ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                        January 2018  |  Vol. 13  No. 2
   
Title: Green synthesis of silver nano particles using fenugreek seeds extract
Author (s): Nabila H. Hussein, H. H. Shaarawy and S. I. Hawash
Abstract:

In this investigation nano silver was prepared by reduction of silver nitrate using fenugreek extract. Use of natural reducing agent in the synthesis of nano silver is an environmentally friendly process in contrary of using chemical reducing agent. High resonance transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests are used to characterize prepared nano silver. The results confirmed that, the morphology of the prepared nano silver were of spherical shape with smooth surface and average diameter of 17nm. Produced nano silver was tested as antibacterial agent and it is successful against E-coli and staphylococcus aureus due to the increase of the inhibition zone than using 1 molar silver nitrate alone i.e. the use of nano silver increased the inhibition zone of E-coli and staphylococcus aureus. So the synthesis of nano silver leads towards chemical use as antibacterial agent.

   

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Title: Experimental study on solar energy storage in phase change materials using cylindrical shell type heat exchanger
Author (s): Pasam Bhagyalakshmi, K. Rajan, K. Senthil Kumar and Sunku Sravan Reddy
Abstract:

In the present work an attempt is made to store solar energy in Paraffin and Palmitic acid and the eutectic mixture of the two and compared with each other. Cylindrical type tube heat exchanger is used for the storage purpose and water is used as a heat transfer fluid (HTF). The storage time for charging and discharging processes of the three materials are measured. The conditions of discharging process are discharging by hot water in the storage tank, discharging by cold water and by keeping the storage tank empty. The results showed that the eutectic mixture has better storage capacity, and time to retain the high temperatures compared with the base materials. It is suggested that this phase change material (PCM) is suitable for storing the hot water for a longer period of time during adverse climatic conditions.

   

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Title: Effects of non-uniform temperature gradients on Surface tension driven two component magneto convection in a porous-fluid system
Author (s): Manjunatha N. and Sumithra R.
Abstract:

The Hydrothermal growth of crystals is mathematically modelled as the onset of Surface tension driven double diffusive magneto convection in a two-layer system comprising an incompressible two component, electrically conducting fluid saturated porous layer over which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence a vertical magnetic field. Both the upper boundary of the fluid layer and the lower boundary of the porous layer are rigid and insulating to both heat and mass. At the interface the velocity, shear stress, normal stress, heat, heat flux, mass and mass flux are assumed to be continuous conducive for Darcy-Brinkman model. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly for both parabolic and inverted parabolic temperature profiles and analytical expressions of the Thermal Marangoni Number are obtained. Effects of variation of different physical parameters on the Thermal Marangoni Number for both profiles are compared.

   

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Title: Separation and identification of fatty acid in triacylglycerol isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum oil
Author (s): Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta, Lailatul Qadariyah, Setiyo Gunawan and Yi-Hsu Ju
Abstract:

Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) is one of the mangrove plants. Its seed has a significantly high non-edible oil content of 70.4%. Therefore, most researches were focused on the conversion of this oil into biodiesel. In this work, the proximate composition of C. inophyllum seed, and cis-trans fatty acids of triacylglycerols (TAG) in its oil were investigated. The identification method of double bond position in the corresponding cis and trans isomer was also presented. The position of double bond in fatty acid was determined by characteristic ions of □ and □-ions. Cis and trans configuration in double bond positions was identified by relative intensity of □ and □-ions. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. Fatty acids of TAG identified include palmitic acid (C16:0, 11.37%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1c, 2.65%), margaric acid (C17:0, 0.68%), stearic acid (C18:0, 16.21%), elaidic acid (C18:1t, 0.41%), oleic acid (C18:1c, 32.49%), linoleaidic acid (C18:2t, 0.62%), linoleic acid (C18:2c, 22.99%), linolenic acid (C18:3c, 2.23%), arachidic (C20:0, 6.97%), gondoic acid (C20:1c, 1.74%), and behenic acid (C22:0, 1.64%). It was shown that the proposed method can easily distinguish the double bond position and the cis-trans configuration in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters.

   

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Title: Analysis and modelling of reducing translational vibration response in main system and electrical energy generated by Dynamic Vibration Absorber mechanism with Cantilever Piezoelectric (CPVA) method
Author (s): W. Rachma Efendy dan W. Hendrowati
Abstract:

Vibrations often occur in industrial machinery. One of solution to reduce excessive vibration is to add Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA). The principle of Dynamic Vibration Absorber working is addition mass of absorber and spring in the main system. DVA reduce vibration from main system with resulted vibration which has opposite direction to vibration main system. According to the research by Pachpute [1], Using DVA is proven to reduce main system vibration which operated by natural frequency significantly. This research had been design a mechanism of vibration absorber and energy harvesting with Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Absorber (CPVA) method. In this research, the main system is flat plate which supported by four springs. The plate has been received an excitation force from springs below which are connected with eccentric masses on DC motor. Spring used to support flat plate has the same value of spring stiffness 300 N / m. So the excitation that occurs on flat plate is only in translational direction. This research are going to analysis various amplitude of eccentric mass at 0.025 m, 0.030 m, and 0.035 m. Rotational velocity of DC motor is 20.61 rad/s (natural frequency), 22.05 rad/s (harvesting frequency), and 25 rad/s (valley frequency). Various number of cantilever piezoelectric which used are 2600, 2800, and 3000 pieces. The result from simulation process shows that the highest value of power generation and percentage of CPVA reduction is 3.52E-7 watt and 20.36% in natural frequency. Furthermore, the simulation also resulted CPVA characteristic and various number of optimum range piezoelectric in 1400 - 2400 pieces. In that following range, power generation and percentage reduction of main mass displacement that can be reached by CPVA are 5.78E-7 watt and 22.75%.

   

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Title: Design of an algorithm for vehicular traffic detection using computer vision techniques
Author (s): Jose Salgado Patron, Johan Julian Molina Mosquera and Diego F. Sendoya-Losada
Abstract:

This work presents the design of an algorithm for vehicular traffic detection using computer vision techniques. The objective is to perform the counting of the vehicles that transit on a certain route and also know the average speed with which these vehicles travel. For the development of this project it was necessary to have devices whose technical characteristics allow the fulfillment of the proposed objectives. For this it was determined to use a camera with a resolution in high definition (1280x720p) and a capture rate of 30 frames per second. Another requirement for this project is based on the compiler, which must be compatible with the OpenCV library and the base programming language (C language). Thus, a compiler such as Qt Creator is required, with which all the programming of both the algorithm and the application are developed.

