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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

A BLE beacon global tracking strategy for small robot using an ESP32 beacon system and GPS

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Author Fredy H. Martínez S. and Angélica V. Rendón C.
e-ISSN 1819-6608
On Pages 147-153
Volume No. 19
Issue No. 3
Issue Date March 30, 2024
Keywords BLE beacon, ESP32, GPS, indoor/outdoor tracking, MQTT protocol, position estimation, RSSI, scanning stations, trilateration.


This study aims to estimate the position of a small robot in both outdoor and indoor environments using a combination of RSSI-to-distance calculation, trilateration, and MQTT protocol for communication between ESP32 stations and the server. RSSI is utilized to approximate the distance between the ESP32 and the beacon, while trilateration is employed to determine the precise position of the beacon. The ratio of the imaginary circles is calculated by various signal measurement techniques, and the MQTT protocol is used to set up communication between ESP32 stations and the server. Once the beacon device is visible to all three ESP32 modules, trilateration takes place, and the position of the BLE beacon is displayed as a web page. The server collects the largest RSSI values from the nearest three ESP32 stations, and trilateration is performed from the distances obtained, with the coordinates being sent to the dashboard for visual representation. This strategy is supported by a GPS in outdoor environments, and indoors when structures allow it. Furthermore, the study includes the implementation of an experimental procedure and findings that involve utilizing ESP32 modules as scanning stations to track a BLE beacon.


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