ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                       February 2017  |  Vol. 12  No. 4
   
Title: The effects of particle size and pressure on the combustion characteristics of Cerbera Manghas leaf briquettes
Author (s): Sutrisno, Willyanto Anggono, Fandi Dwi Suprianto, Andreas Wijaya Kasrun and Ian Hardianto Siahaan
Abstract:

Cerbera Manghas is a plant that is often used as urban greening so that this plant has the potential to be developed into a source of alternative fuel in Indonesia. The material of solid fuel briquette is waste leaves of Cerbera Manghas tree and tapioca flour are used as binder material. The composition of this briquette is 10% mass of tapioca flour and 90% mass of Cerbera Manghaswaste leaves. The highest heating value (HHV) of this briquette is 4167 Kcal/kg. The particle size of this briquette affects the physical and burning characteristics. This optimizes research particle size and pressure of the press machine during the briquette forming process. The two parameters were evaluated for the combustion characteristics include Flame temperature, Ignition timing, Burning time, and Combustion rate. The higher value of flame temperature, ignition time and burning time are caused by the greater the hydraulic pressure. Besides better the briquettes’quality are obtained the smaller of combustion rate, so that the briquettes are more durable and required the ignition time length. The best briquettes of Cerbera Manghas leaves are those with particle size of 60 mesh and forming pressure of 2 MPa, which have a flame temperature of 522°C, an ignition time 268 second, a burning time of 7293 second, and a combustion rate of 0.0026 gr/s.

   

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Title: Comparison of selected methods for measurement of the concrete electrical resistance to chloride penetration
Author (s): Petr Lehner, Martina Turicova and Petr Konecny
Abstract:

The paper compares selected experimental measurement techniques for evaluation of concrete ability to resist chloride penetration. There are three procedures of evaluation of concrete diffusion coefficient compared. The paper is aimed at the comparison of diffusion coefficient based on the chloride profiling and electrical properties of concrete, namely electrical conductivity and resistivity. There are discussed methods of rapid chloride penetration test as well as surface measurement of electrical resistivity using Wenner probe. The comparison aim is to obtain input data for a finite element numerical model for probabilistic calculation of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck exposed to the chloride laden environment.

   

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Title: Simulation model of traffic operations on single carriageway roads: Model calibration and validation
Author (s): Zamri Bujang and Othman Che Puan
Abstract:

The current Malaysian procedure for a detailed evaluation of the capacity and effects of various road and traffic characteristics for single carriageway roads, which is adopted directly from the American Highway Capacity Manual, is inadequate and inaccurate since several aspects used in the method such as the consideration of the recreational vehicles and trucks are not directly applicable to the Malaysian traffic characteristics. The validity of the analysis is debatable since the way in which the effect of motorcycles on overall performance of the roadways is considered is not clear. The existing simulation models of traffic operations on single carriageway roads also suffer from a similar weakness. Therefore, there is a need to develop a comprehensive traffic simulation model to carry out this task. Such a model must be capable of simulating traffic behavior for a range of road layout and geometry, at junctions and compositions of traffic which include motorcycles. This paper describes the development of a simulation model of traffic operations on single carriageway roads to assess and evaluate the speed/flow relationships and hence the road capacity from the simulation model for a given road geometry and traffic demand.

   

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Title: Spectrum occupancy measurement: A case for cognitive radio network in Lagos, Nigeria
Author (s): Paulson E. N., Adedeji K. B., Kamaludin M. Y., Popoola J. J., Jafri B. Din and Sharifah Kamilah S. Y.
Abstract:

The proliferation in technologies and with the recent introduction of new paradigm for wireless communication, the demand for wireless devices has increased drastically in recent years. This therefore, posed a major threat on the available frequency spectrum and as a result, an efficient method for the utilization of the limited frequency spectrum is required. As the scarcity of frequency spectrum is a major problem in the telecommunication field, cognitive radio technology has been identified as a promising solution to this problem. Cognitive radio allows the opportunistic access of licensed bands by unlicensed users without causing harmful interference to the licensed user. There is a need to evaluate the utilization level of the licensed bands in order to identify which frequency bands can be used for cognitive radio implementation. Nevertheless, spectrum measurement campaigns have been conducted mostly in USA and a few other locations around the world. In this paper, the results of the measurement campaign conducted in Ikeja, the capital city of Lagos, Nigeria covering the range of frequency 700 MHz up to 2.2 GHz is presented. The measurement results are analyzed and compared to the frequency allocation table published by the Nigerian Communications Commission. The results obtained show that the frequency spectrum is underutilized and therefore a significant amount of spectrum is available for the future implementation of cognitive radio networks.

   

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Title: Performance evaluation of beginners creative industry using Balanced Scorecard method
Author (s): Wiwik Sudarwati, Meri Prasetyawati and Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan
Abstract:

Succeed and grow in the competitive Ners Collection needs to have a good management system and measured. Collection Ners have gradually improved the management system among other marketing strategies. Which had been traditional marketing is now online. The impacts of their online marketing are increasing the number of sales. The need for evaluation of the performance of the company to determine whether the increase has been as expected. To know that we need a measurement of overall performance, using the Balanced Scorecard has four perspectives: financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth. From the results of performance measurements have to be got creative industries beginner's performance on the customer's perspective is 3.00, which means quite. Performance beginner's creative industry on internal business process perspective is 2.9147 which means very pretty. Performance beginner's creative industries on the learning and growth perspective are 3.7698, which mean enough. The overall performance of the company is 3.1958. This indicates the company has enough performance.

   

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Title: Prediction of electrical production from wind energy in the Moroccan south
Author (s): Elyaqouti Mustapha, Ezzaidi Asma, Bouhouch Lahoussine and Ihlal Ahmed
Abstract:

In this paper, we present the analysis and the statistical modeling of wind speed, during 6 years (2009-2014), in Ait Aiaaza region of the Taroudant province in southern Morocco. Furthermore, we estimate the power and the electrical energy, produced by the wind turbine, ATB.500.54 that we have proposed as electrical aerogenerator for the site under study. In fact, the modeling of wind resources consists of using two methods: first, we use the direct statistical processing of wind data, afterward; we apply a mathematical approach to frequency distributions of wind speed. As for the estimation of the power and the produced electrical energy by the wind turbine under test, we have modeled the power curve using polynomial interpolation of Lagrange.

   

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Title: Quality assessment and correlation coefficients study of chemical data of well waters in the north eastern part of prishtina (Kosova)
Author (s): Fatbardh Gashi, Teuta Selimi, Jeton Shabani, Lafie Latifi and Anile Gashi
Abstract:

The reaction between ground water and aquifer minerals affects ground water quality significantly, but is also useful to understand the genesis of ground water. Chemical contamination of groundwater has several implications for human health. In this study the assessment of water quality after chemical treatment and correlation coefficients between different pairs of variables of 6 well water samples in the north eastern part of Prishtina were investigated. Statistical studies have been carried out by calculating of basic statistical parameters, anomalies (extremes and outliers) and correlation coefficients between different pairs of variables. The statistical regression analysis has been found a moderately high positive correlation relationship between EC with Dry residue, TDS and NO2-. Consumption of KMnO4 showed a high positive correlation relationship with NO2- and Cl- and a moderately high positive correlation relationship with HCO3-, CO32- and NO3-. From the results of field work and laboratory analyses it was found out that well water not fulfill the criteria set by the World Health Organization and the distribution of pollutants indicated anthropogenic sources of pollutants; mainly from septic tanks, waste waters, using of chemical fertilizers and using of water purification which are extensively used in this area.

   

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Title: The origin and distribution of silica mineral on the Recent Surface Sediment area, northern coastline of Rupat Island, Indonesia
Author (s): Husnul Kausarian, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Hiroaki Kuze, Detri Karya and Sugeng Wiyono
Abstract:

Rupat Island is a part of Bengkalis district, Riau province, Indonesia with the total area is 1,500 km2. The main formations in this island are Older Surface Sediment (Qp) and Recent Surface Sediment (Qh) with the recent age of both. Silica sand distributes only on the northern coastline of Rupat Island from Tanjung Mumbul until Pasir Putih area. Samples were collected and measured from five locations, which are Beting Aceh (BA) Tanjung Api (TAp), Teluk Rhu (TRh), Tanjung Punai (TPn) and Tanjung Lapin (TLp). From these locations, homogeneous characteristic of silica sand can be found as a white color. Silica sand source on Rupat Island came from sediment that carried by the sea-flow of Malacca Strait as the sediment transport agent, it was shown by the characteristic of the grain which is the round-shape and same size that were conducted by using microscopic photograph testing. Laboratory tests using the XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) showed the silica compound (SiO2) has a high percentage above 95%.

