ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                       February 2017  |  Vol. 12  No. 3
   
Title: A rough set based solar powered flood water purification system with a Fuzzy Logic model
Author (s): Aaron Don M. Africa
Abstract:

Water Purification is essential and a human need especially in time of calamities. During calamities many people will require mass amounts of clean water. The problem is during calamities electricity is usually unavailable so a city s water purification system will not work. A portable water purification is needed so clean water can be provided to the victims of the calamity. This research is about a rough set based solar powered water purification system that is integrated with a Fuzzy Logic model. This system is designed to be used in calamities like typhoons because it can convert flood water into clean drinking water an area affected in the calamity. This system is powered by solar panels so even if electricity from traditional power plants is unavailable it will still work. The system is composed of microcontroller unit, solar power system, 7 stage filtering system, and a temperature control unit. This system uses Rough Set Theory and Fuzzy Logic to determine the acceptable Total suspended solids (TSS) of the drinking water.

   

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Title: Instability of a shock wave over a backward facing ramp
Author (s): Alexander Kuzmin and Konstantin Babarykin
Abstract:

The turbulent transonic flow over a wall with an expansion corner and ramp is studied numerically at free-stream Mach numbers from 1.11 to 1.28. A shock wave forms in front of a horizontal plate or bar located above the ramp. Solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are obtained on fine meshes with a finite-volume solver of second-order accuracy. The solutions demonstrate instability of the shock position at certain free-stream Mach numbers, which depend on the stream wise location of the plate/bar with respect to the ramp. The flow behavior under steady and unsteady perturbations in the free stream is analyzed. Also positions of the shock as functions of the ramp slope are studied.

   

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Title: Effect of complaint walls on magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic pumping of an incompressible viscous fluid with chemical reactions
Author (s): G. C. Sankad and M. Y. Dhange
Abstract:

In the present study, an analytical investigation on the effect of complaint walls and chemical reactions on the magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic pumping of an incompressible viscous fluid is carried out as a model of transport phenomena occurring in the small intestine of human being during digestion process. The mean effective coefficient of dispersion on simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions has been deliberated through long wavelength hypothesis and condition of Taylor s limit. The impacts of penetrating parameters on the mean effective dispersion coefficient have been inspected through the graphs. It is noticed that wall parameters (rigidity, stiffness, damping force), and amplitude ratio favor the dispersion, while magnetic parameter resist the dispersion.

   

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Title: Design of a low-cost and flexible pedestrian volume investigator with Raspberry Pi and machine learning
Author (s): Junghoon Lee and Cheol Min Kim
Abstract:

This paper designs a low-cost pedestrian volume investigator orchestrating Raspberry Pi nodes, wireless network connectivity, and machine learning techniques. Under the control of a coordinator, 3 sensors capture the distance to the closest object in the target space for both learning and estimation. To obtain learning patterns, a human operator initiates a data acquisition transaction and records the number of objects he or she observes. With the set of learning patterns, each of which consists of 3 distance measurements and the number of objects, we build a 3-layer artificial neural network model with 3 inputs, 20 hidden nodes, and 1 output. Next, the investigator periodically collects the sensor readings and estimates the number of objects. The simulation study shows the error size hardly exceeds 1 object until the number of objects is 8, indicating that the proposed scheme, as a new Raspberry Pi application, can economically trace the number of objects with reasonable accuracy and flexibility.

   

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Title: Brain tumor detection using mean shift clustering and GLCM features with Edge Adaptive Total Variation Denoising Technique
Author (s): Ramesh Babu Vallabhaneni and V. Rajesh
Abstract:

The paper presents an automatic brain tumor detection technique in noise corrupted images. The Denoising of the image is implemented using Edge Adaptive Total Variation Denoising Technique (EATVD). The technique is used to preserve the edges in the process of Denoising image. Once the noise is removed from the image, the image is segmented using mean shift clustering. The segmented parts are sent to gray level co-occurrence matrix for feature extraction. The features are used by multi class SVM to detect the tumor in the images. The step followed extracts the tumor with increased precision in noisy images.

   

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Title: New design of an intelligent system (AFS) of automobile with digital PWM technique on FPGA board
Author (s): H. Dahou, R. El Gouri, K. Mateur, M. Alareqi, A. Zemmouri and A. Mezouari, L. Hlou
Abstract:

The automatic light AFS (adaptive Front-Lightning System) is a complement to the functionality of modern vehicles. It helps to improve vehicle safety. The system also helps to minimize energy consumption when compared to the existing systems. A new architecture of the AFS was suggested in this article. This architecture replaces the old mechanical system based on stepping motors by a new lighting system by adapting digital technique PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) using the FPGA SPARTAN 3E FG 500, 320.This system performs intelligently and is very helpful in road traffic management and work according to steering angle of the car and depending on weather, speed and driving position.

