ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science                         December 2018 | Vol. 13  No. 12
 
Title:

Effect of three types of plastic packaging material on the preservation of physicochemical and organoleptic quality of plantain banana chips (Musa spp)

Author (s):

Konť Kisselmina Y., Cissť Moctar, Cissť Ibrahima, Soro Doudjo, Gnimpieba Zohim E., Assidjo Nogbou E. and Laguerre Jean-Claude

Abstract:

Packaging plays a major role when choosing the food product. In this study, the impact of plastic packaging, of various materials, on the chemical and organoleptic quality of plantain chips has been realized in order to propose a better choice for marketing. Three types of plastic packaging material (PE, PP and PET) were used to preserve, over seven weeks, plantain chips from cultivar Corne. Investigation of monitoring of chemical (water content and peroxide index) and organoleptic (color, crustiness, aftertaste, taste of rancidity, odor and general evaluation) parameters evolution was carried out. The results indicate that the most suitable plastic packaging materials for the preservation of banana chips are respectively those in high density polyethylene (HDPE), in polypropylene (PP2: in bag form) and in low density polyethylene (LDPE1: 60 μm), in view of experimental and statistical analyzes carried out.

 
       
 
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Title:

An investigation of current status of agricultural mechanization services in Iraq and future suggestions

Author (s):

Zuhal Rdhaiwi Kadhim

Abstract:

The use of mechanization in different agricultural production processes lead to occurrence of latent changes in agriculture like quantity increase and quality of farm products, decrease of production costs and increase of cultivated areas. The agricultural mechanization services in Iraq have notably improved since the 1960s, and this can mainly account for the rise in agricultural production and productivity nationwide. However, the investment of Iraqi government in aspect of agricultural mechanization did not play its role required in increasing the farming areas and development the production and productivity levels of different agricultural crops. This investigation tries to identify the current status of agricultural mechanization services and view the important obstacles that led to non-expand the agricultural mechanization services in Iraq. The economic analysis based on descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and measure of annual growth rates by estimating the half-logarithmic regression equation. Results indicated that the agricultural mechanization for cereal crops production has been the most impressive to use in Iraq. Northern provinces of the country are the highest mechanized region during 2015 year. The largest percentage of tractors, irrigation sprayers and water pumps services was concentrated in Salahaddin province by 14.71%, 44.47% and 19% respectively, while the biggest percentage of harvesterís services was focused in Nineveh province by 31.63%. Usage rates of agricultural tractors and harvesters of cereal crops areas have increased during the study period compared with standard needs; on an average there are 52 hectares per one tractor and 601 hectares per one harvester. Out of four main agricultural mechanization services in Iraq, the agricultural water pumps service occupies the first rank with ratio 91% to be provided by local markets followed by agricultural tractors service (86%), agricultural harvesters service (82%), and agricultural irrigation sprayers service (46%). Currently there are two types of utilizing agricultural machinery: as an owner (30%) or through custom hiring service (70%). Results also indicated that there is decreasing in agricultural mechanization services (tractors and harvesters) in Iraq. Annual growth rate of tractors services is negative and it becomes 0.7% for period (2000-2017). Similarly, the annual growth rate of harvesterís services is negative and it becomes 0.1% for the same period. The failure in managing the agricultural machineries and lack of scientific studies related to the agricultural mechanization in Iraq are considered the more important reasons of this result. Lack of labor and necessity to lower cost of production in Iraqi agriculture make agricultural mechanization services a predictable solution in the present agricultural countryside. In light of this result, some future suggestions are formulated to develop the current status of the agricultural mechanization in Iraq. It is expected that the use of agricultural machinery services will increase in coming years if the Iraqi government takes the greater responsibility to achieve these suggestions.

 
       
 
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