   

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Title: Implementation for brain tumor detection and three dimensional visualization model development for reconstruction
Author (s): Sunil L. Bangare, G. Pradeepini and Shrishailappa T. Patil
Abstract:

This work has been proposed to detect the brain tumor using various preprocessing techniques like grayscale, thresholding, edge detection and 3D model development and reconstruction is done on the detected tumor. The tumor is further categorized in three types and is viewed in 3 dimensional. This idea has been initiated as an assessment tool for the diagnosis of brain tumors. Earlier methods used by doctors may raise human mistakes. Hence, a tool is required to collect, classify and analyse the medical data automatically to reduce human mistakes that may lead to fatal errors. The tumors in different MRI are compared to examine the difference in stages of tumor or two patient’s tumor. This paper comes up with a two dimensional view of all stages of the tumor of a patient. The OTSU’s algorithm has been used for calculating threshold, as it’s fast and computes an optimized threshold value. The Sobel edge detection technique is used to expose the drastic change. Finally, function is carried out to calculate the severe blocks and the less severe blocks in the tumor. Results for the brain tumor MRI have been disposed. Three dimensional view is generated.

   

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Title: Physical and chemical characteristics of gaseous emissions from cattle manure and their odour intensity
Author (s): A. S. Yuwono, A. H. Tambunan, Desrial, S. Dohong, D. Setyaningsih and Y. C. Wirasembada
Abstract:

Gaseous emission from fresh manure in a cattle feedlot located in Bekasi Municipality, West Java Province, Indonesia is planned to be raw material for biogas production in order to substitute a part of electricity energy need in a local household scale. To enable an engineering design of the facility to convert biogas to be electrical energy as well as to ensure the sustainability of the energy supply system, physical and chemical characteristics of the gaseous emission from the fresh manure was carried out. The objectives of the research are to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the gas emitted from cattle manure and to measure the odour intensity of the existing ambient air in the inner area of the cattle feedlot as well as in their surrounding areas. Physical parameters include temperature, relative humidity, enthalpy, and specific volume, whereas chemical parameters cover Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Oxygen (O2), Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), and two odorous gases, i.e. Ammonia (NH3) and Hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The gaseous samples were taken two times per day (6 AM in the morning; 6 PM in the evening) within two days campaign. Laboratory analyses were conducted according to the national standard methods (SNI) in an accredited laboratory. Odour intensity was also measured by using an odour judge panel consisting of seven well trained odour panellists. Result of the analysis show that methane concentration of the emitted gas is 13% and the majority of the gas was nitrogen (59%). The concentrations of the odorous gases inside the feedlot were much higher than the national standard limit, whereas outside of the feedlot was below the standard. Odour intensity perceived by the panellist indicated that the average score inside the feedlot was -2.3 [unpleasant], whereas the outside one was 0.0 [neutral].

   

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Title: Optimization of keratinase production by bacillus slii-i bacteria in chicken feather waste medium
Author (s): Maharani Pertiwi Koentjoro, Endry Nugroho Prasetyo and Ahmad Marzuki Rahmatullah
Abstract:

Keratin is an undissolved protein in water and difficult to transform by proteolytic enzymes because there is a cystine disulphide bond. One of the bacteria that produce keratinase enzyme is Bacillus sp. which is able to break the disulfide bond on the keratin protein into a soluble protein. The purpose of this research is to produce keratinase optimally through analysis of bacterial growth profile, protein content, and keratinase activity by varying pH conditions and composition of chicken feather waste medium. The optimization of keratinase was based on the growth curve of bacteria cultured on 3 medium types namely Nutrien broth, minimal medium feather meal, minimal medium feather meal pepton 1% and 3 types of pH 7, 8, and 9, for keratinase activity from crude enzyme extract, While for protein profile analysis using ammonium sulphate method, isoelectric point, and SDS-PAGE was done to find out protein profile. From the result of optimum keratinase production from minimal medium feather meal pH 7, the highest keratinase enzyme activity was 0.34 unit / ml. The isoelectric point of the keratinase enzyme is known at pH 5.3 while the molecular weight based on the SDS-PAGE yield is 38kDa.

   

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Title: Characteristic study of light weight aggregates and its application in Concrete Filled Steel Tubes
Author (s): R. Ramasubramani, Aravind G., Vajradeep Koshika, Komal Sai Kumar K. and Eshwar Chandra N.
Abstract:

The research on Concrete Filled Steel Tubes (CFST) has been done to study the construction of framed structures in high-rise buildings. As CFST give fine appearance, high-bearing capacity and ductility, fast construction, and reduce time and cost of the construction, there is no need for the use of shuttering during concrete construction. CFST comprises of steel hollow section of circular or rectangular or square shape filled with plain or reinforced concrete. Due to its many benefits the advantages of CFST have been widely exploited and have led to the extensive use of concrete filled tubular structures in civil engineering structures.

   

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Title: A critical evaluation of power quality features using unique fundamental reference current based battery integrated DSTATCOM
Author (s): Sri Prakash, Kesava Rao and Pv. Satya Ramesh
Abstract:

The incredible demand for power quality enhancement has been advancing in present situation. Generally, because of large-sized non-linear loads are integrated at electric power distribution system provoking of imperative distortions at point of common coupling. An effective harmonic compensation scheme is furnished at common coupling for acquiring the power quality features in a three phase electric power distribution system. Over the, several compensation schemes a Distributed Static Compensation (D-STATCOM) scheme creates a significant role in distribution systems for power quality enhancement with attractive control strategy. Classical control strategies are greatly adversed with high switching loss due to extreme harmonic frequencies in a reference current component. This paper, proposes the attractive reference current extraction control strategy for optimum functioning of battery energy storage system (BESS) integrated D-STATCOM with fruitful advantages. The validation of the proposed BESS integrated DSTATCOM with proposed control objective under several case studies, is evaluated by Matlab/Simulink tool and simulation results are illustrated with respect to proper comparative analysis.