   

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Title: A numerical study on the effect of varying the punching length on a branch pipe
Author (s): Wonyoung Jeon and Youngjin Seo
Abstract:

In most industries, a pipe is an essential mechanical component to transport fluids. In order to control the fluid flow, a branched pipe is necessary. The following pipe branching methods are typically used: a method using a specially designed pin, butt-welding after cutting a U-shape, and Tee branching. In this paper, we studied effects of the drilling length on the branch pipes, with a drawing method using a conical jig that complements the conventional Tee branching. We used two standard forming jigs (65A and 80A). Pipe forming simulation was conducted in each of the five different drilling lengths. We found that longer punching lengths decrease the load on the forming jig. Areduction in the residual stress distribution was also observed in the branch section at a height of 1.5 mm. However, the height of the branch section was reduced while reducing the drawing material. Therefore, in the selection of the processing parameters, we simultaneously considered the height of the branch section and the residual stress.

   

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Title: Design and development of artificial intelligence system for weather forecasting using Soft Computing Techniques
Author (s): Polaiah Bojja and Nagendram Sanam
Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to overcome the drawbacks of LIDAR which are non-linearity in climatic physics based on statistical modeling and evaluation. However, modeling is shown to be a successful method to forecast weather parameters by using different types of Soft Computing Techniques such as Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic and Probability Theory which are suitable to these meteorological processes for prediction of an important weather parameter that is temperature. Design and development of different types of Soft Computing Techniques approaches in an agricultural systems based on objective of predicting the temperature (one day ahead forecasting of temperature from selected meteorological data) and tested using eighty years past data (meteorological data) and to evaluate the different types of Soft Computing Techniques which depicts that the performance. The results are carried out using MATLAB software.

   

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Title: Design and simulation of intelligent greenhouse climate controller
Author (s): M. S. Salim
Abstract:

In this research, an extensive insights design steps of Fuzzy Inference System are presented for greenhouse climate control. The temperature and relative humidity for a greenhouse are considered of a highly importance for successful and healthy yield production, also precise controlling schemes results in lowering the crop's diseases and hence provide better quality and enhance the productivity. Consequently, temperature and humidity inside greenhouses are mutual effect parameters; therefore, choosing of a fuzzy inference system to solve the nonlinear control problem of temperature and humidity in a accurate and reliable manner as well as provide less energy consumption for assistance devices is presented. The refining devices are represented by heating, cooling and misting devices. The detailed steps of greenhouse FLC designs are calculated and implemented using MATLAB programming language. The new library of RSS defuzzification method is added successfully and tested with the design and prove acceptable results based on the design constraints; this implementation of RSS method can be used and embedded within MATLAB package as RSS defuzzification method. Based on the design steps, the calculated outputs fully satisfy the system conditions and pave the way to implement this design within the SIMULINK simulator for climate control of greenhouse based Fuzzy inference engine.

   

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Title: Bee inspired agent based routing protocol-primary user (BIABRP-PU)
Author (s): Ramesh Palanisamy and V. Mathivanan
Abstract:

Design and development of routing protocol is one among the plunge research in cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks (CRAHNs). Swarm intelligence is a fairly new-fangled loom to problem solving so as to acquire inspiration from the social behaviors of insects, such as ants and bees. Self-organization, decentralization, adaptivity, robustness, and scalability make swarm intelligence a successful devise archetype for routing in CRAHNs. This third contribution to the doctoral research aims in design and development of bee inspired agent based routing protocol (BIABRP) for CRAHNs. Adaptive scouting, adaptive foraging, optimal path selection and detection of path removals are performed using honey bee inspired strategy. NS2 simulation tool is used to examine the performance of the proposed BIABRP. Appropriate performance metrics are chosen in order to conduct performance evaluation and the results prove that the proposed BIABRP outperforms in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end latency and primary users activity.

   

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Title: Electronic system applied to mass movement coffee in solar drier
Author (s): Edilberto Polanma, Agustmn Soto O. and Fabian C. Escalante
Abstract:

It is an effort aimed at solving a problem presented in a farm in the municipality of Saladoblanco south of Huila department, where coffee is grown mainly work developed. To dry the coffee beans for further processing a solar drying is used, in which the farmer must enter and move the coffee beans to dry evenly, withstanding high temperatures and spending considerable time. It is in the drying room where the need to improve the procedure was carried out manually and use technology to improve the quality of life of the farmer, therefore, consequently an electronic and mechanical system was installed for attaining the movement of grain comes of coffee throughout the solar dryer, activated wirelessly using Bluetooth communication between the aforementioned system and smart phone. Figures of mechanical systems implemented in the solar dryer with sprockets, steering wheels, chains and AC motor of a horsepower, which moves a rake moldboard along the drying room are presented, making the movement of grains coffee. For motor control, a small card to activate and deactivate an ATmega328 microcontroller was designed; to take data from the temperature and humidity sensor and a communicator DHT11 the HC-06 Bluetooth 30 meter range was used.

