ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                            January 2021  |  Vol. 16  No. 2
   
Title: Optimization of low speed wind turbine blade profile on the basis of lift coefficient
Author (s): Mohammad Mashud, Shabnoor M. Joty and Zahir U. Ahmed
Abstract:

Design and optimization of airfoil is the essential part of aerodynamic analysis. Airfoil optimization is also very important for manufacturing wind turbine blades and to leverage the power output. Although plenty of research has already been conducted on high speed airfoil optimization, the research in very low speed airfoil optimization is limited. Moreover, wind energy sources are one of most popular energy sources now and low-speed airfoil designing is becoming a fascination for the researcher in this field. In this paper, an airfoil optimization analysis has been performed using genetic algorithm (GA) and PARSEC parameterization technique with vortex panel method. Four airfoils, namely NACA-2412, NACA-4412, NACA-4418, and NACA-4421 have been considered as these are very popular in practice. The result shows that, the optimized airfoils generated from the original airfoils have better lift performance with reduced area which will help in reducing raw material in manufacturing process. Thus, these optimized airfoils will be suitable for manufacturing lift-driven low-speed wind turbine blades and for other related low speed applications also.

   

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Title: Application of Krill Herd algorithm to standard fractal image compression
Author (s): Kanimozhi Rajasekaran, P. D. Sathya and V. P. Sakthivel
Abstract:

Recently, image compression techniques have become mandatory with the instant growth of multimedia applications. Coherent diffusion and conservation of digital data gives the major goal for image compression technique. Pictures in digital format are always larger in size and its data transfer rate is usually very low which results in need of more storage space and transmission time. Without data compression and image compression, it will be impossible to store all those data and image files. Amidst different types of image compression approaches standard fractal image compression is a propitious method for rigid storing of images. It attempts to produce the result adequate to the original image quality. Standard fractal image compression operates very well and it gives a greater performance in producing an approximation that is nearer to the original image at higher compression ratios. However, it is a lossy method since it takes much time for encoding. To overcome the time taken for encoding and for better image compression, nowadays several new Meta heuristic optimization algorithms has been used. This work focuses on the implementation of the Krill Herd algorithm in standard fractal image compression. Krill Herd algorithm follows the concept of Simulation of herd attitude of krill throngs to search natural food. It is collated with Particle Swarm Optimization and Flower Pollination algorithms which are applied to standard fractal image compression. Krill Herd algorithm proves to be better compared to other algorithms thus by decreasing time taken for encoding and produces output image with less distortion. Outcomes are analysed based on good compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio value.

   

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Title: Pulsed neutrons applied to covariance matrices of stochastic point kinetics equations
Author (s): Daniel Suescún-Díaz, Nathaly Roa-Motta and D. Peña Lara
Abstract:

This study presents the implementation of the theory of pulsed neutrons using different covariance matrices of stochastic point kinetics equations reported in literature, proposing the second order stage 2, stochastic Runge-Kutta method (RK2-2st) to numerically calculate mean values, such as the variance of neutron density and delayed neutron precursors. A number of numerical experiments were carried out with different values of reactivity. According to the results of the different numerical experiments, it was found that the pulsed neutron theory reduces the mean value fluctuations of neutron population density and delayed neutron precursors.

   

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Title: Numerical approximation of indirect optimal control of Jebba hydroelectric power plant
Author (s): Olalekan Ogunbiyi, Muheeb O. Ahmed, Lambe M. Adesina and Benjamin J. Olufeagba
Abstract:

There has been unending research on the utilization of hydropower resources in Nigeria with several models proposed for an optimal generation. Of great importance among these models are those that are useful in the system management and controller design. This paper presents an optimal control problem that is formulated around a system model for the regulation of reservoir operating head at Jebba hydroelectric power plant. It also presents a means of solving a two-point boundary value problem resulting from an optimality equation. A conjugate gradient algorithm was adopted as an iterative numerical technique for the approximation of the optimal inflow required to ensure that the operating head follows a predefined trajectory. The result shows the feasibility of the control algorithm, its independence on the initial guess for the control and a relative error of 0.2% between the set point and the computed terminal operating head. The solution provides a means of optimal power generation on the cascaded Kainji-Jebba hydropower station and recommended in the realization of the physical controller.