   

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Title: A fuzzy controlled STATCOM for compensation of SEIG feeding single-phase harmonic load
Author (s): Satyanarayana Gorantla and Goli Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the harmonic content in source current and power factor at point of common coupling (PCC) when a single-phase non-linear load fed from wind generator with PI and fuzzy controlled STATCOM at PCC. Non-linear loads induce harmonics in the source components and deteriorate the system stability and reliability. This paper presents STATCOM for harmonic compensation connected at PCC when a two-phase non-linear load is connected at load side. Fuzzy controller yields precise response with quick action time. The paper examines the harmonic distortion in source parameter when STATCOM is connected controlled with PI and fuzzy controllers. The presented system was developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and results are presented. Results are presented showing harmonic distortion in source current with STATCOM controlled by PI controller and harmonic distortion in source current with STATCOM controlled by fuzzy controller.

   

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Title: Morphological studies of electrical tree due to high alternating electric fields in Epoxy solid dielectrics
Author (s): S. Natarajan, M. Balasubramanian, S. Mohamed Ghouse and R. Rajesh
Abstract:

In polymeric insulation system electrical treeing phenomenon is the significant cause for the failure of the insulating material. The treeing phenomenon in insulators is strongly related to the type of insulator and the nature of flaw in the insulator during the manufacturing process. In this research Epoxy resin samples are prepared to carryout electrical treeing studies under High alternating electric fields of power frequency (50Hz). Needle plane electrode configuration is used to investigate the electrical tree growth characteristics. Partial discharge (PD) patterns during the initiation and propagation are obtained from PD measurement system. The correlation between the electrical tree propagation and the Partial discharge phenomenon is discussed. The morphological patterns during the tree growth are studied and the physical aspects of degradation during tree growth are analyzed in correlation with the partial discharge patterns obtained during the treeing process.

   

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Title: Smart irrigation using fuzzy logic method
Author (s): T. A. Izzuddin, M. A. Johari, M. Z. A. Rashid and M. H. Jali
Abstract:

This smart irrigation system optimizes water usage for agriculture. In this method we have implemented an open loop fuzzy logic control system using Mamdani control system. The inputs to the fuzzy logic control system are adapted from a humidity sensor, temperature sensor and the flux sensor in the field. The output for this system is the lamp and the water pump. The simulation is done using MATLAB software and SIMULINK. The membership functions and the rule based systems of the controller is illustrated in the following parts in this paper.

   

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Title: Design and development of a didactic an innovative dashboard for home automation teaching using LabVIEW programming environment
Author (s): Farid Melendez-Pertuz, Ruben Sanchez Dams, Jose Caicedo Ortiz, Jaime Velez-Zapata, David Ovallos-Gazabon, Victor Mendinueta and Gustavo Cortes
Abstract:

Domotics as a branch of automation has achieved remarkable advances in recent years, due to the enormous development of telecommunications that has allowed improving and complementing services of this type of solutions. It is necessary in the electronic engineering programs of the universities, to develop methods and strategies that facilitate the teaching of these subjects in a practical way, so that the student learns by doing. This article describes the development of a didactic dashboard for the teaching of domotics; integrated by sensors, actuators and a computer control interface to facilitate the execution of laboratory practices aimed at solving problems of comfort, safety and energy management at home in an interactive way. In order to verify the usefulness of the domotic dashboard in the teaching-learning process, a survey was applied to a group of teachers and students in Universidad de la Costa in Barranquilla, Colombia, showing that the board can become a useful resource for domotics learning.

   

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Title: Bio-Delignification of oil palm empty fruit bunch of using Trichoderma viride and escherichia coli
Author (s): Daniel Prasetya, Weely Prasetyo Panjiarto and Felycia Edi Soetaredjo
Abstract:

As one of the countries with the largest palm oil production in the world, Indonesia has extensive oil palm plantations. The production of palm oil in Indonesia continues to grow from year to year. Huge palm oil processing will also produce an enormous amount of palm oil waste. If this solid waste is not handled properly, it can lead to a buildup of oil palm waste. One of the wastes of the palm oil industry is the oil palm empty fruit bunch. Delignification becomes one of the solutions in the handling of the oil palm empty fruit bunch. In the research, the influences of the delignification time, solid-liquid ratio, and the concentration of microorganisms on the lignin removal were studied. Lignin and cellulose content of the samples were analyzed using Van Soest method. The experimental results indicated that the lignin content of the biomass before bio-delignification was 32.83%, and after treated with Trichoderma viride the lignin content decreased to 13.76% (achieved at 1:30 solid-liquid ratio and 6 weeks fermentation time), while with Escherichia coli the lignin content drop to 12.48% (1:50 solid-liquid ratio and 6 weeks fermentation time). The combination between Trichoderma viride and Escherichia coli reduced the lignin content to 18.57% within 6 weeks of fermentation time. The FTIR analysis shows that the functional group of phenol and aromatic compounds were detected. This result indicates that the lignin component still presents in the bio-delignified oil palm empty fruit bunch.

   

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Title: Model of neuronal network with training of physical-chemical parameters present in tilapia cultivation
Author (s): Johan Julian Molina Mosquera, Diego F. Sendoya-Losada and Arcelia Gutierrez Méndez
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In this paper, the neural network system is modeled, designed and simulated using the computer tool MATLAB according to data obtained from measurements of physicochemical parameters such as temperature and dissolved oxygen present in tilapia cultivation in the Huila department.

   

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Title: Properties of magnesium composite materials based on technogenic raw materials
Author (s): Olga Aleksandrovna Miryuk
Abstract:

In the research paper have been developed composites based on magnesium binders. Here were formulated the principle of choosing technogenic materials for composite binders. We investigated the processes of hydration and hardening of composite binders based on iron ore beneficiation. It was revealed that the hydration activity of minerals of technogenic raw materials depends on the structure and ability to hydrolyze in a solution of magnesium chloride. The influence of technogenic aggregates on the formation of composites with various structures is studied. Magnesium composites can effectively realize the unique properties of caustic magnesite, rational use of technogenic materials of various origins.