   

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Title: Combination of FIFO-LRU cache replacement algorithms on proxy server to improve speed of response to object requests from clients
Author (s): Tanwir, Gamantyo Hendrantoro and Achmad Affandi

Abstract:

In this paper, cache is the repository of browsing results located in cache disk. The size of cache repository and the choice of cache replacement algorithm affect the speed of a system. Improper deletion of an object during cache replacement may erase the most frequently used objects and cause misses during request. In this study, we propose a method of throughput improvement by combining FIFO (First in First Out) and LRU (Least Recently Used) cache replacement algorithms. The analysis was conducted to identify the effect of cache size on hit rate percentage, response time, delay time, and throughput when the combined FIFO-LRU algorithm is applied. The finding indicates bandwidth efficiency improvement compared to single algorithms, as showed by 73% throughput improvement on 200 MB cache. The application of the combined algorithm also reduces bandwidth usage and delay time while minimizing miss rate and increasing hit rate.

   

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Title: The network performance over TCP protocol using NS2
Author (s): Ammar Abdulateef Hadi and Raed A. Alsaqour
Abstract:

Transmission Control Protocol TCP is a congestion control transport protocol, utilizing by the applications which asks ensuring delivery. By the most common characteristics for TCP, congestion control, acknowledgment resend packet loos, where are prohibit from network collapse and trying to increase the performance of network. These attempts standing against a multiple situations which mark its presence in the network such as weakness of data flow which is happened in some point of the network such as bottleneck, however, sometimes bottleneck determining the efficiency of the network, which includes throughput, delay, packet delivery ratio PDR, and packet loss ratio PLR. Despite the all attempts, including the bandwidth increasing, packet size manipulation, and increase the queue size, that done on physical links of the network, without any tangible improvement unless a bottleneck treatment. In this paper, we study the performance metrics of TCP protocol including throughput, PDR, and PLR. Network simulation (NS2) version 2.35 is used to study the performance of TCP protocol with FTP network traffic load. The performance of TCP was tested by manipulating the network metrics like link bandwidth, packet size, and queue size. Results of the study showed that the high throughput performance done by increasing the packet size and also by providing high link bandwidth to a certain extent and begin to decline because of insufficient resources in certain connections, such as a bottleneck connection. The PLR is positively affected by increasing the queue size, whereas, the increasing of packet size is adversely affected on PDR.

   

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Title: Investigating level of perceived attributes and social influence for using system development methodology among students
Author (s): Wan Abdul Rahim Wan Mohd. Isa and Mohd. Hafiz Kamaruddin
Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to assess student s perceived attribute and social influence for using system development methodology. There were four different levels being assessed by using an adapted instrument. The levels are (i) compatibility, (ii) complexity, (iii) relative advantage and (iv) social influence. The questionnaires were distributed to 274 undergraduate degree students from a local university in Malaysia. The data was assessed by using Kruskal-Wallis. The results show that there are significant differences in term of (i) compatibility, (ii) relative advantage and (iii) social influence among different program areas. Thus, provide indication for the need of customization and better understanding for different programs from different niche area to improve the perceived attributes and social influence for using system and web systems development methodology.

   

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Title: Noise impact assessment of urban traffic “Roads and Tramways”
Author (s): Anas Bennani, Lahcen Bahi and Saadia Amgaad
Abstract:

To assess the noise impact of the vehicles and tram traffic in Rabat city, “AGDAL district”, we have studied the variation of the overall noise in the main streets during two periods (day and night), subsequently, we have used a free model to simulate the noise on the whole of the district. Finally we compared the real reference state in some measures points with the simulated results by the plug-in, “noise map”.

   

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Title: Long-term and short-term forecasting techniques for regional airport planning
Author (s): Antonio Danesi, Luca Mantecchini and Filippo Paganelli
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to explore forecast passenger demand techniques in long-term and short-term perspectives at regional airports. The analysis has been applied at Bologna Airport, a large regional airport in Italy with a balanced mix of low cost traffic and conventional airline traffic. In the long-term perspective, a time series model is applied to forecast a significant growth of passenger volumes at the airport in the period 2016-2026. In the short-term perspective, time-of-week passenger demand is estimated using two non-parametric techniques: local regression (LOESS) and a simple method of averaging observations. Adopting cross validation method to estimate the accuracy of the estimates, the simple averaging method and the more complex LOESS method are concluded to perform equally well. Peak hour passenger volumes at the airport are observed in historical data and by use of bootstrapping, these are proved to contain little variability and can be concluded to be stable.