   

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Title: Reverse engineering (RE) for designing insole shoe orthotics leading an accurate dimensional size for patients with a deformed foot
Author (s): P. W. Anggoro, A. Wicaksono, J. Jamari and A. P. Bayuseno
Abstract:

Computer-aided design (CAD) was implemented in the study to make a precise dimensional insole design according to the foot shape of patients with foot deformity. The insole design was performed by scanning the feet using a 3D handy scanner to provide the physical foot model in the form of a solid 3Dmesh model, that was converted in the CBS-modelling. Evidently, the obtained insole design fits the contours of the patient's feet. This research proved that the reverse engineering RE technology provided data of an accurate insole design, which could be manufactured on a CNC machine.

   

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Title: Microscope image segmentation of photolithographic masks
Author (s): Udomchok Phromsuwan, Chitnarong Sirisathitkul and Yaowarat Sirisathitkul
Abstract:

Digital image processing is increasingly influential in the inspection of industrial products. For microelectronic industry, the pattern examination required for photolithographic masks can be facilitated by the image segmentation. This work demonstrates that arrays of rectangular chromium films on photolithographic masks are effectively detected by the gradient-based edge detection. The RGB micrographs are successively converted to grayscale and binary images. The closing morphology algorithm is then applied to reduce noise in the images before the application of the Canny edge detector. After subsequent steps of fill area and remove small objects, the area of each rectangle can then be computed. This image processing procedure gives rise to less than 0.8% difference from the one-by-one inspection and the ratios of rectangular areas confirmed the high accuracy. The standard deviations in number of pixels averaged from 10-17 rectangles in three images are 0.81-1.89% indicating the precision of photolithography and image processing. The brightness used in this optical microscopy has no apparent effect but the precision and accuracy are significantly reduced in the image with low magnification and different illumination.

   

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Title: Input variable selection for hourly ozone (O3) concentration prediction in urban area
Author (s): Nur Nazmi Liyana Mohd. Napi, Samsuri Abdullah, Amalina Abu Mansor, Ali Najah Ahmed, Wan Nurdiyana Wan Mansor and Marzuki Ismail
Abstract:

The higher emission of the air pollutants from motor vehicles in urban areas increases the formation of ozone in the atmosphere and give a negative impacts on human health, especially. The multicollinearity becomes a problem as many parameters were considered in the development of air pollutant prediction models. The aimed of the study is to develop the best O3, t+1 prediction model in Terengganu’s urban areas to help local authorities by providing early information about the air quality level. The air pollutants and meteorological data from the year 2010 to 2013 were obtained from the Department of Environment, Malaysia. There are three different models were developed based on three different input selection method. MLR3 had highest correlation coefficient R2, 0.411 compared with MLR1 (0.382) and MLR2 (0.399). Hence, it was selected as the best-fitted model to predict the O3 concentration in Terengganu’s urban areas.

   

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Title: A guideline for seismic sequence stratigraphy interpretation
Author (s): Abd Al-Salam Al-Masgari, Mohamed Elsaadany, Abdul Hadi Bin Abd Rahman, Maman Hermana, Abdul Halim Abdul Latiff, Ismailalwali Babikir, Teslim Oyediran Adeleke, Qazi Sohail Imran and Nicholas Appiah
Abstract:

Geologists use the concept of seismic and sequence stratigraphy during hydrocarbon exploration and production stages at different scales. While seismic stratigraphy is applied at the exploration scale, sequence stratigraphy, on the other hand, following the concept of chronostratigraphy, is applied at the production scale using the vail concepts in relation to cores, wireline logs, and outcrops. In other words, seismic stratigraphy involves the interpretation of seismic reflection data by extracting geologic and stratigraphic information. Seismic sequence stratigraphy, therefore, can be further subdivided and in order to analyze a seismic sequence and depositional time units that are separated on the basis of identifying unconformities or seismic pattern changes. In contrast, seismic facies involve the delineation of depositional environments from the characteristics of seismic reflection data. This is achieved by examining reflection events or series of events through their lateral variations to identify changes in stratigraphy and the nature of such changes. The fundamental tool used for this analysis is modeling, which begins with well tie and seismic logs studies. Moreover, understanding the deep-water reservoir architecture is essential in improving reservoir production performance. Sequence stratigraphy underlines relationships between facies and stratal structure in a chronological context. Due to its widespread use, the stratigraphy sequence must still be even involved in the stratigraphic code or guide. The lack of consistency illustrates different methods (or models) and the presence of ambiguous or even contradictory concepts. Standardizing sequence stratigraphy necessitates defining the basic model-independent definitions, groups, bounding surfaces, and layout that illustrate the technique's framework. A standardized methodology must be expansive enough to cover all possible solution options, instead of just a standard frame or model. The stratigraphic sequence comprises genetic units resulted from multifaceted exchanges of accommodation and sedimentation such as (highstand ordinary regressive, low standing, transgressive, and forced regressive), all these intervals must be bounded by sequence stratigraphic surfaces either unconformity, maximum flooding surfaces, or correlative conformity surfaces. Every Single genetic unit can be characterized by certain patterns of stratal stacking and surface boundaries and contains a correlatable depositional systems tract. The system tracts and stratigraphic sequence surfaces mappability rely on the setting of the deposition and data set used for the interpretation. This article presents a quick guidelines for the seismic sequence stratigraphy, these steps been discussed in details in the body text and involved; Generating the synthetic seismogram, reflection termination identification, locating the sequence boundaries, subdividing the seismic section into seismic sequences, seismic facies, and seismic sequence shape or geometries.