   

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Title: Design of binary phase sequences using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for spread spectrum and radar applications
Author (s): Srinivasa Rao S. and Siddiah P.
Abstract:

For a multiple access communication system and radar system, it is desirable to have a set of sequences such that each sequence has a peaky autocorrelation and each pair of sequence has a negligible cross-correlation as possible. Obtaining such sequences is a combinatorial problem for which many global optimization algorithms like genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm were reported in the literature. In this paper a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) Algorithm is being designed to achieve these sequences. The MPSO Algorithm is a combination of the Hamming Scan Algorithm (HAS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and has the fast convergence rate of Hamming Scan and global minima convergence of Particle Swarm Optimization. Binary phase sequences of lengths varying from 31 to 120 have been synthesized using MPSO and synthesized sequence sets achieved have better values of the above two properties compared with the literature. The synthesized binary phase sequences are promising for practical application to Netted Radar System and spread spectrum communication. The outcome of Doppler shift on synthesized sequences set is also investigated using ambiguity function.

   

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Title: Application of Aspen HYSYS process simulator in green energy revolution: A case study of biodiesel production
Author (s): Abdulwahab Giwa, Saidat Olanipekun Giwa and Ebenezer Ajibola Olugbade
Abstract:

Green economic revolution is a system that brings about improved human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing carbon emissions, enhancing energy efficiency and lessening environmental degradation. One of its sectors is renewable energy production, which is energy development from naturally replenished resources. Renewable energy types include solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity, biomass and biofuels. The most common biofuel is biodiesel, which can be produced from oils/fats using transesterification process or from fatty acids using esterification process. The process of biodiesel production can be simulated with the aid of a process simulator via either the conventional method of a reaction followed by separation or an integrated method known as reactive distillation. To demonstrate the simulation, this work has been carried out to achieve production of biodiesel for green economic revolution using the two methods with the aid of Aspen HYSYS process simulator. The performances of the two methods in biodiesel production were evaluated, and it was discovered that reactive distillation approach was more efficient and effective than the conventional one because more amount, and, of course, better purity, of biodiesel was given by the reactive distillation process compared to the conventional method. Thus, Aspen HYSYS has been successfully applied in analysing biodiesel production by the two methods to know which of the alternatives the best is effectively and efficiently. It is, therefore, recommended that scientists should apply the process simulator to study chemical reactions prior to any laboratory experiment.

   

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Title: Analysis of the Malathion molecule structure and proposal of a compound as its replacement
Author (s): Jorge Eliecer Buitrago Salazar, Olga Lucia Ramos Sandoval and Dario Amaya Hurtado
Abstract:

Pesticides such as Malathion, have been considered harmful to health, reason why the search for new compounds that are friendly to humans and the environment becomes necessary. With knowledge of its properties and molecule structure, it is possible, to propose new compounds which are less toxic than the original without altering its organ phosphorus characteristics. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the Malathion properties at molecular level, for the purpose of presenting a compound as a replacement, in order to reduce its toxicity. The properties of absorption, metabolism and toxicity of each possible molecule were evaluated, from which a less toxic compound that still preserves characteristics as an organ phosphorus insecticide was obtained.

   

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Title: Active islanding detection using average absolute frequency deviation value for grid connected Distributed Generation system
Author (s): M. Indhuja and S. Mohamed Ghouse
Abstract:

One of the important issue related to the interconnection of Distributed Generation (DG) systems to grid is islanding. An active islanding detection technique (IDT), which employs Average Absolute Frequency Deviation Value (AFDV¬avg) for the detection of islanding condition, has been proposed in this work. The q-component of inverter’s current is controlled using a current controller. A continuous and periodic signal is the reference signal for the current controller. At the point of common coupling (PCC), the deviation in the frequency is observed when the disturbances of frequency other than fundamental are injected during islanding. The active islanding detection method (IDM) provides lower NDZ (Non Detection Zone) compared to passive detection, thereby enhancing the detection of small deviation in the frequency at the PCC. By measuring the value of deviation in the frequency (AFDV¬avg), the condition for islanding is detected. The islanding condition is reconfirmed by the proposed technique. The reconfirmation of the islanding condition helps to eliminate the false detection of island due to non-islanding switching events. The effectiveness of the technique employed is analyzed with the help of simulation using MATLAB/ Simulink.

   

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Title: Implementation of automation process in generating CAD model for rim wheel
Author (s): M. B. Ali, Azhar Bin Shafie, S. Dharmalingam, M. A. M. Daud, K. A. Zakaria and M. J. A. Latif
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) program that allow automation process in CAD software to generate three-dimensional models automatically. Automation process has been widely used and received give positive feedback in various industries due to its convenience in drawing process and time saving. It also provides high reliability, more accurate and also allow multiple task in design creation. The process consists of two stages which are the construction process of rim wheel model using Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application (CATIA) software and the model automation coding development process. The rim wheel model was constructed and recorded in CATIA Macros tool. The recorded data was then utilized to develop the coding script for the model automation process using Visual Basic language. The important parameters were identified and edited in the coding script to generate the basic shape of the model and other features. The final model supposed to have an ability to alter into three different rim wheel design with different parameters and dimensions. This program could be used as the future platform to fulfill specific customer requirement of a desired product.

   

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Title: Preparation of magnesium gluconate from citrate solution
Author (s): Sh. El Rafie, M. S. Shalaby and Randa Osman
Abstract:

Magnesium gluconate was prepared as a medication product under ordinary conditions and is soluble in water. Magnesia combine with both citric acid and gluconic acid as magnesium gluconate. The dry product mixed with a suitable amount of bicarbonate and heated under 300°C is the equivalent in strength of magnesia solution and having a therapeutic effect. Analytical technique like, XRD, FTIR, UV - Vis spectroscopy, TGA/ DTA and DSC were used to study properties of magnesium gluconate prepared. The product proved to be crystalline with wave length for maximum UV absorbance 197 nm. The DSC thermogram of the analyte indicated that product is stable up to 275°C. Thus, it concludes that magnesium gluconate with crystal size 0.63-0.68 nm is a useful pharmaceutical and nutraceutical for industries. Besides when mixed with carbonate and heated up to 400°C Periclase is produced as an essential product for different chemical industries.