   

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Title: Periodic binary signals with zero cross correlation based on Walsh sequences
Author (s): A. V. Titov and G. J. Kazmierczak
Abstract:

This study considers periodic binary signals coded using Walsh orthogonal functions. For periodic signals, it is shown that groups of signals that do not have mutual frequency components exist for each Walsh system with size N = 2n (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .). These groups of periodic signals have zero cross correlation (CC) or zero multiple access interference (MAI). Ensembles of periodic signals with zero MAI can be created from these groups of signals. The maximum number of binary signals in these ensembles is defined by the number of groups and is equal to n +1. Signals with zero MAI are orthogonal in the time domain when a time shift is present between them and can be separated without tight synchronization. Examples of separating filters are presented. Applying this principle to radio signals enables the creation of n+1 independent radio frequency signals. The results of this study can be used in asynchronous CDMA communication, telemetric networks (e.g. Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)), and optical systems.

   

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Title: The eight-point algorithm is not in need of defense
Author (s): Tayeb Basta
Abstract:

In stereo vision, the fundamental matrix F encapsulates the epipolar geometric information which relates corresponding points on two views of a scene. The eight-point algorithm is a frequently cited method for calculating the fundamental matrix. Some researchers criticized the performance of such algorithm as it is extremely susceptible to noise and hence virtually useless for most purposes. Such criticism prompted Richard Hartley to defend the algorithm. He asserted that preceding the matrix calculation with normalization of the coordinates of the matched points ensures a high performance of the algorithm. This paper presents an analysis showing that the raised question about the performance of the eight-point algorithm lies in the way by which the fundamental matrix equation is derived rather than in the eight-point algorithm itself. It demonstrates that F calculated in the projection space is different of F defined in the Euclidean space as a one-to-one correspondence.

   

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Title: Performance of shunt hybrid compensator for power quality improvement using simple control strategy
Author (s): R. Balasubramanian, R. Sankaran and S. Palani
Abstract:

A simple and straight forward control scheme for reference current generation for improving power factor and reduction of harmonics in a distribution system employing hybrid filter is presented. The use of a shunt hybrid configuration retains the advantages of lower cost and simplicity of the passive filter along with reduced rating of the active filter. The suggested control strategy is based on the extraction of reference current from source voltage of one phase and source currents that minimize the number of sensors and complexity of control scheme. By focusing on the deviations of dc link voltage across the capacitor which is caused by harmonic components in the load currents the correction mechanism straight away utilizes the deviations by processing via a conventional PI controller generates the reference current. This proposed model has been demonstrated through the simulation using MATLAB Simulink software under various operating conditions. The results obtained are compared and presented.

   

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Title: Developing software to analyze the point and fuel for agricultural tractors
Author (s): A. Soto Otalora and H. R. Salas Ramirez
Abstract:

The work involves the development of software able to calculate tractor data such as Power Take off (PTO) and Fuel consumption based on studies related to test Nebraska. The reason that motivates the development of this project is that it is necessary to know in greater depth certain characteristic tractor data in order to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of this in works like tilling soil and under different conditions as to power requirements and fuel consumption, so that it can give greater control to the use of this carrying an analysis on the data produced by the program. The software develops mathematical calculations based on certain known data which are provided by the manufacturer of the tractor to be assessed. The program processes the data and throws us numerical results and in most cases representative graphs that help us analyze the behavior of certain features of the tractor as are PTO and Fuel consumption; data that help us predict the behavior of the tractor in certain specific jobs, it provides the possibility to know the fuel consumption and costs generated in this work.

   

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Title: Assessing user perceived service quality of digital library
Author (s): Wan Abdul Rahim Wan Mohd. Isa and Saman Omed Abdullah
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The main objective of this empirical study is to assess user perceived service quality in using the digital library services. Data gathered from this empirical research was analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The samples consist of 497 respondents from a local university in Malaysia and were gathered through collection of distributed questionnaire. The results show that there are significant differences between two groups of users (male and female) for using the digital library services in terms of the perceived service quality constructs of (i) usability, (ii) usefulness, (iii) adequacy of information, (iv) accessibility and (v) interaction. Thus, provide indication for customization and better understanding for users to improve the quality of the digital library services from the user and gender s perspectives.

   

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Title: Review of Virtual Reality trends (previous, current, and future directions), and their applications, technologies and technical issues
Author (s): Nabeel Salih Ali
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Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is concerned with how humans work with computers and how technologies can accommodate the needs of users to meet their goals. The early phases of Virtual Reality (VR) often involved head-mounted computers in which users immersed themselves, as they could act, perceive, and interact with a three-dimensional world. This paper has two objectives: to conduct a detailed review of VR trends (previous, current, and forthcoming) and to highlight the applications and obstacles that affect each trend. Reliable survey data was obtained from sources such as ISI, Scopus, Springer, IEEE, and Google Scholar, as well as websites. The main contributions of this work are: (1) analysis and summary of VR trends in the past, present, and future, (2) details of the technical limitations of each trend and explication of their applications, technological requirements, and currently available solutions, (3) illustration of the direction, developments, issues, and challenges for each trend (previous, current, and future), (4) identification of the direction and important trends that require more comprehensive studies by future researchers.

