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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

The effects of reaction time on kinematic viscosity and conversion in the manufacturing of bio-ubricant alternatives from oleic acid with palm kernel shell catalyst as an approach to renewable energy

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Author Mersi S. Sinaga, Rondang Tambun, Maulida and Fina D. P. Ardhiyani
e-ISSN 1819-6608
On Pages 1500-1507
Volume No. 18
Issue No. 13
Issue Date September 13, 2023
Keywords oleic acid, biolubricant, epoxidation, palm oil shell catalyst, ring-opening reaction.


The majority of lubricants commonly used in everyday life are based on petroleum which is a non-renewable resource, is toxic to the environment, and has poor biodegradability which can become a big problem for the ecosystem. Bio- based lubricants (biolubricant) can be an alternative to environmental and energy issues such as biodegradability, toxicity, health, emissions, and fuel economy. Biolubricant can be defined as a lubricant developed from basic ingredients in the form of animal fats, plant oils, or synthetic esters. Lubricants based on plant oils are also renewable. More than 98% of biolubricant decompose in the soil, unlike some synthetic lubricants and mineral lubricants which only decompose 20% to 40%. In addition, vegetable or animal lubricants used in engines reduce almost all forms of air pollution compared to the use of petroleum. This research is focused on making biolubricant through an epoxidation process from palm oleic acid raw material and ring opening with the heterogeneous catalyst of palm kernel shells (PKS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the catalyst and the length of reaction time on the characteristics of the biolubricant produced and to determine the potential of palm kernel shell as a raw material for the manufacture of biolubricant. For the research variables, the catalyst concentrations were 2.4 and 6% and the reaction time variables were 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. The analysis carried out is the analysis of density, viscosity, kinematic 2 viscosity, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). This study obtained the results of kinematic viscosity and conversion in the range of 17.8592- 21.2048 cSt and 77.92-91.80%, respectively. The biolubricant produced in this study meets the ISO VG 22 standard which is equivalent to SAE 5W with a kinematic viscosity of 21.2048 cSt from a catalyst variation of 6% at a reaction time of 180 minutes. So it can be concluded that oleic acid from palm oil has potential as a biolubricant raw material.


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