ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                        February 2019  |  Vol. 14  No. 4
   
Title: Modification of silicone rubber by added PMMA and natural nanoparticle used for maxillofacial prosthesis applications
Author (s): Sihama Issa Salih, Jawad Kadhim Oleiwi and Hajir Mohammed Ali
Abstract:

As a result of the increased incidence cases for a maxillofacial due to accidents and cases of disease has become necessary to work on the production of alternative materials for sites damaged in this area. The particularly important bio material is silicone rubber, which is widely used in damaged maxillofacial affected areas replacement surgery. The aim of this research, prepared a nano composites materials, from polymer blend (silicone rubber: 5% PMMA) reinforced by two different type of natural nano-powders. Pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP) and Seeds powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA) with loading level (0.0, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%). Some mechanical properties such as tensile, hardness, compression and surface roughness were test, as well as, FTIR, DSC and SEM tests were done on prepared sample. The results showed that the optimum percent of both Pomegranate Peels Powder (PPP) and Seeds powder of dates Ajwa are 0.2%, 0.3 respectively that have ideal characteristic.

   

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Title: Calculating the indexes of earned value for assessment the performance of waste water treatment plant
Author (s): Firas Kh. Jaber, Saba W. Hachem and Faiq M. S. Al-Zwainy
Abstract:

Earned value system appears to be a compelling technique to use on waste water treatment plant projects to better understand and manage performance. The main objective of this study is the practical application of the concept of the earned value management acquired in the Al-Hamza water treatment plant project using Microsoft Project 2016 and finding the performance parameters for the Al-Hamza project, CPI, SPI, and TCPI. Al-Hamzah waste water treatment plant project was constructed in 2017 in Republic of Iraq. The data were collected through the field study of the researcher in the Al-Hamzah project. The project schedule was prepared and then the progress of the work was reviewed periodically and compared to the values planned with the actual values for the cost and duration. It is found that the earned value concept is still not been fully used and recognized within the Iraqi companies, while this research covered the concept of earned value as a trend analysis within the Iraqi construction, the researcher found that the earned value concept is still not been fully used and recognized within the Iraqi companies, reasons for that is not part of this research and can be a subject for further research. While this research covered the concept of earned value as a trend novel analysis within the Iraqi construction, the researcher found that the concept of the earned value management is not fully accepted and acknowledged within other industries; where earned value could be used for help. The engineering industry also fails to fully utilize the concept of earned value. The researcher agrees that further research into the concept of earned value within other industry is worth researching as well as benefits of earned value as a performance measuring tool.

   

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Title: Synthesis and characterization of zinc tungstate oxides films by advanced controlled chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique
Author (s): Zena A. Salman, Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead and Farhad M. Othman
Abstract:

For the first time zinc tungstate semiconductor oxides films (ZnWO4) was successfully synthesized simply by advanced controlled chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique, via employed double nozzle instead of single nozzle using tungstic acid and zinc chloride solutions at three different compositions and spray separately at same time on heated silicone (n-type) substrate at 600 °C, followed by annealing treatment for one hour at 500 °C. The crystal structure, microstructure and morphology properties of prepared films were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. According to characterization techniques, a material of well-crystallized monoclinic phase ZnWO4 films with rod-type 1D microstructures close to needle structure were obtained from using this advance technique, with thickness about 500 nm. Such these structures have been recognized as one of the most efficient microstructures especially in gas sensor applications due to their large specific surface area.