   

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Title: Consistency of the semivariogram-fitting error on ordinary kriging prediction
Author (s): Nur Ali Amri, Abdul Aziz Jemain and Ahmad Fudholi
Abstract:

Kriging is a construction method that is primarily built based on the structure of experimental semivariograms and the power of fitting. The two functions, i.e., classical and robust semivariograms, are used in the current study. The emivariograms are fitted using two approaches, namely, ordinary least squares and weighted least squares, whereas the spherical and exponential functions are utilized for the theoretical model. The estimation precision is calculated using the root mean square error. The error use of the root mean squares for predictions was tested using the mean absolute deviation.

   

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Title: Coconut fronds as adsorbent in the removal of malachite green dye
Author (s): Rosmawani Mohammad, Aswinee Tangga Rajoo and Mardawani Mohamad
Abstract:

This study represents the used of coconut frond (CF) to remove malachite green dye. This dye is toxic and will cause severe problems to environment. To investigate the potential of CF as adsorbent, a few parameters were studied such as adsorbent size, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and pH. The results showed that the CF has the highest percentage of dye removal which is up to 99.91 % under optimum condition. The experimental data was analyzed with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The Langmuir isotherm model has given a better conformity than the Freundlich model with adsorption capacity of 18.98 mg/g. This study indicates that CF could be employed as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green dye.

   

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Title: Flow fields for underwater laying hydrodynamic structure and its environmental aspects
Author (s): Biprodip Mukherjee and Rathin Biswas
Abstract:

The study was carried out to examine, probe and approximate the flow fields around a submerged hydrodynamic structure, using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. In the experimental setup a cylinder of 5 cm diameter was placed at a distance of about 5.5 cm away from another bluff body or a hydrodynamic structure, that is a vertical plate of 5 cm width, both acting as obstructions to the flow. To carry out the experiment in a recirculating flume, water flow of 52 lps and flow depth of 20 cm were maintained. The study was carried out in turbulent flow conditions and vortex formation was expected around the cylinder. The ADV helped to determine the velocity and its direction while vortices were being created around the cylinder and in its wake, and also to record the velocity and observe its characteristics in the boundary layer. With the determination of flow fields of the underwater composite hydrodynamic structures various other environmental issues come into play. This types of under-laying structures not only helps in dispersion of sediment decomposition in the river bed but also in this juncture help to get a free passage and movement area for aquatic fauna for a shallow type of water channel. Seeing so many advantages of this type of study could really boost to maintain aquatic ecological balance in addition to the territorial environment and socio-economic development.

   

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Title: Transonic flow in a channel with a central body
Author (s): A. N. Ryabinin and A. F. Suleymanov

Abstract:

2D transonic flow in two channels of variable cross-section with a central body is studied numerically using solvers based on the Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Ansys CFX and SU2 packages are used. The flow velocity is supersonic at inlets and outlets of channels. At small inflow Mach number between the supersonic regions, there is a local subsonic region. The increase in the Mach number leads to arising and expansion of supersonic regions and rapprochement. At the moment of coalescence of two regions the shock position abruptly changes. Computations reveal a hysteresis in the shock position versus the inflow Mach number. In the certain range of inlet Mach number, there are asymmetrical solutions of the equations.

   

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Title: A Cuckoo Search optimization scheme for non-convex economic load dispatch
Author (s): Mohd. Wazir Mustafa and Abdirahman Mohamed Abdilahi
Abstract:

This paper presents a Cuckoo Search (CS) based algorithm to solve constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problems. The proposed methodology easily deals with non-smoothness of cost function arising due to the use of valve point effects. The performance of the algorithm has been tested on systems possessing 13 and 40 generating units involving varying degrees of complexity. The findings affirm that the method outperforms the existing techniques can be a promising alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

   

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Title: Removal of iron organic forms from underground water with application of reagents and electric field
Author (s): Boris M. Grishin, Marina V. Bikunova, Sergey Yu. Andreev, Nikolay N. Laskov, Aleksandr I. Shein and Olga N. Zubareva
Abstract:

Experimental data on removal of iron organic forms from underground water with application of coagulation, aeration and imposition of electric field are presented. Conditions of mixing of coagulating agent with processed water in electro-hydrodynamic device (EHDD) are shown to influence the subsequent water purification by filtering through sand bed. Magnitudes of specific electrical energy consumed for maximum saving of coagulating agent are defined. Water electric treatment in region of the Camp criterion magnitudes (2,8-3,4)•104 at specific electrical energy consumption of (6,7-8,0)•10-2 ?·h/m3 in electro-hydrodynamic device (EHDD) allows by 27-33% decrease in polyaluminium chloride (PACl) consumption as compared with reagent treatment without application of electric field at the same degree of organic iron removal.

   

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Title: Two-dimensional model of calculation of reinforced-concrete composite beams by the method of concentrated deformations
Author (s): Abdivap M. Zulpuev and Kadanbay Baktygulov
Abstract:

The article offers the construction of slab casts over precast joists with the use of steel profiled flooring and formation of two-dimensional model of calculation of reinforced-concrete composite beams with flexible ties by the method of concentrated deformations, the results of experimental and theoretical research, and comparison of the results. The method of concentrated deformations is the most precise to describe the work of combined beams with ties on linear and non-linear work, non-linear work of components, and has possibilities for accounting of real diagram of ties operation and deformation of components’ materials.

   

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Title: CPW-FED triangular serrated slot antenna for wideband applications
Author (s): K. V. L. Bhavani, Habibulla Khan and B. T. P. Madhav
Abstract:

A serrated square slot antenna for wideband operations is proposed in this paper. Coplanar waveguide feeding is used in this design with a wideband tuning stub. The proposed serrated square slot antenna is operating between 1 to 20 GHz with huge bandwidth. The serrated antenna is constructed from square slot antenna which is operating at multibands. By placing serrated tuning stub, an ordinary rectangular slot multiband antenna is converted to wideband antenna. Detailed study of design and analysis are presented in this article.

   

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Title: Temperature distribution of R-134a through aluminum and PTFE expansion valve on automotive air conditioning applications
Author (s): Muji Setiyo, Saifudin, Bagiyo Condro Purnomo, Budi Waluyo, and Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan
Abstract:

Generally, parameters for measuring the performance of air conditioning system is COP. In a thermodynamic analysis of air conditioning system, the losses that occur in the expansion valve is not considerable. In reality, the ice formation layer phenomenon is formed around the expansion valve during air conditioning system operation. Therefore, this paper presents a study of PTFE as expansion valve materials to reduce heat loss. The temperature distribution of R-134a refrigerant before and after the expansion valve was observed to determine its effect in comparison with expansion valve made of aluminum alloy. The AC system used in this study is a car air conditioning system that is removed from the car and driven by an electric motor. From the test results with the same refrigerant mass flow, the expansion valve made of PTFE generates potential heat absorption greater than the expansion valve made of aluminum. In conclusion, PTFE is promising to be developed as an expansion valve on car air conditioning system applications.

   

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Title: Automatic welding speed control by monitoring image of weld pool using vision sensor
Author (s): Ario Sunar Baskoro, Achmad Zaki Rahman and Haikal
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This paper presents a study on automatic welding speed control by monitoring of weld pool image using vision sensor to create a welding control system that able to produce good weld bead appearance and quality. The monitoring performs on autogenous Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with constant-current. In this experiment, welding torch set to be stationary while stainless steel SS-304 as work-piece placed on moving-table driven by electric stepper motor. CCD camera captured images of weld pool that formed during the welding process to be extracted by image processing algorithm. The pool geometry values that have extracted will be applied to the real time welding speed control system using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) system. The result showed that the system developed had succeeded to produce good weld bead appearance on several current values.

