate to the jam proved to be the best combination in terms of extending the shelf-life and improving the quality of strawberry jam during storage.

 
 
 
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