   

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Title: A novel dual electrode and gate engineered doping-less TFET for performance enhancement
Author (s): Saravana Selvan, Suen Wei, Umayal, Gobbi Ramasamy and Mukter Zaman
Abstract:

Tunnel FET (TFET) is a promising device for ultra-low power applications because it has the benefits of band to band tunneling (BTBT) behavior of operating mechanism and achieving the sub-threshold swing (SS) value of less than 60mV/dec. However, it suffers from low ON state current and ambipolar in nature. In addition, it also has poor analog/RF performances. To address these problems, a novel dual electrode and a double metal gate Doping-less TFET (DE-DMGDLTFET) is proposed in this work by using charge plasma technique. To improve the BTBT rate and ON-state current, a tunneling gate length (Ltg) of proper work function is created at the source-channel junction. The distance between the source and gate electrode (Lgs) is kept at a minimum of 2 nm significantly, to reduce the ambipolar behavior. To enhance the analog/RF performance, a dual electrode structure is proposed on both sides of source and drain regions to induce the carriers uniformly. By using Silvaco TCAD simulator, different n-type DLTFET structures are designed and compared. The overall DC and analog/RF performance of all the DLTFETs are investigated. The proposed DE-DMGDLTFET achieved a higher ON current of5.26 x 10-7 A/µm at Vgs and Vds =0.5 V, SS of 30.27 mV/dec, Cut-off frequency range from MHZ to GHz and suppress the ambipolar order of 1010 effectively.

   

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Title: Engineered Cementitious Composite as an innovative durable material: A review
Author (s): Indra Komaraa, Asdam Tambusayb, Wahyuniarsih Sutrisnoc and Priyo Suprobod
Abstract:

This paper studies recent research on the durability properties of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). As the necessity for economic infrastructure increases worldwide to cater for the rehabilitation of concrete structures that are damaged by continuous wear and environmental conditions. The reviewed subjects for ECC and normal concrete include to characterize mix design, to explain age at cracking, to evaluate possible crack width and determine the interfacial bond strength and strength capacity which can lead to assess the durability of ECC. Several key parameters such as compressive strength, tensile strength, tensile relaxation, elastic modulus, drying shrinkage, bond strength and crack resistance were considered. Conversely, ECC displays superior tensile strain capacity compared to normal concrete. Unlike ordinary cement-based materials, ECC strain hardens after the first cracking and behaves similarly to ductile metals. The microcracking behavior contributes towards crack width control, whereby even under large imposed deformation, crack sizes remain relatively small (less than 100 µm). Under favorable conditions, it has been experimentally reviewed that ECC has self-healing capability. Hence, the crack control and self-healing properties may take advantage of the durability issues that most concrete structures face today. All these characteristics suggest that ECC can be potentially used on a larger scale in the field of repair.

   

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Title: Thermal comfort of colonial office building, Semarang using EnergyPlus simulation
Author (s): Antonius Ardiyanto, N. H. Hamid and Yeri Sutopo
Abstract:

Many colonial office buildings are located in the Old City of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia have a passive cooling system. These office buildings are characterized by high ceilings and roof angles, thick wall panel and normally used as a gallery under sun shading. The Djakarta Lloyd office room was selected to determine the correlation between the width of sun shading and percentage of wall opening toward thermal comfort parameters such as indoor air temperature and percentage difference of relative humidity. The calibration and validation graph of temperature versus time was conducted between data measured at site and computer simulation using EnergyPlus program. The results showed that 3.6m width of sun shading and 40% of the wall opening is significant toward the indoor air temperature and percentage differences of relative humidity. Whereas, 0m together with 1.8m and 1.8m with 3.6m of width of sun shading and 10% together with 20% and 10% together 40% of wall opening were insignificant toward indoor air temperature and relative humidity. For design purposes, it is recommended to use the narrowest wall opening of 10% and the widest sun shading to give the lowest indoor air temperature and the highest percentage of relative humidity for the colonial Dutch office building particular in Semarang, Indonesia.

   

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Title: Wavelet feature extraction based human Iris recognition
Author (s): P. M. K. Prasad
Abstract:

Personal identification has become the most important factor in authentication processes in recent years. The various biometric identifiers such as face, iris, fingerprint, hand, voice, signature recognition are used for human identification. Among all these biometric identifiers, Iris recognition is the most reliable and accurate biometric identifier as iris cannot be forged. This paper project involves the acquisition of the image of an eye followed by the segmentation and localization of the image to obtain the image of iris. The Haar wavelet is used for feature extraction of an image. Hamming distance is measured between the image in the database and the detected image. Iris recognition is then performed by matching the iris pair with the minimum Hamming distance.