   

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Title: Frequency domain based spectroface representation for face recognition
Author (s): Rahma M. K. Ataherand Shahrel Azmin Suandi
Abstract:

This paper develops a 2-D face recognition system through a combination of Wavelet transform and Fourier transform with some image enhancement techniques to the face image. We attempt to find the best enhancement technique through investigation of several image enhancement procedures such as normalization followed by histogram equalization, normalization followed by histogram equalization and then subsequently median filter, normalization followed by histogram equalization and then Homomorphic filtering and finally, image enhancement by Homomorphic filtering only. We further investigate the effect of changing both wavelet functions and the resolution level of wavelet decomposition. The results reveal that 97% accuracy is achieved using either Daubechies wavelet function or Symlet wavelet function when the image has been enhanced by Homomorphic filtering. The change of wavelet function and resolution level shows a significant impact on the practical performance of the proposed recognition system.

   

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Title: Designs and development of Russian scientific schools in the field of cross-country ground vehicles building
Author (s): George O. Kotiev, Boris V. Padalkin, Alexander B. Kartashov and Alex S. Diakov
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In the paper reviewed the main development trends of Russian scientific schools in the field of all-terrain vehicles development. Presents original designs of all-terrain vehicles, created by domestic enterprises. The tendencies of Russian all-terrain vehicles development are considered.

   

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Title: The rheological properties of the finishing lime composition with additive based on synthetic aluminosilicates
Author (s): V. I. Loganina, M. A. Sadovnikova and Yu. P. Skachkov
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The information about the patterns of structure formation of lime compositions with the additive based on synthetic aluminosilicate . It is shown that the introduction of additives based on synthetic aluminosilicate helps to speed dial plastic strength.

   

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Title: Calibration of zmpt101b voltage sensor module using polynomial regression for accurate load monitoring
Author (s): I. Abubakar, S. N. Khalid, M. W. Mustafa, Hussain Shareef and M. Mustapha
Abstract:

Smart Electricity is quickly developing as the results of advancements in sensor technology. The accuracy of a sensing device is the backbone of every measurement and the fundamental of every electrical quantity measurement is the voltage and current sensing. The sensor calibration in the context of this research means the marking or scaling of the voltage sensor so that it can present accurate sampled voltage from the ADC output using appropriate algorithm. The peak-peak input voltage (measured with a standard FLUKE 115 meter) to the sensor is correlated with the peak-peak ADC output of the sensor using 1 to 5th order polynomial regression, in order to determine the best fitting relationship between them. The arduino microcontroller is used to receive the ADC conversion and is also programmed to calculate the root mean square value of the supply voltage. The analysis of the polynomials shows that the third order polynomial gives the best relationship between the analog input and ADC output. The accuracy of the algorithm is tested in measuring the root mean square values of the supply voltage using instantaneous voltage calculation and peak-peak voltage methods. The error in the measurement is less than 1% in the peak-peak method and less than 2.5% in the instantaneous method for voltage measurements above 50V AC, which is very good for measurements in utility. Therefore, the proposed calibration method will facilitate more accurate voltage and power computing for researchers and designers especially in load monitoring where the applied voltage is 240V or 120V ranges.

   

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Title: MAC address based smart parking prototype using solar cell
Author (s): Giva Andriana Mutiara, Anak Agung Gde Agung and Rini Handayani
Abstract:

When entering a parking building, parking management cannot guarantee a parking space to a driver. Many times a driver must wasting his time to find one free space. This leads to waste of fuel, congestion, and frustration for driver. This paper presents a prototype of a parking system that enables a driver to reserve a parking space using an application. MAC Address from driver’s device used as an identifier and extracted using Airodump-ng. Parallax PING sensor is used at the parking space to detect the presence of car. An Arduino is used as microcontroller to control the system. Solar panels are used to provide power for the system. This system helps a driver to reserve a parking space before he enters the building, provide certainty to the driver and eliminating time needed to find a space.

   

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Title: Risk assessment for entering enclosed spaces on board ships
Author (s): Mohana Krishnan G. and Manu Menon
Abstract:

The present work provides a systematic and objective approach to assessing hazards and their associated risks that will provide an objective measure of an identified hazard as well as provide a method to control a risk involving enclosed spaces on board ships. An enclosed space is a space with poor or no natural ventilation which is not designed for continuous occupancy, where access is limited and which may contain a dangerous atmosphere. The atmosphere may be oxygen-deficient or oxygen-enriched and/or contain flammable and/or toxic gases or vapours. Seafarers or other personnel entering enclosed spaces should be made aware about the dangers involved, take the necessary safety precautions and most importantly, ensure that risk assessment on the particular enclosed space has been carried out. Risk assessment is the process of gathering data and synthesizing information to develop an understanding of the risk of a particular work environment. To obtain the risk levels, a risk assessment process is applied whereby it consist of the hazards identification, likelihood of it happening and its severity. This is followed by risk control whereby the hazard is either eliminated or inactivated in a manner such that the hazard does not pose a risk to workers who have to enter into an enclosed area. The qualitative method was to used carry out risk assessment whereby the likelihood of an incident taking place and the level of severity of hazard were considered in calculating the risk arising. Results obtained from the risk matrix can then be used as a guide to reduce or eliminate the hazards within the enclosed space.

   

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Title: QFD design methodology and construction of a type Rover Mobile Robotic platform
Author (s): German Efrain Castaneda Jimenez, David Julian Monroy Cardenas, Jorge Alexander Aponte, Oscar Fernando Aviles Sanchez and Mauricio Felipe Mauledoux Monroy
Abstract:

This document describes the process that took place for the realization of a platform Mobile Robotics Rover type. Details how the methodology Quality Function Development (QFD) for choosing a suitable Rover prototype was used and that meets the specifications of the customers surveyed, then information about the design process used by aid of CAD type is provided, and completion by the construction process. The results obtained are collected and achievements that it has fulfilled the platform. The purpose of the prototype is to meet the specifications required by customers and design specifications raised for exploration both structured and unstructured surfaces.

   

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Title: Novel foodstuff conveyor belts compound for energy saving: the effect of microwave pre-heating and mixed fillers on mechanical properties
Author (s): Limhengha S., Limnararat S., Jangchud and Sriseubsai W.
Abstract:

This research presents an effect of microwave power being utilized in preheating of a foodstuff conveyor belts compound (FCBc), with or without mixed fillers, and sulfur at different volumes of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 phr respectively. Prior to hydraulic molding press at 150oC, an FCBc is preheated for one minute through an industrial microwave system at a frequency of 2.45 GHz along with microwave power of 340, 850 and 1,700 watts whereas the cure time is a time 50%. The result shows that the FCBc with mixed fillers and 1.0 phr sulfur with microwave power at 340 watts demonstrates an effective crosslink between the rubber and the fillers which subsequently produces the FCBc that contains better mechanical properties, not only at the lower cost on raw material but also the curing time reduces to 40.20 % per production round.

   

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Title: Prototype of bracelet detection alarm sounds for deaf and hearing loss
Author (s): Agustin Soto Otalora, Nicolas Charry Moreno, David Eduardo Clavijo Osorio and Luz Adriana Guzman Trujillo
Abstract:

Currently all technological progress should go in search of satisfying a need of society, in all contexts: health, work, study, etc. in this article we plan a prototype bracelet in the field of assistive technologies specifically for deaf or hearing loss people. the development of this prototype is able to discriminate sounds an alert or emergency, in addition to managing a user Interface quite friendly with additional features like Clock, alarm, among others. For the process of discrimination of sounds and alert detection system was used as a training tool, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Was implemented for the microcontroller DSPIC33EP512GP502 microcontrollers. Previous tests demonstrate greater efficiency of 75% in identifying three types of sounds of emergency (ambulance, police, fire).

   

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Title: Fault detection and isolation in target tracking and control system using fuzzy control
Author (s): Jafar Khalilpour
Abstract:

One of the important applications of Kalman filter, using its radar systems to detect and estimate the positions of moving objects. For fixed targets, targeting a weapons based on how the projectile in the air. But it is necessary that in addition to moving targets Furthermore, the prophecies also be used. So for anti-aircraft cannon ballistics both the problem and obtain the predictive path review Are. Need to calculate predictive vector estimation of position, velocity and acceleration of the target. In this paper, fuzzy method to analyze factors that Due to an error in estimating the impact point, especially when the target is maneuvering targets are provided.