   

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Title: A study on PLC performance under real conditions for video surveillance
Author (s): Ratna Mayasari, Basuki Rahmat and Muhammad Iqbal
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Video Surveillance also known as close-circuit television (CCTV) is close system for not public distributed but used monitor in local area network, the function for security purposes and surveillance. CCTV has problems on its implementation since it needs many cables and difficult to implement. This study proposed method of power line communication (PLC) with under real conditions, to solve the problem in the using of cables and reduce the cost. PLC is a tool that is used to transfer the data information as the information channel. The implementation was used in the four floors - building. The scenarios that used are; direct wired L3 Switch and direct wireless. The results showed that direct wired has the better value on throughput and delay performances, while the direct wireless has the worst, but still continued to transfer data.

   

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Title: The use of electromagnetic field for guiding the beam in linear electron accelerators with standing wave
Author (s): Aleksandr Evgenevich Novozhilov, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Filatov and Vladimir Kuzmich Shilov
Abstract:

A principal possibility is demonstrated of focusing electrons by the own high-frequency fields of the accelerating cavities in the linear accelerators with standing wave constructed on the basis of biperiodic retarding structures. The results of numerical calculation of the dynamics of electrons in such structures for various initial conditions are presented. The obtained results are used in the designing of accelerators, for which the calculated and experimental data are given.

   

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Title: Performance analysis of QWT fed 8x8 phased array
Author (s): U. Srinivasa Rao and P. Siddaiah
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In this paper, the discussion concentrates on modelling, simulation and performance analysis of a Microstrip Line Quarter Wave Transformer-fed 8x8 Circular Patch phased array. The substrate material used for this has thickness of 1.588mm and relative permittivity (er) is 2.2. The design frequency is 2GHz and VSWR = 2. The proposed 4x4 Circular Patch phased array is modelled and simulated by using ANSOFT HFSS 15.0. The gain of this array is 24.639 dB, return loss of -16.2810dB and bandwidth is 327MHz. The phased array is steered for 100, 200, 300, 380 and 450. These types of phased arrays are very useful for airborne applications.

   

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Title: Applicability of using recycled rubber- tire materials for acoustic insulation in barriers of residential areas in Egypt
Author (s): Farrag Nermin Mokhtar, Ibrahim Vitta Abdel Rehim and Elalfy Ayman Mahmoud
Abstract:

Roadways are usually attraction locations for developing new residential projects for the availability of transportation facilities that serve reaching work, school, leisure, and shopping areas, that means locating residential neighborhoods close to traffic noise. Noise problem in Egypt is a pollution that ranks the second among the major environmental pollution problems which considered a serious issue for its harmful effects on residents and public health. Many actions can be taken to improve the compatibility of noise for any activity that affect the land use, such as noise barriers. Scrap tire rubber is widely spread everywhere, and considered as a major problem in the stream of waste materials. Providing the incentive for Egypt to get use of recycled rubber tires elements as a green product in sound insulation barriers and at the same time solving a local environmental issue. This research aims to study the applicability of getting use of recycled rubber tire materials in sound barriers for residential areas in Egypt.

   

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Title: Structure design and characteristic analysis of buckling strength on swedge frame pressure hull with finite element analysis
Author (s): Ahmad Fauzan Zakki, Dong Myung Bae, Sulistiyono Susilo, Eli Akim Sipayung and Suharto
Abstract:

This study discusses design and analysis of the strength of submarine s inner hull, which uses swedge frame, in Pasopati Submarine owned by the Indonesian Ministry of Defense. The study analyzes pressure hull in various depths (100 meters, 300 meters, and 500 meters), with the use of 35 mm plate thickness, and the T profile size. While modeling is done with the FEM software, buckling analysis will make use of a software. The making of the model design, followed by an analysis of the model, will generate an output or data, i.e. calculation in the form of model images, analysis finding, and parameters of the necessary data, such as the rate of stress voltage, location of the critical point due to pressure, and security level of the construction.

   

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Title: Hybridized firefly algorithm for multi-objective radio frequency identification (RFID) network planning
Author (s): Adel Muhsin Elewe, Khalid Bin Hasnan and Azli Bin Nawawi
Abstract:

The RFID network planning (RNP) problem belongs to the large-scale multi-objective hard optimization problems. RNP aims to optimize the overall read region based on a set of objectives. A novel approach of hybrid firefly algorithm was developed for multi-objective RNP problem. The technique was combining the Density Based Clustering method (DBSCAN) and firefly algorithm. Empirical tests were conducted on six standard RFID benchmark sets with random and clustered topologies. A comparative analysis performed with other state-of-the-art algorithms based on the same test data. Simulation results exhibited uniformly better performance in achieving maximum coverage with smaller number of deployed readers and less transmitted power.