   

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Title: Adaptive mho distance relay for combined transmission line: An optimization technique for charging current compensation
Author (s): J. Tavalaei, M. H. Habibuddin and A. A. Mohd. Zin
Abstract:

The combined transmission system is expanding due to beatification and safety considerations and enhanced reliability in the distribution and transmission systems. It is expected to improve distance relay operation in presence of combined transmission system. Distance relay with Mho characteristics is simulated to mitigate the charging current effect of combined system with significant part of underground cable. The combined system is modelled mathematically based on the equivalent pi model to increase the accuracy. The distance relay is simulated based on the mathematical equation. The rate of charging current is compensation is extracted for single line to ground, line to line to ground and three-phase faults. The charging current compensation rate is extracted by direct search and the feasible solution is extracted by Utopia point approach. The findings show the fault with high resistance faces distance relay to mal-operation. The compensation of charging current can significantly mitigate the mis-operation rate of Mho distance relay. Due to the zone characteristics is constant, the selected value of charging current compensation required to have minimum overreach and underreach rates. By injecting the optimal charging current compensation rate at the relay point, the operation of Mho relay bounces to more than 99.5% for combined transmission system.

   

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Title: Urine amino-acid tests: An information system for registration and consultation
Author (s): Albeiro Cortes Cabezas and Yamil Cerquera Rojas
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This article presents the implementation of an information system to optimize the process of performing amino-acid tests in the urine at the hospitals in Huila, Colombia, in order to improve the organization of the results and access to them. In the implementation, the HL7 standards set were used as a guide to achieve good interoperability and to make the system scalable. Access to test results can be done through any web browser and any device since a responsive web design was used. The information system allows access to the data of patients and it is possible to export information from the database to obtain different statistics. Spring Framework was used to design the information system, which provides a complete programming and configuration model for modern, Java-based enterprise applications on any type of deployment platform.

   

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Title: Control of yaw angle in a miniature helicopter
Author (s): Diego F. Sendoya-Losada and Jesus D. Quintero-Polanco
Abstract:

In this paper the modeling, identification and control of the yaw movement in a miniature coaxial helicopteris presented. A comparison between a PID design based on the CACSD tool (FRTool) and an auto-tuning algorithm (KCR) is performed, for both set point trajectory and disturbance rejection. An additional analysis based on root-locus techniques is done in order to verify the limits in the specified closed loop performance. Both controllers were successful and the system remained stable throughout the experiments.

   

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Title: Determination of accumulating probability for normal distributions of range and detection efficiency of short range wireless devices
Author (s): V. M. Artyushenko, V. I. Volovach, V. G. Kartashevskiy, V. A. Neganov, O. I. Antipov, A. G. Glushchenko, O. V. Osipov, A. I. Tyazhev and D. P. Tabakov
Abstract:

The article considers determination of efficiency of extended objects detection by short-range radio detection devices and, in particular, one of their versions - security radio devices. It has been shown that ability of the security devices and systems to detect objects is characterized by a field of instantaneous probability density and a field of accumulating probability of detection, which can serve as a measure of efficiency of these systems and devices. Concepts of instantaneous probabilities of object detection are entered; their interrelations are shown. Expressions for normal and truncated normal distribution of the operation range of the detection devices, as well as expressions for determining the accumulating probability of detection are obtained. Expressions for the determination of the accumulating probabilities when operation range distribution of detection devices submits to normal and truncated normal distribution are given. Use of function of instrumental contact establishing for a quantitative estimation of detection devices efficiency is proved. The article presents expressions for typical object detection cases using the function of instrumental contact establishing.

   

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Title: Technological characterization and correlation between mechanical and physical properties of the wood of Thuja (Tectracanalis Articulata) of the khemissat region in Morocco
Author (s): A. Saoud, A. Elamri, Kh. Kimakh, M. Ziani, M. Matar and M. Chergui
Abstract:

The aim of this study is the physico-mechanical characterization of a Moroccan wood: Thuja (Tectracanalis Articulata). The physical tests (density, radial shrinkage, tangential and volume) and mechanical (longitudinal modulus EL, breaking stress in compression and shear strength) were performed on specimens while respecting each corresponding test standards. The physical nature of the wood presents a high dimensional stability, with an average dry density of 0.68 and a basic density of 0.63. The mechanical properties are rather low, with a resistance to axial compression of 35 MPa, a static bending strength of 82, 22 MPa and a static modulus of elasticity of about 7437MPa .In this paper we have demonstrated a good correlation between the wood density and the mechanical characteristics of the wood through an experimental study conducted on 30 specimens per test.

   

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Title: Serial data transmission through the Micro-USB port of the system STM32f407
Author (s): Andres Tovar, Dario Amaya and Olga Ramos
Abstract:

In this paper the results of the design of an algorithm for transmission data in the systemSTM32f407 to computer in C# will be presented. Initially, the hardware structure is showed, later it is evidenced the algorithm performed in IDE Keil and the Configuration Tool STM32CubeMX, in which it is described, libraries and development code. Besides, it is showed the architecture of the receive data algorithm on the PC, through the emulation of USB such as RS232 terminal. The main contribution in this researched is in the solution that is presented to communicate two system using the USB port emulating UART port.

   

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Title: Enhancement of finger vein image using multifiltering algorithm
Author (s): Kayode A. Akintoye, Mohd. Shafry Mohd. Rahim and Abdul Hanan Abdullah
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Finger vein images are prone to various noise due to imperfect capturing device used. As a result of transmission errors, pixel elements in the capturing sensors malfunction, memory location fault and analog-to-digital conversion time errors, noise could also occur. Using single filtering method cannot give a satisfactory result of the vein image. Hence, this paper proposed a multifilter algorithm that’s capable of locating the region of interest of the vein and de-noise the image from corrupted noises while the edges of the image are kept intact. The algorithm does not need to have prior knowledge of the image and the corrupted noise. The fusion of simple mask filter algorithm and mixed filter algorithm of Median and Wiener filters is used. Experimental results coded in MATLAB using SDUMLA-HMT finger vein database show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.