   

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Title: Data mining based approach for routing anomaly detection in MANET
Author (s): S. B. Ninu and S. Behin Sam
Abstract:

An ad hoc routing protocol is a convention, or standard, that controls how nodes decide which way to route packets between computing devices in a mobile ad-hoc network. Anomalous route request and route reply will cause severe damage in the communication process. In order to identify these types of anomalies, MANETs require the use of data mining to extract information and patterns derived by the knowledge in routing process. In this paper we present a data mining based anomaly detection system which will identify two types of routing anomalies or attacks. The first one is false route request attack and the second one is false route reply attack. We show that the proposed method provides significant prediction accuracy.

   

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Title: Preparation of aerospace grade carbon fibrous laminated composite panels with improved performance and reduced fabrication process defects and flaws
Author (s): Umar Farooq and Peter Myler
Abstract:

This work is concerned with the fabrication of carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composite panels with reduced flaws and defects induced by fabrication process. Sample preparation and mechanical testing of samples are conducted to ensure quality for their design and development. Many different methods can be used to fabricate composite samples. Inexpensive methods are preferred in academic setting to produce samples having qualities similar to the industrial fabrication processes. Fabricated samples are inspected and checked with an inspection report consisting of rejection notice. Despite repeatable fabrication process rejection rate of fabricated sample is relatively higher and little literature is available on corrective actions taken to reduce the number of repetitive errors and defects in the fabrication process. The present study proposed corrective actions to prevent and reduce recurrence rate of flaws and defects detrimental to safety and performance of the product by correcting the root cause. Instant problems, gathered quality data, information correlation to determine causes, trends, and solutions have been described. Samples preparations method using press-clave is described and validity of samples’ quality was checked using visual and ultrasonic C-scan damage detection techniques. On the basis of corrective actions the rejection rate reduced up to 50%. This suggests that the corrective measures and techniques described are adequate for the assessment of sample quality for both development and fabrication purposes.

   

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Title: Vibration analysis of a cantilever beam for oblique cracks
Author (s): V. Khalkar and S. Ramachandran
Abstract:

Due to limited fatigue strength, the fatigue cracks ours in the material under service conditions. Cracks are also found inside the material due to poor manufacturing processes. Single sided cracks are produced in the material as a result of fluctuating loads. Crack generally may be of two types, transverse cracks and oblique cracks. The magnitude and orientation of the manufacturing defect decides the origin of either transverse cracks or oblique cracks in the beam. Hence it is very essential to study the effect of top side and bottom side oblique cracks on the beam. Out of two cracks i.e. top side or bottom side cracks, one crack will be comparatively more critical, hence it requires much attention. Crack get propagated in the material due to the action of fatigue load and at the end, it gives catastrophic failure. Understanding the dynamics of the cracked beam is of most importance because various vibration parameters like natural frequency, resonant amplitude of uncracked and cracked cases of a beam used as a basic criteria in the crack detection by vibration methods. In this study, most practical spring steel material (EN 47) is considered for the cantilever beam. ANSYS software used to find the natural frequency and zero frequency deflection of cracked cases of beams. Stiffness of defective beams is calculated by a conventional formula (Load / deflection). In this study, it is found that the value of stiffness and natural frequencies for top side cracked cases are comparatively on lower side than bottom side cracked cases when crack angle equal to 200. It is also found that up to 100 crack angle, the algebraic sum of stiffness of top side cracked cases is equal to the algebraic sum of stiffness of bottom side cracked cases. This condition is true also for natural frequency. It is also observed that, when crack angle is 200, then presence of top side crack and bottom side crack of the same configuration in the cantilever beam is a function of natural frequency, when cantilever beam is of a square cross section.

   

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Title: Experiment on sawdust gasification using open top downdraft gasifier incorporated with internal combustion engine
Author (s): Fajri Vidian, Hasan Basri and Adi Surjosatyo
Abstract:

An increase in world energy demand leads to a scarcity of fossil fuels. Producer gas from biomass sawdust gasification is one of the energy alternatives for the replacement of fossil fuels. The stability of producer gas from gasification is required for an application on internal combustion engine. The aim of the research is to develop and experiment on sawdust gasification system using open top downdraft gasifier incorporated with internal combustion engine to generate small-scale electricity. The gasifier feed was sawdust. The capacity of gasifier was about 2.5 kg per batch, and about 5 kg of sawdust was consumed per hour. The result of the study showed that combustible gas was produced after being in operation for 20 minutes. The application of producer gas on diesel engine could save about 50% on diesel oil.

   

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Title: Behavior of Bio-Concrete thick slab under repeated loading
Author (s): Ahmed Sultan Ali and Saba Taher Ojamy
Abstract:

Bio-concrete or “Bacterial Concrete” which can be produced by embedding bacteria in the concrete that are capable to precipitate calcite constantly and investigate its ability of remedy the network of cracks formed under repeated loads , its ability to reduce cracks impact on the concrete performance and improve its mechanical properties. Slabs are one of the most important parts of the structural construction, in which the thickness is small compared with the other dimensions and they sustain loads normal to their planes so in this study eight one way thick slabs with dimensions (1450*500*120) mm have been casted with two ways of bacteria addition (direct addition with mixing water and encapsulated bacteria in breaking bricks stone LWA particles) , six of them was tested in two stages to find out the effectiveness of bacteria in repairing the cracks and regain the performance of concrete. The experimental result showed that the bacterial direct addition specimen increase the compressive strength by about (11.8%) for bacterial direct addition, slabs were tested first under repeated loads up to eight cycles all the slabs with bacterial addition showed improvement in performance in varying degrees reached (4.85%) for first cracking load and (4.89%) for load of the eight cycle , and the specimen has been lifted in water for 28 days, than the second stage was started which was monotonic test , the main purpose is to investigate the bio-concrete ability of regain its performance beside its ability of healing the crack and increase the concrete sustainability, all specimen with both types of bacterial addition showed improvement in performance that’s reached (111%) for first crack loading and (5.63%)for ultimate load, Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis has been used to conduct the numerical investigation of the general behavior of thick slabs. ANSYS (Version 15.0) computer software was used in this work, the comparison between the experimental and numerical results showed a reasonable agreement (to cycle eight), and the solution of slab under repeated load until failure has been completed by using numerical solution.

   

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Title: Nonlinear control for grid connected wind energy system with multilevel inverter
Author (s): Hamid Ouadi, Adil Barra and Khalid El Majdoub
Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of interfacing a wind turbine generator with an electrical three phase grid in the presence of nonlinear loads. Wind systems are generally connected to the grid through an AC/DC inverter in the generator side, followed by a DC/AC converter in the grid side. In this work, the considered DC/AC converter is based on multilevel neutral point clamped topology, and will operates simultaneously as an interfacing system and as an active power filter. The control objective is threefold: (i) transferring the extracted active power from the wind turbine generator to the power grid; (ii) cancelling harmonic currents and reactive power absorbed by the nonlinear load; (iii) balancing capacitor voltages and regulating the DC link voltage. The first and second control aims will be achieved using the backstepping design technique. The third objective dealing with the DC link voltage regulator will be achieved with a sliding mode technical design. The performances of the proposed control system are formally analyzed using tools from Lyapunov's stability. Simulations show that the proposed controller achieved the listed objectives under widely varying load and wind speed profiles.

   

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Title: 0.1-10 THz single port log periodic antenna design based on hilbert graphene artificial magnetic conductor
Author (s): Hussein A. Abdulnabi, Refat T. Hussein and Raad S. Fyath
Abstract:

In this work, a single port toothed log periodic antenna (TLPA) based on Hilbert curve graphene artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is proposed for frequency band (0.1–10) THz operation. The bandwidth and resonance frequency of the proposed antenna can be tuned by changing the connected DC voltage which leads to variation in the chemical potential of graphene. The radiating element of the TLPA is gold patch placed on Hilbert curve graphene AMC. Exponential taper is used to satisfy impedance matching between the antenna and the feeder over the required frequency range. The simulation results reveal that 100 % of the frequency range satisfies s_11<-10 dB when chemical potential is1eV.