   

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Title: Significant factors in the design of an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm: An exploration
Author (s): V. Anand, Narasimhan Renga Raajan and K. Anuradha
Abstract:

This paper aims at studying various algorithms for dynamic load balancing pertinent to the significant issues handled by them. When some of the nodes are overloaded and other nodes are moderately or even under loaded, the process of load balancing redistributes the work load. By this means, utilization of resources and response time can be enhanced. Numerous algorithms are available for dynamic load balancing. Based on the current position of the system, these algorithms make the load balancing decisions. Several factors such as performance indices, load estimation, amount of information exchanged among nodes, load levels comparison, system stability, choosing remote nodes, and estimation of resource requirements should be taken into account. Consideration of these factors contributes a lot for developing an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm. Relevant to the design of efficient algorithms for dynamic load balancing, this work brings into limelight the aforesaid factors.

   

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Title: Advanced encryption standard algorithm versus extreme learning machine based weight: A comparative study
Author (s): Hayfaa A. Atee, Robiah Ahmad, Norliza Mohd. Noor and Abidulkarim K. Ilijan
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Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is being widely used ciphering/deciphering system has emerged asa standard benchmark. Due to rapid advancement in the hardware specifications, the architecture security of AES became a major concern. Furthermore, the newly developed machine learning dependent encryption architecture called Extreme Learning Machine Based Weight (ELMWi) appears more suitable for sundry cryptographic implementations. This article compares the performance of ELMWi with AES via statistical evaluation, where the parameters such as sensitivity, visual imperceptibility metrics, and key space are determined. Results reveal their similar performances. It is further argued that ELMWi out performs the AES in perspective of architecture implementation.

   

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Title: Introducing dynamic P-Box and S-Box based on modular calculation and key encryption for adding to current cryptographic systems against the linear and differential cryptanalysis
Author (s): M. Zobeiri and B. Mazloom-Nezhad Maybodi
Abstract:

In modern cryptography, the P-Boxes and S-boxes are used to make the relation between the plaintext and the cipher text difficult to realize. P-Box is a tool that changes the order of the input bits and they appear in the output. In this case, the key is order transmission of input bits in output bits. An S-box is a basic component which performs substitution. In this paper, a new method for the production of P-Box with the help of modular computing is introduced in a way that the order of the input bit transfer in output is the function of the encryption key. Next, development of this algorithm is used to make S-box structure. And also if the current symmetric encryption methods used, the P-Box and S-Box keys are derived from the key encryption method. In general, there is no need to increase the length of current key to use the P-Box and S-Box recommended.

   

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Title: Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution systems by using Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm
Author (s): M. C. V. Suresh and Belwin Edward J.
Abstract:

In this paper Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) algorithm is used for optimal DG placement in distribution system. DG placement plays an important role in radial distribution network in filling the demands of consumers. DG is a small generating plant which generates electrical power to minimize the power losses, improving the voltage profile of the network. The locations and sizes are found simultaneously by SFLA algorithm. The main objective is to attain ample improvement in the voltage profile and substantial reduction in network power losses and economic benefit. The main idea behind SFLA algorithm is the interacting virtual population of frogs partitioned into different memeplexes. IEEE 33 bus and 69 bus test systems are used for the analysis and the results were compared with other techniques.

   

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Title: Power speed reduction units for general aviation: Simplified gear design piston-powered, propeller-driven general aviation aircrafts
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli and Stefano Cassani
Abstract:

The power speed reduction unit (PSRU) is the device that is loaded by the piston engine and the thruster. The thruster, a propeller of a fan, acts on the PSRU to extract the required power at the optimum speed for the aerial vehicle. Inertia, thrust and vibrations load the PRSU. PSRU has been the problem of the years before WWII. These problems periodically come back from common design errors or from the introduction of new technologies. For historical reasons, FAR and JAR do not allow the use of belt and chain transmissions in PRSUs for aircrafts. However, recent advances in timing belts make it possible to manufacture lubrication free PRSUs. Multi-Groove-V belts have also been used successfully in helicopters and homebuilt aircrafts. Belt PRSU are critical in design and they will be fully analyzed in another paper. This third paper deals with the general problem of designing the PRSU gear drives on a general aviation aircraft [1-2].