   

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Title: Implementation of modified reduced switch Multilevel inverter using MCPWM and MSPWM techniques
Author (s): V. Sudha and K. Vijayarekha
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The Multilevel inverters are used to obtain the desired AC voltage from several levels of DC voltage and also reduce the filter requirement in the system. It has more advantages when compared to traditional two level inverter. This paper proposes Multi carrier pulse width modulation (MCPWM) and multiple sinusoidal pulse width modulation techniques (MSPWM) based Modified Multilevel Inverter with reduced number of switches. Reduced harmonic distortion is achieved in the output voltage waveform without reduction in the output power using these techniques. The inverter is able to produce seven and nine levels from the dc supply source. The analysis has been made based on the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The pulse width modulation techniques used in this paper are MSPWM and MCPWM with triangular wave as carrier wave. The proposed inverter is simulated in Matlab/Simulink. The hardware prototype implementation is done using Power MOSFET switches and the THD is analysed using Power Quality Analyser.

   

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Title: Bivariate probability model for wind power density analysis: Case study
Author (s): N. Sanusi, A. Zaharim, S. Mat and K. Sopian
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The wind power density was investigated in this study to assess the wind energy potential in Kuala Terenganu, Malaysia. The monthly data were statistically analyzed to predict the best distribution that represents bivariate model of wind speed and wind direction. Subsequently, wind power density was assessed by numerical analysis. The results revealed that the estimate mean wind power densities for monthly data are significant with the monsoon seasons in that area. The northeast monsoon effects the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, including Kuala Terenganu. Gama distribution together with finite mixture of von Mises is best in represent the monthly bivariate model of wind speed and direction in Kuala Terenganu.

   

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Title: Mechanical behavior of dissimilar aluminum materials joints using FSW with various tool profile
Author (s): G. Swaminathan, S. Sathiyamurthy and P. Naveenchandran
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In modern structural concept demand reduction of both weight as well cost of production and fabrication of materials. Aluminum alloys has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength to weight ratio. Friction stir welding is at present widely used for the welding aluminum alloys. In this work defect free joints of AA6063-T6 and AA7075-T651 alloy plates of 6.35mm of thickness were butt jointed using friction stir welding. The quality of the joints are influenced by process parameters such as tool rotational speed, axial force and feed rate. The effect of these parameters on tensile strength, impact strength and microhardness of the joints were discussed. The results showed that the tool rotational speed has significant influence of tensile strength. Welding speed and tool profile dominated the impact strength. Microhardness value were found at the in around of the weld zone.

   

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Title: Measuring gestational age and uterine diameter based on image segmentation
Author (s): Retno Supriyanti, Ahmad Abdul Hafidh, Yogi Ramadhani and Haris B. Widodo
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This paper will discuss the application of image processing techniques in the medical field, especially in the calculation of the age of the fetus and uterine diameter at ultrasonography with low-resolution image. We applied image morphology and edge detection method in the segmentation process. The main objective of this research is to confirm the diagnosis of a gynecologist or health workers who are in the rural areas where health facilities are limited so that the image of the existing ultrasonography has a low quality or just a print out of ultrasonography in other areas. So that further analysis is required on that image. Experimental results show that the system that we have developed has a maximum error 5.3%. Therefore it can be said that this system has a performance that promises to be developed further.

   

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Title: Discretized boundary integral equations of unsaturated expansive soils in two dimensions
Author (s): Jamila El Brahmi and Nouzha Lamdouar
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The boundary integral equations constitute a remarkably elegant formal solution of the elastoplastic problem of unsaturated expansive soils. Numerical techniques (Boundary element method) must be employed to solve them. The main difficulty of this nonlinear analysis is that the boundary integral equations are augmented by a domain integrals involving initial stresses which necessitate domain discretization and the specification of interior cells in the parts of the domain that are likely to yield (unlike the linear case which involve only the boundary discretization). The main purpose of this paper is to write the discretized form of boundary integral equations of expansive soils using the shape functions.

   

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Title: A study on the thickening time of class F Fly Ash geopolymer cement for oil well cementing
Author (s): Dinesh Kanesan, Rajeswary Suppiah and Muhammad Syazwi Bin Zubir
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With the increasing awareness towards global warming, there is a dire need to develop a green cement to replace the conventional Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Geopolymer cement has been identified as a potential replacement for the OPC and its suitability for oil well cementing applications are being studied extensively. The determination of thickening time is crucial for oil well cementing to avoid catastrophic incidents due to premature cement setting. This research investigates the thickening time of class F fly ash based geopolymer cement at different densities (low, medium and high) according to the industrial standards with and without the addition of retarders. Three formulations with different ratios of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3), molarity of NaOH, Fly Ash to Alkali ratio, and water content were used to come up with cement densities of 11ppg, 15ppg and 17ppg. The thickening time was determined using a High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) consistometer at pressure and temperature of 2000 psi and 60 oC respectively. The results shows that the medium density formulation of fly ash geopolymer cement resulted in the longest duration of thickening time compared to the low and high density formulations. In addition, it was found that addition of retarder contributed to less than 10% of the increment in thickening time for all three cement densities.

   

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Title: An effective study on data fusion models in wireless sensor networks
Author (s): E. Brumancia, S. Justin Samuel, M. Gomathi and Y. Mistica Dhas
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Energy consumption is a very big challenge in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) as the battery power of sensor is limited and limited storage capacity. In real time environment, large no of sensors are deployed for data collections and in some cases sensor fails to collect the data due to the external factors such as pressure, temperature and electromagnetic noise. Lot of energy is consumed in vain for computing these incorrect measurements. Data fusion is the best solution to reduce the energy consumption in WSN, when data collection is interrupted by the sensor failure. Using data fusion the redundant data collected from sensor can be reduced, which can reduce the energy consumption of the entire network thereby enhancing the lifetime of the sensor network. In this paper a detailed survey on the various existing data fusion models are done and the comparisons on the various fusion models were discussed.