   

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Title: Production of gradient-layered composite materials by the method of induction surface
Author (s): Masanskii O. A., Tokmin A. M., Kazakov V. S., Gilmanshina T. R., Lytkina S. I., Khudonogov S. A., Kaposko I. A. and Stankeev V. V.
Abstract:

Modernization and development of modern production is associated with the introduction of new generation equipment and innovative technological solutions. Increasing the wear resistance and durability of products subject to various types of wear during operation: abrasive, shock-abrasive, shock, cavitation, and others, requires the creation of new materials that provide high wear resistance. Obtaining composite materials with a gradient-layered structure makes it possible to form a given set of properties, due to the control of the processes of structure formation, leading to the production of maximum nonequilibrium structures which, under certain conditions, can provide a combination of the required set of properties. The use of induction heating technology allows the use of materials of a given composition to form the required set of properties, taking into account the nature of wear. The main difference between such heating and heating by external heat sources is that heating occurs directly in the metal due to the electromagnetic field created by the inductor. The aim of this work is to obtain composite materials with a gradient-layered structure by induction surfacing with a given set of physical and mechanical properties. In the course of the work, a composite material with the required structure and properties was obtained using metal powders of a given composition. The complex of studies carried out showed that the use of a surfacing charge consisting of 85% PGS-27 metal powder and 15% PR-Ni73Cr16Si3B3, the chemical composition of which is given in Table-1, makes it possible to increase the wear resistance of the material under the influence of shock and shock-abrasive loads by 10 15%, due to the combination of high hardness (55-57 HRC) with sufficient toughness, which is provided by the formation of a high-alloyed nickel austenitic matrix of the deposited layer.

   

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Title: Used successive interference cancellation (SIC) at users clustering for non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with beamspace MIMO-NOMA
Author (s): Haitham Al Fatli and Norshidah Katiran
Abstract:

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) using transfer energy difference and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the receiver’s side and it has been perceived as a competitor wireless communication technology system in the future dues to its significance of high data rate. In this paper, we proposed a novel mmWave communication method that combines the concept of non-orthogonal multiple accesses (NOMA) with beamspace MIMO along with efficient user clustering approach which is called beamspace MIMO-Clustering_NOMA, i.e. MIMO-CNOMA. The proposed beamspace MIMO-CNOMA combines the advantages of NOMA and beamspace MIMO at the first place, and then combine the lightweight user clustering technique by using a k-Mean algorithm to enhance the throughput of beamspace (BS)-MIMO-NOMA scheme by using SIC technique. The efficient clustering of users will help to improve power efficiency as well as compared existing solutions. Additionally, using CNOMA in beamspace MIMO systems, the number of supported users can be larger than the number of RF chains at the same time-frequency resources. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the advanced system in terms of energy efficiency measures connected to underlying methods.

   

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Title: Biodegradation of crude oil by fungi and microbial consortia isolated from oil polluted soil environment
Author (s): Shimaa R. Hamed, Samah A. Mohamed, Samah A. Sanad and Doaa M. A. Elkhouly
Abstract:

In the present study, soil samples were collected from different localities from one of the oil companies in Delta Egypt which was contaminated with crude oil and examined to isolates different microorganism related with contaminated soil and examines the ability of isolated microorganisms for biodegradation of crude oil. Only four isolates have the ability to grow in the absence of organic carbon source and presence of oil as a sole source of carbon from the samples. Three indicators used to measure the biodegradation ability of tested microorganism, color change of culture media from blue to colorless is the first indicator, crude oil disappearance from the medium is the second indicator and the third one is developing a mass of microbial growth in the culture medium bottom. These survival isolates were Aspergillus niger No. SRH31, Aspergillus flavus No. SRH32, penicillium implicatum No. SRH33 and Candida glabrata No. SRH34. Aspergillus niger. The best percent of biodegradation by microbial consortia was 98% after 7 days, while Candida glabrata was about 90%, Aspergillus niger 85%, whereas penicillium implicatum80%, and finally the lowest percent of biodegradation was to Aspergillus flavus.