   

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Title: Experimental verification of squeal noise suppression by mass addition in mechanical structure with friction
Author (s): Meifal Rusli, Mulyadi Bur, Lovely Son and Muchlisinalahiddin
Abstract:

Squeal noise suppression has been a challenging topic investigated by some researchers today. Some methods have been developed to overcome this problem. The performances of these methods are still unsatisfied to eliminate this noise. In recent research, dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) application to prevent the unstable vibration that emits squeal noise has been proposed. The investigation was performed numerically using two simple structures. It was found that by the addition of a stiff spring-mass or a rigid mass might prevent unstable mode coupling that emits squeal noise in specific condition. In this paper, experimental analysis to verify the method using mass addition is conducted using a simple L-shape structure. The effect of additional mass is investigated at two points of the structure; the point that moves more flexibly in parallel to the normal contact force, and the point that moves more flexibly in parallel to the friction force. It is verified that the additional mass at the near-point of friction where the point moves flexibly parallel in a friction force direction will has a possibility to remove the unstable mode coupling and to prevent the squeal noise. Adding mass at the point relatively far from the friction contact and moves more flexible to the normal contact friction will increase the possibility of a squeal noise incident, although in restricted normal contact stiffness the squeal noise is still being canceled. It is confirmed that mass addition to the structure at the near point of friction will prevent unstable mode coupling if the additional mass has more contribution to the horizontal direction and uncoupled from the vertical direction.

   

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Title: Improving the efficiency underground mining of coal beds in difficult mining and geological conditions
Author (s): Sergey Alexandrovich Sidorenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Ivanov
Abstract:

The main goal of the research is to improve the efficiency of underground coal mining in difficult geological conditions based on an integrated approach to the technological schemes designing, and the feasibility study of space-planning decisions. In conducting the research, the authors used a complex method, including synthesis and analysis of the theory and practice of the development of coal beds using underground methods; the analysis of the results of field studies of the underground working conditions in the high rock pressure areas; the experimental and analytical studies of the effect of high rock pressure areas on the state of excavation workings in the lavas at various parameters of technological schemes; computer data processing. The specifics of mining and geological conditions of mining operations in the Russian mines were analyzed. The issues of ensuring the efficiency of underground mining and a choice of rational space-planning decisions in complex mining and geological conditions were considered. Based on the computer modelling, the cost-effectiveness of different options for the development of mining operations in the conditions of the Alardinskaya mine was estimated. The necessity of taking into account the production effectiveness of the reserve extraction in the process of assessing the resource base of the mining enterprises was shown. The recommendations for the sustainable development of the coal-mining companies, taking into account the resource base efficiency, were given. The study results obtained can be used in the design of new mines and substantiation of space-planning solutions in underground mining of coal beds.

   

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Title: An improved droop control method for parallel-connected inverter operation in AC microgrid
Author (s): Usman Bashir Tayab, Muhammad Adnan Bashir and Md. Abdullah Al Humayun
Abstract:

Conventional droop control is a basic control strategy for power sharing in AC microgrid applications. This strategy has several limitations, such as low transient response and voltage deviation. This paper presents an improved droop control method for the proper operation of parallel-connected inverters in AC microgrid. The proposed method is able to improve transient response and achieved higher output power without voltage and frequency deviation by introducing a power derivative term into a conventional droop method. The second-order general integrator scheme with low-pass filter was also used to obtain the average power obscured from each power electronic inverter to gain the power signal without a DC component. The simulation was developed in MATLAB/Simulink to verify the effectiveness of the improved droop control scheme. Based on the results, an improved droop control strategy was proposed to improve the operation of parallel-connected power electronic inverters in the microgrid systems of existing AC distribution systems.

   

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Title: Analysis of morphology and tensile strength of banana kapok fibres using a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and pull test equipment
Author (s): Atus Buku and G. N. Anastasia Sahari
Abstract:

Banana plants are plants typical of tropical regions which can be easily found anywhere without knowing the season. Until now the use of banana plants in Indonesia has been merely the cultivation of fruit and there is very little use of other parts of this banana tree. The purpose of this study was to uncover behavioral engagement capability and Interfacial shear stress banana fibres cured epoxy matrix due to the soaking treatment of alcohol. Alcohol soaking treatment banana kapok fibre variation alcohol content of 0%, 70%, and 95%, and the soaking time of 8 hours. Banana fibre without and with soaking treatment was observed by SEM to determine the ability of the engagement fibre with epoxy matrix and also for banana fibre surface morphology. Tensile test was conducted to determine the interfacial shear strength by embedding a single fibre banana fibre into the epoxy matrix as deep as 1 mm. The test results showed that the soaking treatment causes the fibre surface becomes coarse, wrinkled, uneven forming grooves in a longitudinal direction and transverse impact on improving the ability of the engagement between banana fibre with epoxy matrix. Shear stress epoxy matrix interface with banana fibre without soaking treatment of alcohol obtained 2,358 kgf / mm2, at 70% alcohol immersion shear stress 1.542 kgf / mm2 and at the 70% alcohol immersion shear stress 1,254 kgf / mm2.