   

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Title: Improving quality of service in wireless sensor networks using neighbor constraint transmission centric distributed sink hole detection and network simulator II
Author (s): K. Karthigadevi, S. Balamurali and M. Venkatesulu
Abstract:

With the advances in technology, there has been an increasing interest in the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs are vulnerable to a wide class of attacks among which sinkhole attack puts severe threats to the security of such networks. The problems of sinkhole detection and mitigation have been studied through various methods, but suffer with the problems of high complex detection and overhead introduced by detection process. The quality of service has been degraded greatly by the impact of sinkhole attack because the malicious node can read much information about the source or the communications; this helps malicious nodes to perform various kinds of attacks. In order to overcome such drawbacks of network security, we propose a novel approach for sinkhole detection to support Quality of Service (QOS) development of wireless sensor networks. The method acts as a distributed one where the sinkhole detection is performed in all the nodes of the network. The node collects the neighbor information about the location and other transmission details. From the collected neighbor information, the node which presents in many nodes neighbor matrix is identified. The problem of multiple identification is resolved by verifying the transmission performed through other neighbors of the malicious node. From the traffic incurred in the neighbor of malicious node is used to verify the location or traffic sent by the malicious node. The method produces efficient results in sinkhole detection and increases the throughput. Also the method reduces the packet drop ratio and reduces the frequency of sinkhole detection.

   

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Title: Study on strength and durability parameters of geo polymer concrete with GGBS for 12m and 14m alkali activators
Author (s): Md. Ishaq Jaffery, Y. Himath Kumar and B. Sarath Chandra Kumar
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Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. Concrete plays a vital role in the development of infrastructure leading to second most consumed material next to water in the world. As concrete being a versatile material used for wide varieties under various conditions, ordinary concrete may fail to exhibit the desired quality, performance, and durability. And also to reduce the cost of construction and increase the performance of concrete without losing its original properties is achieved by replacing with suitable pozzalonic material. This paper deals with complete replacement of cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The main objective of this study is to investigate the strength and durability parameters of geopolymer concrete for 12M and 14M .For each mix standard sizes of cubes, cylinders and prisms were casted and tested. For strength at a age of 3,7,28 days and for durability at a age of 30 days chemical curing 30 days The obtained results are then compared to conserve the natural resources along with development of desired characteristics.

   

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Title: Geotechnical characterization of local materials used in road construction in the Brazzaville Area, Congo
Author (s): David Bilembi, Hilaire Elenga, Timothee Nsongo, Bernard Mabiala and Adolphe Kimpena
Abstract:

The survey of the road construction materials within the Brazzaville Area in the Congo was conducted on the geotechnical data of materials collected from different sites in order to establish a correlation with the norms of their use in Civil Engineering fields. These data include grading curves, consistency limits for the fine fraction, modified Proctor test results and CBR tests. Those data were subjected to classical statistic processing (characterization of every geotechnical parameter variability, study of correlations between parameters). The survey concludes that the material samples analyzed present so close physical properties that they cannot be clearly distinguished through statistical analysis. The overall analysis of the CBR index values varies depending on the materials used. As a consequence. These variations cause the deterioration of the pavement structure. The constituents that comply with the above defined physical properties can be used as materials of a pavement structural layer. The deterioration effects and the granular fragmentation from the Inkisi formations help appreciate the Micro-Deval coefficient and the Los Angeles coefficient, for the figures of both coefficients and result in high figures which mean better basic mechanical properties of the foundation and structural layers.

   

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Title: On designing a computational experiment system for various engineering interpretations of a global optimization problem
Author (s): A. G. Pevneva, G. M. Penkov and M. D. Bakiev
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This article proposes a software system design to achieve a numerical solution of a global optimization problem. A key part of it is the classification of global search algorithms by a methodological criterion, which enables a systematic comparative analysis of specific implementations of each method within the scope of engineering interpretations of a global optimization problem. The proposed architecture accommodates modular extensions of the system, which allows designing algorithmic modifications of global search methods of various classes, taking into account the impact of parameter numerical values on computation performance.

   

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Title: Neuro-PID control for nonlinear plants with variable parameters
Author (s): M. V. Burakov and V. G. Kurbanov
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The synthesis technique of neuro-PID controller as three-channel structure in which each channel has piecewise-and-linear activation function which settings are configured by means of a genetic algorithm is considered in the article. The given examples of modeling show that the offered option of the organization of the controller can be successfully used in control of nonlinear objects with variable parameters for which linear PID-regulators cannot provide acceptable quality of control.

   

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Title: Phasor diagram analysis for non-salient pole synchronous generator
Author (s): Mohd. Zaifulrizal Zainol, Mohd. Adib Hakimin Ab.Halim Mohd Rohaimi Mohd Dahalan, Fadzrul Izzudin Abd Aziz, Azhar Othman and Atzroulnizam Abu
Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis of non-salient pole synchronous generator using phasor diagram. The design of non-salient pole synchronous are developed by using MATLAB software. From the design of the non-salient pole synchronous generator, the output characteristic of the generator can be determined. From the output of the generator, the performance of the generator such as speed, current, voltage and power can be analyzed.

   

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Title: Effect of aluminum phosphate on structural and flame retardant properties of composites fiberglass
Author (s): Asmalina Mohamed Saat, Asmawi Abd Malik, Adila Azmi, Mohamad Fadzil Abd Latif, Nur Ermadiana Ramlee and Mohd. Rafie Johan
Abstract:

Composite fiberglass boats are basically constructed with three broad groups of resin, reinforcement and core material. The combination of these material forms high strength, low density, economic and easy to manufacture structure for boat construction. In the composite system, resin is one of components that has high flammability properties. Phosphate types of fire retardants are well known can increase the fire retardance properties by the higher retention due to the char formation. This study was conducted to analyse the interaction of modified polyester resin and composites fiberglass with aluminum phosphate as new fire retardance. The interaction mechanism of aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) was investigated in seven layers composite fiberglass system. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of modified polyester resin and composite fiberglass showed an improved of reaction bonding stability at 5wt% of AlPO4 respectively. Flammability properties of composite obtained using vertical burning (UL 94) test method produced a similar finding.

   

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Title: Research on the ship propeller blade to determine changes in the mechanical properties based on the forces projection
Author (s): M. A. Ishak, Sulaiman S., Baharudin B. T. H. T. and Syajaratunnur Y.
Abstract:

The ship propeller is a key component in producing the propulsion force of the ship motion. Therefore the stability of structure strength is required to ensure the effectiveness of propulsion force generation. This research examines the existing ship propeller and the effects of casted specimen on the changes of mechanical properties of the propeller structure. The specimen prepared is referred to ASTM E8 2008 standard and including two projections is Longitude and Latitude projected, according to the forces analysis exerted on blade structure. The experiments perform on the used propeller by cutting into pieces of specimen and casted specimen of copper alloy of Nickel Aluminium Bronze (Ni-Al-Br). The mechanical testing is conducted on tensile test, tensile strength and hardness test. The results show strong influence of the mechanical properties of existing propeller are lower from the standard requirement and different in each specimen projection of Yield Strength is 23.67% to 31.84% and the Tensile Strength is 12.20% to 20.17%, and the elongation percentage is 28.19% to 35%, respectively. The latitude projection shows greater compared to longitude projection. An experimental result for the casted specimen showed a reading of mechanical properties is 3% to 5% difference compared to the cutting specimen. From the results of these experiments have found that fixing projections in this study are reasonable and can be used in subsequent studies and mechanical properties of the material are not homogenous across the blade structure. Therefore, a comprehensive study should be undertaken to overcome this problem in the future.