   

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Title: Development of a quantum algorithm based on quantum parallelism for finding the shortest path in a graph
Author (s): Cesar Pronin, Andrey Ostroukh, Boris Pronin, Yuriy Vasiliev and Eduard Kotliarskiy
Abstract:

The following research highlights the development of a quantum algorithm designed to use quantum parallelism for performing parallel quantum calculations. This concept was used to make a quantum algorithm for finding the shortest path in a graph. For developing quantum algorithms within 16 qubits, the Quirk quantum circuit emulator was chosen, which has an advanced set of sensors, that allow visualizing the transformations performed in quantum circuits, and a large number of complex quantum gates, which greatly simplifies the construction of new quantum circuits.

   

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Title: A Multi-path based data aggregation scheme for Wi-MAX
Author (s): G. Rama Subba Reddy and S. Balaji
Abstract:

Wi-MAX is the developing broadband wireless advancements in light of IEEE 802.16 gauges. Data aggregation, an essential paradigm for wireless routing in sensor networks aim to combine the data coming from different sources. Data aggregation can likewise kill excess, limit the quantity of transmissions and subsequently spare the energy. The goal of Data aggregation is to diminish the required correspondence at different levels, thus as to lessen the aggregate energy utilization. When energy consumption for aggregation is less than energy consumption for raw data transmission to the upper level, data aggregation saves energy. In this paper, we propose MS-LEACH Homogenous Multi-path data aggregation scheme is used. It combines multi hop and single hop. It reduces the energy consumption by amalgamating between single-hop and multi-hop transmission nodes. But it has limited scalability and extra overhead.

   

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Title: Effects of Uniform and Non uniform salinity gradients on the onset of Double Diffusive Convection in a composite layer: An analytical study
Author (s): B. Komala and R. Sumithra
Abstract:

The effects of Uniform and Non uniform salinity gradients on the onset of Double Diffusive Convection in a composite layer, comprising an incompressible two component fluid saturated porous layer over which lies a layer of the same fluid are investigated. The upper boundary of the fluid layer and the lower boundary of the porous layer are rigid and both the boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface, the velocity, shear stress, normal stress, heat, heat flux, mass and mass flux are assumed to be continuous conducive for Darcy-Brinkman model. The resulting Eigen value problem is solved by Regular perturbation method. The critical Rayleigh number for all the profiles is obtained and the effects of different physical parameter on the onset of double diffusive convection are investigated for all profiles. It is found that for the stability demanding situations like solar ponds, the parabolic salinity profile is the most conducive where in the onset of double diffusive convection in a composite layer can be delayed. For the heat and mass (solute or salt) transfer problems like petroleum and geothermal reservoirs, the inverted parabolic salinity profile is most suitable, where in the onset of double diffusive convection is fast.

   

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Title: RFID based small transaction system
Author (s): Balamurugan S., Aman Bhattad, Vishnu R. and Marimuthu R.
Abstract:

Shops are notoriously known for issuing their own currency (plastic currencies) and often issuing chocolates instead of remitting the proper change to the customer. These plastic coins issued are not accepted at other places. This work is used for providing sophisticated customer balance using RFID and microcontroller for solving the aforementioned problem. Unlike other transaction services this system can only be used for transactions ranging from 1 to 9 rupees. Each user is provided a RFID Tag and the microcontroller remembers all the RFID cardholders by maintaining a database of all transactions and updating the balance amount as and when used. The RFID tags here are similar to our college ID cards or even voter IDs. All the balances are digitized. When a customer uses the card or swipes the card against RFID module the system authenticates the transaction by asking for a password and once authenticated the system shows transaction options available to the customer. This system provides an efficient balance returning to customers and also saves time and money. It is an eco-friendly method as it aspires to eliminate all plastic coins from the environment.