   

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Title: Maneuvering target tracking with constant acceleration motion model using hybrid Mamdani Fuzzy-Kalman Filter algorithm
Author (s): Ifan Wiranto and Wrastawa Ridwan

Abstract:

In this paper the Kalman Filter and the Fuzzy Inference System hybrid algorithm has developed to get more accurate estimation result for maneuvering target tracking. Fuzzy Logic has used to adjust the process covariance error and measurement covariance error of the Kalman Filter process in the system model. The state space model used for estimation is a constant acceleration motion model, and the measurement model is a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinat model. The measurement result of the sensor containing noise estimated using the Kalman Filter (KF) algorithm. Then, the covariance error resulting from the KF process is used as input to the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) for correction based on the mismatch between innovation vector and innovation covariance. The result of this correction used to obtain the optimal Kalman gain. The proposed system model leads to improved accuracy in the simulation case.

   

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Title: Optimized energy using Centralized Clustering Protocol in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks
Author (s): C. Ambika Bhuvaneswari and G. Vairavel

Abstract:

The imminent wireless sensing technologies are untied up for the smart and automation development era. An advantageous user system should be capable of undertaking effective monitoring topology and effective utilization of the energy in heterogeneous network such as data transmitting/receiving, data aggregation and, data forwarding from the monitoring area. In classical protocol corresponding to Hierarchical clustering has an irregular distribution of clustering due to the random selection of cluster head. To diminish this problem, the proposed an Optimized Energy using Centralized Clustering Protocol (OE-CCP) for static topology by considering energy and distance towards the sink node. At first number of clusters are determined and secondly node’s distance to the sink, from that the mode of communication has been determined either direct or cluster-based data processing. To balance the energy in the network, Swarm Intelligence Optimization has been adopted for the optimal cluster head selection. The proposed protocol has better performance in longer network life, increased stability period, scalability, and minimum energy consumption in the monitoring area of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.

   

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Title: Variational Ritz-Kantorovich-Euler Lagrange method for the elastic buckling analysis of fully clamped Kirchhoff thin plate
Author (s): Charles Chinwuba Ike

Abstract:

The variational Ritz-Kantorovich-Euler Lagrange method is used in this article for solving the elastic buckling problems of rectangular thin plates (2a x 2b) with fully clamped edges. Two cases were considered: biaxial uniform compression and uniaxial uniform compression of the plate. The plate material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Kantorovich approach is used in constructing the unknown deflection as the product of an unknown deflection f(x) in the x direction, and a basis function in the y direction derived from symmetry and clamped boundary conditions at The variational problem over the domain then simplified to a variational problem over the one dimensional domain Euler-Lagrange differential equation was used for extremization and the resulting fourth order Euler-Lagrange equation was solved to obtain the general expression for f(x). Symmetry and implementation of the clamped conditions at were used to obtain the Eigen equation in each considered case as a transcendental equation. The Eigen equations were solved to obtain the Eigen values from which the critical buckling loads were determined. The Eigen functions were found by solving the Eigen value eigenvector problem. The results obtained were exact results as the variational problem was minimized in the entire domain and the clamped boundary conditions were identically satisfied. The results agree with previous reported results in the literature, validating the method employed.

   

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Title: Substantiating the parameters of the process of adding liquid preservatives to plant materials
Author (s): V. A. Yunin, A. M. Zakharov, N. N. Kuznetsov, A. V. Zykov and Yu. N. Malinovskaya

Abstract:

The leading direction in the technology of harvesting hay of high humidity in rolls is the conservation of its chemicals in the pressing process. The distribution of chemical preservatives in plant materials is based on diffusion, i.e. the transfer of matter from one area to another within one phase without mixing. It has been found that the ratio between the vaporous and liquid phases of chemical preservatives can be characterized by the following data: formic acid - 0.16%; AIV2000 Plus - 0.28%; propionic acid - 0.25%. The kinematic diffusion coefficient characterizing the process of distributing preservatives in the stalked plant mass is a constant value that determines the complex (effective) distribution of the vaporous and liquid phases of the preservative.