   

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Title: A CFD RANS cavitation prediction for propellers
Author (s): Iwan Mustaffa Kamal and Tuan Muhammad Amier Tuan Mohd. Yusof
Abstract:

Cavitation is a general fluid mechanics phenomenon which can occur whenever a liquid is used in a machine which induces pressure and velocity fluctuations in the fluid. The analysis of the cavitation of a screw propeller normally done in a cavitation tunnel is highly complex, difficult and time consuming. With the advances of the computer, the numerical prediction of cavitations can be done quite faster compared to the tedious manual experimentation in a cavitation tunnel. Nowadays new orientations in analysis of propeller in steady and unsteady flow are Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method: using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The flow around propeller can be derived from the equations of motions using boundary conditions. Therefore the inception of the cavitation can be predicted. Therefore this paper main aim is to present the application of CFD in simulating the cavitation behavior of ship propellers. The propeller chosen for this study is the Gawn KCA series. The code selected for the CFD in this project is FINETM/TURBO. The results of the simulated cavitation in CFD were validated with existing experimental data. The sheet cavitations at the suction side of the propeller blade modelled by the CFD were found to be in close agreement with the existing experimental results. It was found that the CFD somehow failed to model the tip vortex cavitation occurring at the tip of the propeller blades.

   

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Title: Investigation on the effect of bulbous bow shape to the wave-making resistance of an ultra large container carrier (ULCC)
Author (s): Hamdan Nuruddin, Iwan Mustaffa Kamal, Muhammad Nasuha Mansor and Nik Muhammad Hafidz
Abstract:

The bulbous bow of a ship reduce the wave-making resistance of the vessel by adding another wave system which is created by the bulb and this interfere with the wave system created by the bow of the vessel. These two wave system partially cancel out each other and reduce the wave elevation and the wave making resistance. The main aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of fore-body shape particularly the bulbous bow to the wave-making resistance of an ultra large container carrier. It was also the aim of this project to identify the optimized form of the bulbous bow design. The general idea is a set of bulbous bows is systematically created based on the bulb parameters. A commercial CFD code SHIPFLOW computes the flow and the pressure distribution around the hull. With these results the wave-making resistance of systematically varied were analyzed. An optimized bulbous bow design was chosen over other 27 bulbous designs. It was found that the wave resistance can be reduced by lengthening the bulb protruding length, widening the bulb breadth and increasing the bulb height.

   

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Title: A smart trolley with RFID implementation: A survey among customers
Author (s): Ismila Che Ishak, Muhammad Munawwir Muslim, Shaiful Bakri Ismail, Muhammad Abdul Mun’aim Mohd. Idrus and Maziah Mat Ali
Abstract:

Smart trolley with Innovative RFID is proposed to facilitate users while shopping. It provides several benefits such as to facilitate users to search for things quickly without looking for assistants from promoter for the location of the items, to inform customers the amount of goods purchased and to allow customers to control financial budget while shopping. The main objective of this research is to identify the results of a market survey on a smart trolley with innovative RFID implementation among the users. The scope of the research is conducted among staff, customers and suppliers in Giant Hypermarket, Bandar Seri Manjung, Perak. A total of 250 questionnaires has been distributed to customers, staffs and suppliers. 200 questionnaires were collected which consists copies from 140 customers, 50 Giant Hypermarket staff and 10 suppliers. Three elements tested in the research covers on spending time, budget control and product layout. These elements are selected as an indicator from customers to enhance the importance of smart trolley implementation. Based on the mean, it shows that the highest element feedback from customers is budget control, it is because this new smart trolley could assist customers in purchasing expenses while shopping, thus it will help their money flow.

   

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Title: Crawling ROV for irregular terrain seafloor discovery
Author (s): A. A. Makarimi, G. M. Fadli, R. R. Hafidz, A. M. Ibrahim, A. Atzrounizam, M. S. Noorazlina, A. J. K. Arieff and N. A. A. Azfar
Abstract:

Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROVs) have a significant support role and play a dominant underwater robotics which has very high demand in marine and offshore field. A bottom founded-ROV give an additional value from normal ROV to expand research and survey on seafloors. Known as UniKL Amphibious Research Crawler I (UARC I) is designed to operate underwater and in the surface zone up to a depth of 15 meters and it equipped with the video camera. This vehicle is controlled by a controlled cable from the beach or boat up to the distance of 15 meters for inspection and seafloor discovery. This vehicle specially design to withstand with the Malaysia irregular terrain seafloor. The simulations of the dynamic motion for climbing over a hump and the slip characteristics shows the vehicle can work very well, and it reveals the physics of the crawler-type ROV’s motion. Capable of carrying the load up to 15 kg with the body weight of 13.5 kg it can allows the enhancement with the robotic grips or additional accessories in the future. It is good start to fabricating the light weight crawling ROV with effective cost and can works at any asymmetrical terrain and sand.

   

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Title: CFD analysis on the effects of exhaust backpressure generated by four-stroke marine diesel generator after modification of silencer and exhaust flow design
Author (s): Ridwan Saputra Nursal, Abdul Hadi Hashim, Nor Isha Nordin, Mohd. Afandi Abdul Hamid and Mohd. Redzuwan Danuri
Abstract:

This study is to analyze the exhaust backpressure of older and new exhaust piping design and silencer or muffler position after modification of the exhaust system of a 4-stroke marine diesel generator which operates at Marine Generator Workshop, Ungku Omar Polytechnic, Malaysia. The purpose of the exhaust system modification is to collect the exhaust gases produced inside combustion chamber of the engine cylinders and discharge them as quickly and silently as possible to atmosphere. Generally the better a silencer or muffler is at attenuating sound the more backpressure is generated. In a reactive silencer where good attenuation is achieved, the exhaust gases are forced to pass through numerous geometry changes of exhaust system and a fair amount of backpressure may be generated, which reduces the power output of the engine slightly. However, too much backpressure generated may led the power losses, weakening the engine performance and increased the fuel consumption. Henceforth, the study is aims to find the relationship between the exhaust backpressure levels occurred in exhaust flow design as well as silencer position and yet propose the best design to ensure the optimization of engine performance. The actual dimensions of the exhaust system is used to perform the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation and analysis. The performance of an exhaust system is based on velocity and exhaust backpressure. Investigation in CFD was performed on four parameters comprises manifold temperature, manifold pressure, exhaust piping system temperature and atmosphere pressure. Results of CFD simulation was showed in the form of pressure and velocity contours and streamline. This study found the modification of exhaust piping design of the 4-stroke marine diesel generator increased the backpressure up to 94.7%.

   

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Title: A solution of an improper integral equation of ship wave resistance
Author (s): Md. Salim Kamil and Mazlan Muslim
Abstract:

Ship wave resistance had been a subject of continuous in depth study since the late 1800. The pioneer work on ship wave resistance was by Michell (1898) and followed by many studies thereafter. The ship wave equation derived and used by Michell is an improper integral form. Wigley (1926-1948) carried out further works extensively, improvised and solved the Michell ship wave resistance equation theoretically and experimentally using mathematical hull forms of thin ships. Wigley solved the equation with the assumption that the integral is convergent and errors in the remainders were appreciably negligible. Nevertheless the tendency of the ship wave resistance becoming divergent is obvious for hulls of larger angles of entrance. The objective of the paper is to present a solution for a divergent or an improper integral equation of ship wave resistance. The results matched closely with experimental results and of better accuracy as compared with theoretical results obtained from different methods performed by several other authors. This method of solution would be practical and useful engineering tool for the prediction of ship hull performance and optimization in terms of the wave resistance and hence the total resistance with the ultimate aim for application in ship powering estimates.

   

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Title: Ultrasonic transducer attenuation behavior of fiber glass composite laminates (FGCL) through signal filtering approach
Author (s): M. F. Mahmod, Elmi Abu Bakar and M. Z. Mohamed Pauzi
Abstract:

In ultrasonic non-destructive tests, transducer is one of the most part need to determine carefully. The attenuation behavior of transducer will impact overall ultrasonic measurement accuracy base on signal processing analysis. In normal applications, ultrasonic inspector relies on transducer calibration result produced by the manufacturer where there are no doubts to question the accuracy of measurement results. However, the attenuation behavior of transducer can be defined based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value. In this paper, the attenuation behavior of ultrasonic transducer was investigated based on SNR value through signal filtering approach. Since the detection of flaw in composite laminates using ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) approach is highly complex due to noise occurrences, several types of filter were applied and compared each other in order to propose the suggested filter base on SNR result. A 2.25 MHz single crystal immersion transducer is used to perform ultrasonic scanning for composite laminates material which is thickness up to 7.4 mm with scanning rate 7.50 mm/sec under lab condition. As a comparison result, when applying discrete wavelet transform (DWT) de-noising approach, SNR was enhanced and caused defect detection was easily identified.