   

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Title: Smart healthcare monitoring system using raspberry Pi on IoT platform
Author (s): K. Seena Naik and E. Sudarshan

Abstract:

In recent developments, the Internet of Things (IoT) creates an interconnected network for all things and is later recognized as renew technology. The healthcare sector has improved with this technology. Health problems in cardiovascular failure, lung failure and cardiovascular diseases are increasing day by day. These problems require a lot of health monitoring from time to time. A modern concept of patient health oversees wireless devices. This is a big improvement in the field of medicine. Adoctor can constantly monitor the patient health without physically interact. Health specialists and technocrats have developed a wonderful, with a low expensive healthcare monitoring system for whom is bearing with several diseases using popular technologies such as wearable devices, wireless channels, and other remote instruments. As per that, doctors can diagnose the patient’s disease with the doctor’s device screen about his / her health condition from the patient's device, thus eliminates the number of the patient's presence in the hospital, also it provides the time for better treatment. Therefore, doctors are able to save human lives by providing quicker services to them. In this paper, IoT has become the best platform for various application services. Here, the Raspberry Pi used to develop this, because which works as a sensor node and as a controller. In this paper, a simple health monitoring system has been proposed to achieve a one-step ahead.

   

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Title: Investigations on strength of concrete by remixing concrete mixes
Author (s): K. L. Bidkar and P. D. Jadhao
Abstract:

The aim of present work is to study durability properties due to overlaying of concrete as well as intermittent curing conditions. Adequate curing is necessary with proper method of its application for a newly placed concrete to achieve the enviable qualities and accepted durability of the hardened concrete In the present experimental work, study the behaviors of over-layered specimens with different blend ratio, time lag and different intermittent curing conditions examined for strength parameters.

   

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Title: Design and implementation of cognitive radio (CR) based on Xilinx FPGA
Author (s): Ekhlas K. Hamza, Laheeb S. Mahdy and Ahmed A. Thabit
Abstract:

Day by day the frequency spectrum became crowded and unable to provide new services to user easily. Cognitive radio (CR) is a convincing solution for solving spectral congestion issue that has the ability to sense the surroundings bands, adjust and learn to acquire best communication. In this paper, the energy detection (ED) is used to improve spectrum sensing by sensing the spectrum and decide whether there is a signal or noise. BPSK and QPSK are used as the received noisy signals to test the performance of the CR under AWGN. The simulation is done by MATLAB Simulink and Xilinx system generator then downloaded on FPGA SPARTAN 3A. The obtained results show good results as compared with the other works.

   

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Title: Characterization of outer measure of partial lattices in a countable Boolean lattice
Author (s): Y. V. Seshagiri Rao and D. V. S. R. Anil Kumar
Abstract:

This paper describes that countable join (meet) of members of subsets of L, meet (join) of countable join (meet) of members of subsets of L, a measure on a Boolean lattice, outer measure of a partial lattice induced by a measure. Some properties of outer measure are verified and established that the measure and outer measure of any partial lattice in a Boolean lattice are equal and the compliment of partial lattice is also a partial lattice, also define measurability of any partial lattice in a countable Boolean lattice L. Finally verifies that the equivalent conditions of various forms of Littlewoods’s first principle using Ls, Ld, Lsd, Lds.

   

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Title: Design, analysis and experimental investigation of GFRP and SiC composite material leaf spring
Author (s): G. Prasad and K. S. Sridhar Raja
Abstract:

Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring with composite leaf spring with GFRP due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of Glass fiber reinforced polymer combined with filler material like Silicon Carbide (SiC) in automobile leaf spring application. By using natural fibers efforts have been made to reduce the cost and weight of leaf spring. A composite leaf spring with 90% GFRP + 10% SiC composite materials is modeled and subjected to the same load as that of a steel spring. The composite leaf spring has been modeled by their consideration. Static structural analysis of a leaf spring has been performed using ANSYS.