   

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Title: QoS-Aware Web-Services ranking: Normalization techniques comparative analysis for LSP method
Author (s): Olga Polska, Ravil Kudermetov, Jamil Abedalrahim Jamil Alsayaydeh and Vadym Shkarupylo

Abstract:

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) and Internet services technologies offer advanced solutions for creating distributed business processes and applications. At the same time, services must be available to a growing number of users and satisfy their requirements for both functional and non-functional properties of services. The problem of services selection based on the quality of services is formulated as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. MCDM methods typically require preliminary normalization of the criteria, which in turn can significantly affect the results of multi-criteria problem resolving. In this paper, the effects of commonly known normalization techniques (MAX-MIN, VECTOR, MAX, SUM and LOG) on the ranking Web services using a method of Logic Scoring of Preference (LSP) are investigated. As an outcome of study conducted, the approach to the usage of the Vector, Sum and Max techniques to normalize the criteria when applying the LSP method has been proposed.

   

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Title: Position of the sustainable development in the system of soda production automation
Author (s): Anatolii I. Zhuchenko, Liudmyla D. Yaroshchuk, Anna M. Chechet, Tymofii V. Makarov and Bogdan Y. Korniyenko

Abstract:

The work of the United Nations and other international organizations towards the establishment and implementation of the Statement on Sustainable Development has been considered. The indicators for assessing the state of the environment characterizing sustainable development in the areas of economics, ecology and sociology are presented. The necessity to consider these indicators in the development and operation of automation systems by technological processes is substantiated. The example of absorption processes and calcination of soda production technology shows how to take into account the requirements of each of the areas of sustainable development in the tasks of optimal control. The method of interaction of international organizations' documents, technological documentation and results of technological processes provides for the creation of appropriate databases and special expert groups working with them, is described. We examined Saati's method for considering the importance of each document. The algorithm scheme has been developed for solving multicriterial problem of optimal control of technological processes with consideration of documents related to sustainable development. The conclusions about expediency and possibility of taking into account international documents while designing and operation of automation systems are presented.

   

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Title: A TRIZ-Aided approach in exploring wallet neuropathy and pickpocketing issues
Author (s): Jenn Chyuan Lim, Poh Kiat Ng and Umar Nirmal

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the issues of wallet neuropathy and pickpocketing and examine the underlying causes and potential solutions. The outcome of this study intends to potentially reduce the prevalence of wallet neuropathy cases and pickpocketing. A problem-solving tool known as TRIZ was used to identify root causes to the problem and establish engineering contradictions. Solution models were then extracted from the TRIZ contradiction matrix with reference to these engineering contradictions. The contradictions were resolved using proposed recommendations from some of the 40 inventive principles of TRIZ. The inventive principles generated from TRIZ include flexible shells and thin films, mechanical vibration, nested doll and asymmetry principles. These individual principles guided the researchers in suggesting design ideas that use vibrational feedback, cushioning, modular wallet designs and asymmetrical wallet designs to reduce the occurrence of wallet neuropathy and pickpocketing. It may still be uncertain whether or not these ideas can integrate well with one another. However, as initial recommendations, these ideas have the potential to solve some of the root causes for wallet neuropathy and pickpocketing.

   

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Title: Simulation and analysis of smart home architecture
Author (s): P. Saleem Akram, Ramesha M. and T. V. Ramana

Abstract:

The use of advanced technology in our everyday lives has grown day by day. This improving technology has made human life less complicated in completing our daily necessities. IoT is one of those advanced technologies, which is the result of human curiosity and an objective to make lifestyle convenient and more connected, reducing the labor and by abolishing the probabilities of human errors. Smart Home makes use of this IoT to Control Multiple Smart Home operations automatically. The IoT devices are attached to the internet to monitor and control all the home appliances like opening and closing the door, heating, lighting, alarming, and cooling. In our research, we designed smart home network architecture by using a CISCO Packet Tracer simulator. It is the new version of the software in which various IoE devices that were utilized for intelligent home automation are incorporated. After setting up the architecture, we configured all home appliances to the home gateway through which we will control the devices with the help of IoT. We also showed the simulation (motion) pictures and their working conditions and managing from Home gateway. The same simulation architecture can be implemented in real-time with CISCO networking devices. In this we are going to experiment and analyse the results by using Cisco Packet Trace simulation tool.

   

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