   

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Title: Vision mobile robot system with color optical sensor
Author (s): Mohd. Daud bin Isa, Ahmad Rakimi bin Mohammad and Muhammad Zubir Bin Mohd. Hanifah
Abstract:

A basic design and configuration of Vision Mobile Robot System (VMRS) using a camera with color optical sensor for FIRA event in RoboSot challenge is presented. As a result, VMRS called Color Optic Sensor Robot (COSBot) had been produced. A Pixy CMUCam5 with capabilities of remember seven different color signatures, find hundreds of objects at the same time, super-fast processing at 50 frames a second, and can synchronous serial data used by microcontrollers for communicating with quickly over short distances is adopted in this system as a color sensor and main device used in this system. The other hardware and software of the devices used in the VMRS are also explained. By carefully design and configure the optical part and electrical part with adopting a simple algorithm for color identification and image processing using C++ programming and Pixy Mon application software the COSBot realized with relatively high accuracy and reasonable speed. The results show that COSBot can be upgraded in term of model and material. Consequently it can be used as part of the color vision in intelligent robots and it may can be applied to color quality monitoring in many industrial fields such services robotic application and others.

   

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Title: Effects of post weld heat treatment on hardness value of A36 carbon steel welded joints by Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Author (s): Puteri Zirwatul Nadila Megat Zamanhuri, Norfadhlina Khalid and Ahmad Azfar Daud
Abstract:

This study is conducted to assess the influence of post weld heat treatment on hardness value. The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the hardness value before and after post weld heat treatment (PWHT) with three different soaking temperatures and three ASTM A36 carbon steel specimens. The specimen is welded by using Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process and the AWS E6013 electrode is used with welding current range from 90A-100A. All the specimens were inspected using Ultrasonic Testing (UT) before and after post weld heat treatment (PWHT) process. The specimens in PWHT process were subjected to three different soaking temperatures which are 490°C, 540°C, and 610°C. The Brinell hardness testing process is the last process where the result is observed from hardness value and it can be concluded that by decreasing the hardness value of the welded structure, the brittle fracture risk and improve the ductility will be minimized.

   

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Title: Low velocity impact properties of polypropylene (pp) honeycomb core sandwich structure with glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminated facesheet
Author (s): Nurashikin Sawal, Muhammad Hanif Abd Rahman, M. Sabri and Hazizan M. A.
Abstract:

The low velocity impact response of thermoplastic honeycomb core from polypropylene (PP) laminated with non-metallic facesheet made from glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) has been investigated by conducting drop weight impact test characterize with different drop heights displacement. Drop weight test was performed and average data was collected for each specimen, which is also included maximum impact force, impact energy, impact damage area, and time were evaluated and compared. The experimental result found that the energy absorbing effectiveness factor increases with the increasing of the impact energy. Same goes to the increasing of the impact force, it were also increasing the impact energy, respectively. A consequent damage was inspected visually and obvious when the impact energy is high, the energy absorbed by the specimen also high and hence, propagation of the impact damage area was also increased. Therefore, the significant mark of indented will be displayed clearly on the damage area mostly on upper facesheet.

   

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Title: The effect of N550 carbon black in polyester resin for fire-retardant application in marine composite
Author (s): Asmawi A. M., Syarmela Allauldin, Nurshahnawal Yaacob, Asmalina Saat, Azura Ahmad Radzi, Mohd. Zamani Ahmad and Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad
Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the influence of N550 carbon black (CBN550) series in polyester resin (wax and non –wax type). The CBN550 was added into polyester resin at different weight percentages with a curing agent. The investigation is mainly to study the effect on fire retardance application in marine composite structure. The fire-resistant structural composites samples of 1000 mm by 1000 mm prepared which consist of 10 of composite mats layer in combination of CSM 450 g/m² and Woven Roving 600 g/m². The carbon black (CB) volume fraction range from/with 0% to 20% volume fractions. Optical observation revealed the most suitable fraction of CBN550 in wax polyester resin is at 10% and non-wax polyester resin is also at 10%. The fire resistance behavior of this CBN550 - CSM 450 g/m² - Woven Roving 600 g/m² composite (polyester wax) and polyester non wax was investigated by Fire Test Procedure Code-Resolution A.653 [1]. Though smaller filler size escalates the rheological behavior and values outstandingly at initial reading compare to large particles but it slow down the curing processdue to its small particle size, large surface area and high dispersion rate. Experimental data showed the retardance level has been increased up to 56.66% in non-wax type polyester resin (10%/CBN550) and 30.14% in wax polyester resin (10%/CBN550). The improvement in fire resistance points are due to the presence of CBN550 which acts as a positive additive in both polyester resin wax and non-wax. Filling CBN550 in polyester resin also reduces the cost of the end products. The preliminary results suggested that CBN550should attend to next level of experiment investigation such as oxygen content, TG value, microstructure as well as mechanical destructive test. The CBN550 could be a suitable candidate for fire retardance application in marine composite structure. In conclusion, crystallinity of polyester resin increases with additional of CB particles.

   

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Title: The development of subsystem of accommodation to faults for dead reckoning system of autonomous underwater vehicles
Author (s): Vladimir Filaretov, Alexey Zhirabok, Alexander Zuev and Alexander Procenko
Abstract:

This paper is dedicated to developing of new method of synthesis of subsystem of accommodation to continuous faults for dead reckoning system (DRS) of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). Proposed method consists of three basic stages. On the first step, the problem of detection and localization of faults through the use of kinematic model of AUV and special data fusion from its navigation sensors is solved. On the second stage, the task of identification of fault values is solved by the introduction of additional observers with feedback by residual signals. In the third stage additional signals, compensating the faults are formed in the respective control channels of AUV. The advantage of proposed method is simplicity of realization and high precision of compensation of the revealed faults in the conditions of uncertainty and essential variability of parameters of environment. The results of mathematical simulation is fully confirmed the efficiency and high performance of the proposed method.

   

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Title: Effect of aluminum phosphate on mechanical and flame retardant properties of composites fiberglass
Author (s): Asmalina Mohamed Saat, Asmawi Abd Malik, Adila Azmi, Mohamad Fadzil Abd Latif, Nur Ermadiana Ramlee and Mohd. Rafie Johan
Abstract:

In marine industries especially in fiberglass boat making, material selection is instrumental for optimal product performance and economy. Mechanical properties of laminated fiberglass composite containing polyester resin, fiberglass and new fire retardant additive fabricated by Hand lay-up technique were investigated. The fire retardancy mechanism and mechanical properties of aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) were investigated in seven layers composite fiberglass system. E-glass / Polyester composite of AlPO4 was prepared with various different ratio of Aluminum Phosphates. Composite system with addition of 5wt% AlPO4 observed maximum strength in tensile, flexural and impact test. Fire retardant test also showed an optimized performance in similar ratio.

   

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Title: Carbonization CBN550 effect on tensile properties of composite for marine structure application
Author (s): Nurshahnawal Yaacob, Asmawi A. M., Asmalina Saat, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad, Mohd. Zamani Ahmad and Azura Ahmad Radzi
Abstract:

The composites have gained commercial success, where strength, stiffness, durability and light weight are required as well as retardant capacity. Improvement has been made such new series of resin such as vinyl ester and epoxy type[1, 2]. However 95% of pleasure vessels and boats under 60 feet today are still made with polyester resin. The main consideration for most composite builders is cost, with performance and more importantly value for money often being a secondary consideration. Therefore, this study investigate the tensile – mechanical effects of mixing carbon black CBN550 with wax and non-wax type resin and manufactured according to fiber orientation of [0o] and [90o]. The 10% CBN550 exhibit highest reading for stress under [90o] fiber orientation and the lowest reading when arranged at [0o] fiber orientation. The preliminary study on CBN550 flammability has indicated the suitability for this study to pursue in. The structural composites samples of 1000 mm by 1000 mm prepared which consist of 10 of composite mats layer in combination of CSM 450 g/m² and Woven Roving 600 g/m². The carbon black (CB) volume fraction range from/with 0% to 20% volume fractions. Optical observation revealed the most suitable fraction of CBN550 in wax polyester resin is at 10% and non-wax polyester resin is also at 10%. The fire resistance behavior of this CBN550 - CSM 450 g/m² - Woven Roving 600 g/m² composite (polyester wax) and polyester non wax was investigated previously as per[3]. This results are in line with the finding of the maximum load where the highest reading was recorded by the 10%CBN550 specimen. This study showed that the introduction of carbon black into the resin mixture helps reinforce the matrix materials. The results suggested that CBN550 mixture should attend to next level of experiment investigation such as oxygen content, TG value, microstructure and other mechanical destructive test. The CBN550 could be a suitable candidate for fire retardance application in marine composite structure.