   

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Title: Trust based intrusion detection system using fuzzy technique and ant based authentication in MANET
Author (s): J. Godwin Ponsam and R. Srinivasan
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The focus of this work is to propose a integrated trust based detection and authentication based on ANT based authenticated Routing in MANET. Our trust management system combines the grey theory and fuzzy sets for calculating the trust value. This trust management framework designed to be robust against many attacks. Based on fuzzy based grey theory trust value is calculated. After trust value is calculated Ant based Authenticated routing is used to transmit a packet from source node to the destination node. Ant colony based routing algorithm (ARA) is used for routing the data packets. This routing algorithm is consists of three phases. Route Discovery, Route Maintenance and Route failure handling. During route discovery phase new routes will be created. FANT will establish the pheromone track to the source node wherelse BANT will establish the pheromone track to the destination node. When source node sends the data it includes FA with a trust value included to it. The movement of FA will be decided based on the decision rule. FA moves by using the rule and will verify the trust value of the visited node is greater than trust threshold value. When FA reaches the destination BA will be generated and the information collected by FA will be given to BA. The BA takes the same path which FA used to reach the destination. Based on simulation results we show the proposed. Trust based Intrusion detection system using fuzzy technique and ANT based Authentication in MANET enhances the secure data communication.

   

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Title: Hybrid algorithm application for prediction of non-renewable energy price
Author (s): Wahab Musa and Wrastawa Ridwan
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In the last decade, energy consumption in Indonesia has seen an average increase of 7-8% per year as population and economic growth continue to improve. This condition requires the availability of good energy to support economic activities and social dynamics of the community. Nevertheless, there are various challenges and obstacles to meet the energy needs such as petroleum production, which tends to decline, while the acceleration of new renewable energy development is expected to become the new backbone of national energy is still not maximized. Under these conditions, all efforts to realize energy security must be a priority agenda for Indonesia. The importance of realizing energy security is due to the dynamics of the global energy sector in the coming years not only influenced by supply, demand and price, but also other factors such as geopolitical issues and stability of areas where world energy sources are located. In this research, we will develop a hybrid algorithm application to predict the non renewable energy price in Indonesia. Hybrid algorithm in this study is a combination of genetic algorithm with Nelder Mead and named rvGA-eNM. The development model of computational intelligence conducted in this research is utilizing the advantages of the Nelder Mead algorithm in exploiting the optimal solution through local search and Genetic algorithm capability in conducting optimal solution exploration in the global search area. Data on non-renewable energy prices will be used to measure the performance of proposed hybrid models in the form of historical data of non-renewable energy prices several months earlier. The average prediction error will be the reference in choosing the right model for the non-renewable energy price prediction the next few months. The purpose of this research is to improve the accuracy of non-renewable energy prediction pricing model based on computational intelligence. Non-renewable energy prices are predicted using hybrid algorithm optimization. Predicted non-renewable energy prices during 2005-2014 is shown in figure visualizes the comparison between the actual value and the non-renewable energy price prediction. The values shown show that in most test points, the prediction value approximates the actual (adjacent) values. This explains that the accuracy of the rvGA-eNM model used in the prediction of non-renewable energy prices has high robustness properties.

   

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Title: Design and optimisation of dual band bell shaped filter (DBBSF) using 45° miltered bend and butterfly radial stub (BRS)
Author (s): Ahmad A. and Othman A. R.
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A new type of dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) using microstrip line is presented in this paper. The proposed design consists of coupled-lined filter, butterfly radial stub and 45° miltered bending with new structure called Dual Band Bell Shaped Filter (DBBSF). The proposed DBBSF consists of two fundamental resonant modes with the bandwidth resonant characteristic has been investigated using ADS software. The bandwidths are achieved through optimising the butterfly radial stub for high frequency passband. In addition, 45° miltered bend improved its insertion loss and return loss level in good agreement. To validate the design and analysis, the DBBSF were fabricated and measured. The DBBSF leads to reduction of overall circuit size which is 2.5mm x 2.5mm. A dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 5.75 GHz is designed and implement for wireless applications.

   

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Title: System of lifting and rotation of railway cars
Author (s): Pavel Petrov, Yuliya Gerasimova, Viktor Ivel and Sayat Moldakhmetov
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This article represents the results of development of the railway car lifting-rotation system that is adaptive to the variables of inertia moment and resistance moment. The given system is based on multimotor electric drive with asynchronous motors. Equal load distribution is fulfilled through motor speed control using frequency converters according to the developed control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented in MATLAB by means of vector control. The article shows the simulation predictions and experimental setup of the system of lifting-rotation of railway cars.

   

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Title: Integrated image processing analysis and Naďve Bayes Classifier method for lungs X-ray image classification
Author (s): M. Arief Bustomi, Anifatul Faricha, Alfiana Ramdhan and Faridawati
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To diagnose the lungs condition, commonly, the radiologists analyze the lungs image purely based on the X-ray image result with the naked eye. Hence, this method leads the subjectivity issue. In this study, the combination of image processing analysis and Naďve Bayes Classifier (NBC) are expected to overcome the issue. In the image processing analysis, we used the median filter and adaptive histogram equalization to enhance the lungs X-ray image quality. The five image features i.e., the feature mean, the feature SD, the feature kurtosis, the feature skewness, and the feature entropy were determined to obtain the characteristic of each lungs condition i.e., the normal lungs, the pleural effusion, and the lung cancer. In the NBC method, the five image features were used as the predictors to determine the lungs class i.e., the normal lungs class, the pleural effusion class, and the lung cancer class. The classification using NBC method consisted of two processes i.e., the training process and the validation process. The training process included the total numbers of 90 lungs X-ray images, whereas the validation process used the total numbers of 60 lungs X-ray images. According to the numerical calculation in the validation process, the performance of NBC method has 70% accuracy.

   

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Title: The application of geo-information technologies to the efficiency improvement of the managing system for gas supply facilities and processing the results of gas pipelines network monitoring
Author (s): Inna Pivovarova and Maria Tregubova
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The article considers the possibilities of using geo-information technologies for managing gas supply facilities. Specific GIS solutions are proposed for the creation of a unified system that integrates executive, technical and management documentation with a digital model of the gas pipeline network. It is concluded that the spatial approach to information based on electronic maps and corresponding geo-databases allows not only to take into account the geometric and technical features of each section of the pipeline, but also simplifies the solution of the management and monitoring tasks, increasing the level of safe operation of pipelines for various purposes.