   

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Title: Airport veer-off risk assessment: An Italian case study
Author (s): L. Moretti, G. Cantisani and S. Caro
Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the veer-off risk of an Italian airport that is characterized for having near 12,000 annual movements. The name of this airport is not disclosed for security purposes. The methodology used followed the principles of probabilistic risk analysis in order to characterize the events and assess the corresponding damages. The study used statistical data about accident reports and local conditions that were collected following the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The methodology used in this work complies with the guidelines for the adjustment of lateral runway strips, edited by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC). Besides, data available in worldwide databases of airplane accidents were also gathered and included as part of the analysis. The method used to assess the veer-off risk of the airport is consistent with probability and damage quantification methods published in the literature. The main variables considered in the analysis were traffic information, wind conditions, the existence of land-side buildings adjacent to the runway, and the geotechnical conditions of the sub grade underneath the strip zones. For the assessment of the veer-off risk, the authors used primary data provided by the airport management body within the period 2013-2015 and secondary data available in the literature. The risk of veer-off was calculated in more than 1,500 points around the runway. Besides, the authors proposed maximum allowable risks in different locations, and these values were compared to the actual risk levels previously computed. The results of this comparison suggested that improvements in the soil capacity and/or in the airport management activities might contribute to achieve the proposed allowable risk. The results from this assessment showed that the two critical variables determining the risk of veer-off accidents in the airport under evaluation were wind conditions and the bearing capacity of the soil underneath the strip areas. Also, it was found that the highest veer-off risk level obtained within the Cleared and Graded Area (CGA, part of the runway strip cleared of all obstacles and graded) was 2 10-7, while the lowest level was 3 10-8, which are considered typical risk ranges in airport operations. In general, the results demonstrate that the adopted methodology is a useful tool to evaluate the veer-off risk of a specific airport. Besides, the method allows comparing the actual levels of risk with proposed target levels of safety. Consequently, the quantification of the veer-off risk levels offers the airport management body the possibility of implementing appropriate measurements in those cases where minimum safety requirements are not achieved.

   

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Title: An enhanced SCHT based Alamouti scheme over multipath channels
Author (s): Ambika Annavarapu, Padmavathi Kora and Priyanka Yadlapalli
Abstract:

This paper introduces an innovative methodology of Orthogonal Space Time Block Coding (OSTBC) based on Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) using Alamouti - Sequency ordered Complex Hadamard Transform (SCHT) techniques, in order to attain high - speed data communications through wireless media. The outcomes attained through this system compare with other techniques of Alamouti based OSTBC and Conventional OSTBC techniques. In this paper, the Alamouti - Sequency ordered Complex Hadamard Transform (SCHT) based OSTBC - MIMO with 2W2 transmitter- receiver antenna system, for different digital modulation techniques like BPSK (Bipolar Phase Shift Keying) and QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) are considered to reduce the Rayleigh fading effect. Using Complex Rademacher matrices (CRM), SCHT is implemented to achieve fast algorithm. A substantial enhancement of bit error rate (BER) for an Alamouti - SCHT - OSTBC based 2W2 transmit - receive antenna system using BPSK and QPSK modulation is perceived from simulation results. From the tabulated results it is obvious that the BER for both QPSK and BPSK are reduced considerably.

   

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Title: Optimization of technical computing chlorine in a network of drinking water distribution
Author (s): Ammadi Abdelaziz and Elbelkacimi Mourad
Abstract:

Monitoring activities of the quality of water produced and / or distributed are under the laws and regulations governing the quality of water intended for human consumption: 1) Moroccan law 10/95 on the water. 2) The European Directive on the quality of water intended for drinking. 3) Of Guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the quality of drinking water. The distribution network of the urban drinking water is often described as a real reactor, where the water and container (driving ...) are the seat of physicochemical and biological interactions. Tap water may have a very remote quality of that resulting from the production plant. Conditions that control the evolution of the water quality in the network are complex and have been subject in recent years of extensive research. Chlorine is used as a means of sterilization. Its absence leads to microbial contamination that can degrade water quality. According to WHO standards, the free chlorine in the water should not be less than 0.25 g / l. [Lenntech.fr]. Chlorine reacts with many compounds and so sudden, all of the damage throughout its transit in the network pipes. This deterioration is the result of several physical factors (age of the pipe material, flow, speed, ...) and biological (bacteria, coliform, biofilm ...) Any company working in a drinking water system requires a thorough knowledge of the distribution of the chlorine content in each point of the network, to do this it must mobilize each time a large number of technicians and materials for proceeded levies and sometimes is in accessing able to conduct given the complexity of the network. To overcome the lack of physical medium capable of delivering this information in real time, we present in this chapter the development of a software sensor based on a mathematical model of chlorine degradation in the pipes. This sensor is used to calculate the chlorine levels at each point of a network of optimal way, without resorting to technical and logistical. For this: 1) We Will address first the algorithms of classification "k means" [MacQueen.1967] louse classify all network pipes in classes resemblance base. 2) Then we will install "k" sensors on the entry and "k" sensors on the release of 'k' lines of each "k" classes, such pipes are accessible collection for the calculation of the rate of residual chlorine remaining, the difference in rates between chlorine and early exit of the pipe is the target value that represents the entire population "K".

   

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