   

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Title: Analysis of acoustic emission on surface roughness during end milling
Author (s): Nazrin Mokhtar, Intan Yasmin Ismail, Mebrahitom Asmelash, Hafizi Zohari and Azmir Azhari
Abstract:

This paper discusses the findings on the analysis of surface roughness with the acoustic emission (AE) produced during end milling process. Different parameters were chosen for each experiment, namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. All data collected from the AE sensor were captured using AEWin software and later analyzed in MATLAB software. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method was used for data analysis to convert time domain into frequency domain signal, allowing the RMS, amplitude and frequency to be calculated. The results indicate that the most influential parameter to the surface roughness are firstly feed rate, followed by cutting speed, and finally depth of cut. It is found that as cutting speed increases, the surface roughness decreases with a higher amplitude of RMS signal. In case of increasing feed rate, the surface roughness increases with a higher amplitude of RMS signal. Lastly, increasing the depth of cut shows negligible effect towards the surface roughness and amplitude of RMS. The result have shown that the AE components responded effectively to the changes of occurrences in milling process with respect to specimen’s surface roughness.

   

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Title: Spray characteristics of a multi-circular jet plate in an air-assisted atomizer using Schlieren photography
Author (s): Shahrin Hisham Amirnordin, Amir Khalid, Azwan Sapit, Bukhari Manshoor, Muhammad Firdaus Sahari and Mas Fawzi
Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of a multi-circular jet plate on the spray characteristics of an air-assisted atomizer in a burner system. Schlieren photography is used to capture spray images, and different parameters, such as spray tip penetration, spray angle, and spray area, are analyzed. Three types of plates with different geometries and open area ratios are studied at equivalence ratios of 0.5 to 0.9 (lean condition) and 1.0 (stoichiometric condition). Results show that a high fuel flow rate increases the spray penetration and spray area but reduces the spray angle. Application of the multi-circular jet plate in the burner system affects spray behavior and contributes to the combustion performance and emission of the burner system.

   

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Title: Investigation on resistance effects through towing test and CFD analysis on catamaran boat hull form
Author (s): Ridwan Saputra Nursal, Nor Isha Nordin, Marzuki Mohammad, Mohd. Afandi Abd Hamid, Mohd. Naim Awang and Ahmad Azrizal Mohd. Ariffin
Abstract:

In recent years, high speed vessel received additional attention and being developed intentionally for catamaran boat race, passenger vessel, military vessel and recreational purposes. Most of hull forms used in these high speed boat types is multi-hull. Whilst the twin hull type vessel is the most popular among the multi-hulls because of their inherent features such as large deck area, better stability, lower wave-making resistance at high speeds and better safety. Since the propulsive power of any marine vehicle depends mainly on its resistance characteristics, it is required to predict the resistance of the vessel either in theoretically, experimentally and numerical study. In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out both experimental and numerical investigations on the resistance characteristics as well as the comparison of an existing twin hull without tunnel used in developed of human powered hydrofoil. This study is expected to minimize the variation of resistance in range of 10% or les between both methods.

   

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Title: Seawater fluid structure interaction analysis through bearing liner structural modification approach
Author (s): Saw C. L., Syed Amear S. A., Choong C. G. and Shahril J.
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Wide replacement of oil lubrication for marine journal bearing to seawater lubricated is to protect marine aquatic from rapid oil leak and intentionally oil waste pollution. The cause of bearing liner and propeller shaft wear and eroded are the low viscosity of seawater, marine growth, seawater flow and start up friction that disrupt the hydrodynamics film of lubricant. 3D journal bearing model has been developed with 10, 15, 20 grooves liner structural modification and inclusive of dimple instead of plain journal bearing. The Fluid Structure Interaction simulation shows that 20 grooves liner with dimples has the least deformation with von mises stress 717.37 Pa due to lubrication by dimples lubricant. The more grooves and dimples shows that more cooling effect by seawater flowing through the bearing by reducing the friction wear and increase the hydrodynamic pressure.

   

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Title: Analysis on temperature setting for extruding polylactic acid using open-source 3D printer
Author (s): Nor Aiman Bin Sukindar, Mohd. Khairol Anuar Bin Mohd. Ariffin, B. T. Hang Tuah Bin Baharudin, Che Nor Aiza Binti Jaafar and Mohd. Idris Shah Bin Ismail
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The Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology has been developed since its original introduction, leading to a significant improvement in the manufacture of high-quality finished products. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a RP technology that has been widely used because of the flexibility of the FDM process. Despite the popularity of the FDM machines, cost remains a major issue, motivating the development of low-cost open-source 3D printing. However, the system and process of open-source 3D printing needs to be investigated, particularly along the highly complex liquefier; observation of the material flow inside the liquefier is essential for this purpose. This paper examines the temperature distribution of the liquefier and the flow behavior of the material inside the liquefier using finite element analysis (FEA). The liquefier temperature must be at 190°C because higher temperatures cause the material to burn and lower temperatures may be detrimental for the extrusion process. Therefore, this study focuses on identifying the optimum printing temperature for the widely used polylactic acid (PLA) filaments. A new cylindrical liquefier design has been proposed to achieve a better heat distribution, and an optimum printing temperature of 190°C (463.15K) has been suggested for extruding PLA material using open-source 3D printing.

   

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Title: Low-level processing approach using GUI for ultrasonic C-scan defects determination of composite material
Author (s): M. F. Mahmod, Elmi Abu Bakar, Raiminor Ramzi and M. F. Zainal Abidin
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Ultrasonic testing (UT) are the most common technique used for composite laminated non-destructive (NDT) inspection. In the current practice, the dependency of human interpretation during perform UT resulted in inequality detection issues on inspection process step. This paper presents an improvement of UT approach using graphical user interface (GUI) to provide defect percentage of C-scan image. Several of composite laminated C-scan defect image was identified before the defect percentage being calculated. The intensity difference between defect and non-defect image was calculated in this GUI. Base on this experimental results shows that the result of defect calculation was reliable which is proved by calibrated image. The different between an ideal and actual defect calculation is 0.69 % are considered insignificant and negligible. The average execution time for three test series is between 7.35 sec to 8.52 sec while the longest time is 9.52 sec. Since the execution time is not exceed 10 sec and acceptable. Instead of application, this GUI, however, able to operate only in offline and flat surface condition.

   

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Title: Development of model for controlling Contract Change Order in pier project (Case Study in North Sulawesi, Indonesia)
Author (s): Estrellita Y. V. Waney, Mycle M. Wala and Harson Kapoh
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This paper focuses on the change in the work construction contract which is commonly called work change order or Contract Change Order. This change can alter the cost of the contract specifications and the project schedule. The purposes of this study are to identify factors that cause contract change order and to design a model for controlling contract change order (CCO) in term of cost performance at the government pier project implementation, particularly in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study methods are primary data collection by running questionnaires and secondary data from the office of the Department of Transportation and contractor companies document. For designing an application model, the methods used include waterfall method, architecture method, system performance method and brainstorming by focus group discussion. The dependent variable in this study is the Cost Performance (Y) and the independent variables are Construction Factor (X1), Administrative Factor (X2), and Resources Factor (X3). Statistical analysis results showed that partially Construction Factor, Administration Factor and Resources Factor significantly influence the cost performance. Simultaneously, these three factors also significantly influence and have a very strong positive correlation with the Cost Performance. The application model developed for controlling CCO can present the prediction of CCO by rating the percentage of CCO probability. Black-box test method used for trial stage produces what is expected by presenting the prediction percentage of 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and not CCO. All results displayed are designed flowchart.

   

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