   

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Title: Dynamic voltage restorer and hybrid active power filter for power quality improvement
Author (s): M. Sharanya, Basavaraja Banakara and M. Sasikala
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Power quality means maintaining the voltage, current and power within the rating as per the IEC standards and supplying it back to the consumers without any delay and interruption. But this has become a difficult task for the power industry. To improve power quality many Custom Power Device’s (CPD) are used. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a CPD which is used to improve the voltage quality. Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF) is used to reduce current harmonics. In this paper DVR and HAPF are simulated for various conditions. A controller is proposed which gives voltage signals to trigger the switches of an inverter using a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. As a result, there is drastic improvement in voltage profile and also reduction in harmonics.

   

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Title: Experimental study of battery state of charge effect on battery charging / discharging performance and battery output power in PV Energy System
Author (s): K. A. Abed, A. Bahgat, M. A. Badr, M. El-Bayoumi and A. A. Ragheb
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The effect of battery characteristics on the performance of PV Energy System is experimentally investigated. The employed system consists of a number of lead acid storage batteries, a set of photovoltaic (PV) panels, a charge controller, DC/AC inverter and an electrical load. The system also employs a monitoring unit (MU) that consists of voltage and current sensors and data acquisition cards. The MU was specially developed to monitor energy system performance parameters; such as PV voltage and current, battery voltage, battery charging and discharging currents and inverter current. The monitoring unit is controlled through a specially developed, LABVIEW® based, computer program. In the study, the effect of battery SOC on charging and charging efficiency was investigated. Also, the effect of battery’s loading conditions on its useful charge was investigated. Finally, the effect of battery SOC and supported load on battery performance was investigated. Results of the study showed battery’s SOC had a minimal effect on charging efficiency. It also showed that higher discharge current (load requirements) leads to significant decrease in energy system performance caused by decrease of battery discharge efficiency by up to 50%. On the other hand, low batteries SOC proved to have insignificant effect on meeting load demand. The results emphasize the importance of proper selection of batteries size as well as characteristics including cost, to match load requirements, as those would highly affect renewable energy system’s performance and feasibility.

   

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Title: Preparation and characterization of Ramie Cellulose Nanofibers/CaCO3 Unsaturated Polyester Resin composites
Author (s): S. Wahono, A. Irwan, E. Syafri and M. Asrofi
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In this study, Ramie Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) and CaCO3 were used as a reinforcement of composite with Unsaturated Polyester Resin (UPR) matrix. Ramie CNF was prepared by HEM (high energy milling) and dried in drying oven at 50°C for 24 h. It mixed with UPR matrix by hand layup casting method. Methylethylketone peroxide (MEKPO) and CaCO3 were added in the mixture solution with the amount of 1wt% and 2wt% respectively by stirring manually. The tensile test was carried out to know the mechanical properties of biocomposite. The fracture surface was observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were also performed to know the functional group and thermal stability, respectively. The result shows that the addition of CNF and CaCO3 able to increase thermal stability and mechanical properties of biocomposite.

   

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Title: Analog chain calibration in Digital Beam-Forming applications
Author (s): Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Luca Di Nunzio, Rocco Fazzolari, Marco Re, Graziano Rufolo and Gianluca Bernocchi
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This paper deals with the issues present in a Digital Beam Forming Network (DBFN) system related to the non-idealities introduced by the hardware implementation. In particular, the paper considers the mismatches of the different electronic chains (corresponding to the different beams) used for the signal conditioning and acquisition. In this work a new algorithm for the chain calibration is proposed and analyzed. This algorithm has been developed for obtaining three fundamental advantages with respect to other methods proposed in the literature. The algorithm doesn't take any assumptions regarding the primary signal structure; it can be applied during the normal working of the system and doesn't require any initial calibrations. The algorithm is based on the injection of a low level pseudo-noise signal that is recovered and used for the training of an adaptive filter.

   

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Title: Analysis and experimental of vibration on green dryer machines to dry RDF and agricultural products
Author (s): La Ode Mohammad Firman, Dwi Rahmalina, Budhi M. Suyitno, Eka Maulana and Sorimuda Harahap
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The applications of vibration system on dryer machine can be used to dry Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and agricultural products. Even if the use of dryer machines has been widely used to dry RDF and agricultural products with avoiding the heat loss needs to be verified. The observations shown that the using of vibration system for moving RDF and agricultural products were on the shelf could not be moved optimally. The previous study found that the spring load on dryer machine was too large and most of the surface of RDF and agricultural products were on the shelf could not get hot air flow. That’s why the spring used as pedestal of shelves would be broken fast and on a specific moment RDF and agricultural products must be taken out of the drying chamber to be manually moved. To solve the problems and to develop the results of previous study, then it needs to do the study about analysis and experimental of vibration. In this study, vibration was analyzed to having an insight on suitable condition of the dryer machine for use in drying RDF and agricultural products. Beside that the study only uses an unbalance mass and it does not use a piston engine, so spring load would be smaller. The objectives of the study are: To perform analysis and experimental of vibration in order that the RDF and agricultural products are on the each shelf can be moved optimally. The study use observation, literature study, analysis and experimental methods and cashew nuts as the material tested on the each shelf. The study results show that the condition of vibration approached resonance cause cashew nuts placed on the each shelf could be moved optimally, therefore the surface of RDF and agricultural products were on the shelf could get hot air flow.

   

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Title: Protection of reinforcement of armored cement structures against corrosion
Author (s): Bayan Elemesovna Khamzina, Ainur Amangalievna Taudaeva, Lunara Tuleugalievna Koibagarova, Saltanat Mahambetovna Ismagulova and Mirgul Nurlanovna Dauletkalieva
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This article discusses composition and protective properties of powdered anticorrosion coating for protection of woven reinforcement of armored cement structures against corrosion. It is demonstrated that the developed anticorrosion coatings on the basis of powdered polyphenylene sulfide, grade PFS-L, epoxy paint, grade EK-201, powdered corrosion inhibitor, grade VNKh-L-20, filled with cement, reliably protect reinforcement against corrosion in 3% NaCl solution even at crack opening of 0.1-0.3 µm, which evidences reliable passivation of reinforcement, hence, high lifetime of armored cement structures with reinforcement protected by the recommended anticorrosion coating. Increased lifetime of these structures is achieved by protection of reinforcement prestressed by electric thermal method and application of powdered anticorrosion coating on its surface. The composition of anticorrosion coating, modes of application of the powdered coating onto reinforcement on electrostatic fields are developed.

   

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