   

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Title: Flexural behavior of prestressed composites beams
Author (s): P. R. Kannan Rajkumar and J. John Clinton
Abstract:

In this research work a hybrid prestressed composite beam with embedded I-section is designed and is been tested and compared with prestressed concrete beam and composite beam with embedded I-section under flexural strength in a high grade concrete of M35. Concrete which is generally a low tensile capacity material due to which cracks are formed on the surface of the higher grade concrete due to many conditions like heavy loading, dry shrinkage etc. In order to avoid this cracking steel reinforcement are introduced in the beams and thereby increasing the tensile capacity. In general, longer span sections induce larger bending moment thereby increasing the beam depth which becomes inconvenience to the user. Hence, a section with much lesser depth will be possible by introducing prestress to the concrete. In some critical cases a section depth will be restricted due to some local case to case basis. In those cases a concrete section with embedded steel section or a concrete section with embedded steel section with prestress may be of great help in reducing the depth of the section. Hence, an attempt has been made to study the concrete section with embedded steel section with and without prestressing and compared with conventional prestressed concrete beam. The results show that the energy absorption capacity of the section is increased by 152.5% by using embedded steel section in concrete and 227.7% by using embedded steel section with prestressing in concrete when compared to conventional prestressed concrete beam.

   

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Title: Cyclic convective drying of bee pollen
Author (s): D. E. Kashirin, I. A. Uspensky, M. Yu. Kostenko, G. K. Rembalovich, K. I. Danilov, G. D. Kokorev, D. N. Byshov, V. A. Makarov, B. A. Nefedov, A. A. Tsymbal and V. M. Ulyanov
Abstract:

Effective development of beekeeping is possible on the basis of a sufficient amount of protein feed in the bee family. Pollen and its Perga are indispensable sources of proteins, vitamins and lipids for honey bees. Perga, extracted from the honeycomb, has a humidity of 22÷26%, so quickly loses its properties and its long-term storage is impossible. Many experts believe that convective drying of Perga is the most preferable way to ensure the preservation of biologically active properties. Cyclic convective drying of Perga allows to reduce the energy intensity of the process by repeated use of the coolant (hot air), due to the full use of its moisture-intensive potential. The circulation of the coolant inside the dryer is provided by a fan. With the help of the control unit, the drying mode is programmed, while the main fan creates an air flow that circulates through the drying chamber and the air duct, heating with a tubular electric heater. During the drying process, the moisture from the product evaporates, and the temperature loss of the coolant is compensated by the electric heater temperature sender. Periodically, when the coolant humidity reaches the limit values (70% ...75%), the control unit supplies ambient air to the fan and the wet coolant is removed from the air line by another fan. Multiple use of the coolant can reduce the cost of energy for heating the coolant. The investigated batch of honeycombs was placed in the drying chamber, the control unit was set the temperature of the coolant. From time to time, samples of Perga weighing 2 grams were taken from the cells and the current relative humidity of the product was determined. The analysis of empirical dependences allowed to establish the high importance of the coolant circulation rate on the value of the residual moisture of the Perga in the cells. Cyclic convection drying of Perga allows to reduce energy costs by more than 2 times in comparison with conventional convection drying of Perga and to ensure the safety of biologically active substances.

   

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Title: Effect of the stripping intensity on physical and mechanical properties of cork
Author (s): A. E. L. Alami, A. Hakam, B. Kabouchi, A. Famiri, A. Bouchti and M. Ziani
Abstract:

The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an important Mediterranean species due to the economic value of the cork it produces. The effect of the stripping intensity on the characteristics of the cork was studied across the analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of cork samples from 31 trees of Sidi Yahia region in Morocco that underwent different stripping intensities (K1 = 1, K2 = 1.5, K3 = 2 and K4 = 2.5). The densities of the cork samples ranged from 0.123 to 0.255 gcm-3. The compression was respectively 0.45 MPa, 0.47 MPa, 0.47 MPa and 0.43 MPa for the coefficients K1, K2, K3 and K4 while Young's moduli was respectively 16.5 MPa, 16.9 MPa, 15.3 MPa and 16.4 MPa. The study showed a great variability of the physical and mechanical properties between the trees while the stripping intensity had no significant effect.

   

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Title: Cyclic algorithm approach for Polyphase Sequences with good correlation properties and Merit Factor
Author (s): Rajasekhar Manda and P. Rajesh Kumar
Abstract:

The Polyphase Sequences such as Pn {n=1, 2, 3, 4, x}, Frank, Golomb, and the Chu finds many applications in RADAR, SONAR, and Communication by having good autocorrelation properties. Merit Factor (MF), ISL (Integrated Sidelobe Level) is the performance measures considers for evaluating the goodness of any sequences. In this paper cyclic algorithm approach initialized with these Polyphase sequences for lengths from 102 to 103. These cyclic algorithm approaches bring the better merit factor and correlation properties than the standard case. It found that an average of merit factor 40.39 and 92.02 is obtained for length 100 & 1000 respectively. Cyclic algorithm approach Polyphase sequences correlation plots are compared with the standard case. This approach made possible for P2 sequences that improved merit factor for odd integer square length. Four consecutive even and odd integer squared length sequences correlation plots and merit factor values compared. Cyclic algorithmic methodology for these Polyphase sequences for obtaining the design metrics implemented on MATLAB.

   

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Title: Optimization of renewable energy generation to increase the electrification ratio in Borme District - Papua province
Author (s): Jakobus Kariongan, Nadjamuddin Harun, Ansar Suyuti and Steven Humena
Abstract:

The Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of energy and Mineral resources, at the beginning of the year 2016 introduced a program called "Bright Indonesia”. The goal of the program is to accelerate Electrification Rate (ER) with a priority on the six provinces in eastern Indonesia province includes Papua province. Papua is still showing low ER (45.93%) among the other provinces. Micro-Hydro power plant (PLTMH) and Centralized solar power plant (PLTS Centered) with a capacity of 22 Kwp hybrid power generation systems and models designed to simulate and determine the most optimal system to provide electrical energy for electrical load on a settlement. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) serves to design the system and to facilitate the comparison of micropower technology power plants. Details of the electric energy of the system is produced from the PLTMH dominate the electrical energy needed by the load of 440.298 kWh/yr., PLTS amounting to 76.518 kWh/yr, diesel power plant of 13.708 kWh/yr., with successive presentations of 83%, 14%, 3%. The penetration of renewable energy of this system is of 97.4%, derived from PLTMH and PLTS respectively amounted to 80.1% and 17.3%.

   

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Title: Design and performance investigation of multicast PIM-DM and PIM-SM protocols over IPV6
Author (s): Ahmed Shakir Al-Hiti
Abstract:

Business and multimedia entertainment applications need sending at the same time to multiple users or specific groups. IP multicast is an efficient and scalable network layer delivering mechanism for multimedia content to a large number of receivers over the Internet. It has mechanism that offers bandwidth optimization and reductions the time required for sending data to multiple destinations. In traditional IP networks, packets are sent to single target (unicast). Currently, the demand of multimedia communication has increase in several fields; especially multimedia applications such as video and audio, distance learning and entertainment. Furthermore, Application requirements forwarding packets in the same time to multiple users or specific groups. Unicast protocol has a number of problems preventing its successful deployment of these applications. These problems contain inefficient bandwidth, high cost, congestion and more collision in the networks. Thus, Multicast protocols through IPv6 were developed to overcome these problems. There are already exist a few protocols implementing multicast transmission in real networks like PIM-SM and PIM-DM. In this paper, simulation was done using NS-2 simulator to evaluate the performance of each those protocols based on delay, jitter, packet loss and throughput with variable receivers. The paper consists of one main scenario; which involves of network topology with a few numbers of receivers with three sources, seven receivers and seventeen intermediate nodes. Simulation shows that, the PIM-SM has the better result in term of packet loss, delay, jitter and throughput. Therefore, this results show that, the PIM-SM protocols are more appropriate to be utilize in WAN environments.

   

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