ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                       March 2017  |  Vol. 12  No. 5
   
Title: Portable electrocardiograph for detecting diseases that trigger sudden death, with medical diagnostic software approximate wireless
Author (s): Jesus D. Quintero-Polanco and Jefferson Perdomo-Tabares
Abstract:

In this project, it was designed an electrocardiograph device has diagnostics for derivation DII, allowing a visualization of other derivations one at the time. Similarly, the electrocardiograph device, allows the electrocardiogram (ECG) test to be done wirelessly to facilitate the implementation of such test at any place or situation. The prototype is designed to facilitate the implementation of the ECG test in everyday circumstances and from the comfort of home, without losing the effectiveness in the test. It cannot be forgotten that the results of it, must be verified by qualified personnel. The application is developed in MATLAB; therefore, the PC must be licensed for its use. This software works directly with the hardware of the device doing it in real time. It was intuitively designed to facilitate its use. In this order of ideas, it is worth noting the role of diagnosing diseases that this application has. It is a great tool when it comes to analyze the information. The evidence is collected and stored digitally in a PDF format, in which the patient's personal data and the most relevant results of the ECG test in a digital file which can be directly printed. It is important to highlight that these files can be shared via email directly from the software designed. Without forgetting that the software has a database where the tests performed are stored.

   

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Title: Efficient determination of mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced laminated composite panels
Author (s): Umar Farooq and Peter Myler
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with integrating experimental and theoretical methods supported by numerical simulations to efficiently determine mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced laminated composite panels. Ignition loss experiments were conducted for eight, sixteen, and twenty-four ply laminates to approximate fibre volume fractions by weights. Rule of mixture was utilized to approximate basic mechanical properties (Young’s and shear moduli and Poisson’s ratios) for a lamina. The mechanical properties were utilized to develop coefficients of stiffness and compliance matrices. The coefficient matrices are used in constitutive equations to align off-axis fibres and applied load to mid-plane direction in two-dimensional formulations. Based on the two-dimensional formulations stacking sequences of three-dimensional laminate lay-ups were developed without resorting to three-dimensional micro-macro mechanics. The formulations laminates were then coded in commercial software MATLABTM to predict mechanical properties. Tensile and flexural physical tests of the laminates were also conducted to validate the simulation obtained mechanical properties. Comparisons of mechanical properties have shown good agreement (over 90%) between laminates having different types of stacking sequences. Based on comparison of the results an efficient and systematic two-dimensional methodology is proposed to predict mechanical properties of three-dimensional laminates.

   

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Title: Prototype for cognitive stimulation in elderly
Author (s): Alzate Amalia, Villamil, Miryam and Amaya Dario
Abstract:

The deterioration of cognitive functioning in elderly creates obstacles to the proper performance of their daily tasks. In this work, a prototype of stimulation of visuospatial cognition and memory was designed and developed. The prototype consists of an electronic circuit, able to measure the force of grip of the hand and the tilt of the same. The electronic device was covered by a layer of silicone, to give a natural appearance, with the aim of minimizing technophobia in users. The circuit plays the role of controller for a graphical interface developed in Matlab ®. With this, it is expected to stimulate the working memory and the visuospatial cognitive ability in the elderly. This allows the user to familiarize himself with the technology and help him to preserve and train visuospatial memory, fostering a greater autonomy.

   

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Title: Design and analysis of impedance tube for sound absorption measurement
Author (s): Arunkumar B. and Jeyanthi S.
Abstract:

Acoustic materials play a very important role in design of automobile interior, factories, workshops etc., Acoustic materials are most commonly used now a day in passive noise control to prevent unwanted noise Many new acoustic materials are discovered day by day for this application. Finding out the characteristic of those acoustic materials before using it in the application is so mandatory. Absorption coefficient of a material at various frequency ranges has to be known since absorption coefficient varies at various frequencies. This paper elaborately describes how to measure the absorption coefficient of the material from the proposed design. Both electrical and mechanical components are getting fabricated in the aim of reducing the price and also modification has been made in the conventional impedance tube. This paper gives the selection of tube diameter, length, tube material, sample size, amplification circuit, microphone, pre amplification, filters, microphone position and Data acquisition using sound card and LABVIEW. Using the standard calibrated specimen absorption coefficient of the material is calculated and it is compared to find the accuracy of the setup. Experimental setup is fabricated as per the ASTM c384 standard. Sound absorption coefficient (a) of any acoustic material can be calculated by using this setup. In order to find out the accuracy of the setup standard materials is kept and tested.

   

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Title: Voltage stability analysis of load buses in electric power system using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and probabilistic neural network (PNN)
Author (s): Ahmad Fateh Mohamad Nor, Marizan Sulaiman and Aida Fazliana Abdul Kadirand Rosli Omar
Abstract:

This paper presents the application of neural networks for analyzing voltage stability of load buses in electric power system. Voltage stability margin (VSM) and load power margin (LPM) are used as the indicators for analyzing voltage stability. The neural networks used in this research are divided into two types. The first type is using the neural network to predict the values of VSM and LPM. Multilayer perceptron back propagation (MLPBP) neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) will be used. The second type is to classify the values of VSM and LPM using the probabilistic neural network (PNN). The IEEE 30-bus system has been chosen as the reference electrical power system. All of the neural network-based models used in this research is developed using MATLAB.

   

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Title: Multi-DG placement in practical distribution system for maximum cost saving with increasing load scenario
Author (s): K. Dhananjaya Babu and A. Lakshmi Devi
Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to maximize the cost saving of the distribution system when Distributed Generation (DG) is integrated. For which an objective function is developed to represents the savings of the system. But the maximization of the function mainly relies on the locations and sizes of the DG. Fuzzy logic approach is implemented for generating the optimal DG location indices based on the rule base framed and with effective inputs: real index and voltage index. Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) is computed to find the appropriate capacity of DG in the locations preferred, so as to maximize the desired objective function. In this paper, a planning period of 10 years is considered for finding the maximum cost savings. Inflation rate and interest rate were considered to estimate the present cost value of the system and every year 2% of load is assumed to increase w.r.t. the base load. The results have been compared for the single and multi DG placement. The proposed algorithm is coded in MATLAB environment and is tested on an Indian 43-bus practical distribution system. The results obtained are discussed and presented.

   

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Title: Measurement of liquid film thickness on the hydrophobic surfaces at the rotating vertically disc contactor
Author (s): Novirina Hendrasarie, Sanggar Dewanto, Tantular Nurtono and Joni Hermana
Abstract:

Experimentally, the research on the flow of liquid film of viscous liquid on vertically rotating flat disc partially immersed in a liquid bath has been investigated and modeled by many researchers. The difference, in this research, the liquid being used is tap water. Meanwhile, the characteristic of disk surface chosen was hydrophobic one. The reason for this choice was due to the fact that the material being used to sell for public had hydrophobic characteristics. Therefore, for the disk material, the researcher used the material from acrylic and novotex that had hydrophobic characteristics on its surface. In addition to the disk material, also investigated the influence of surface topography, by doing three variations of topography. Furthermore, this research was conducted experimentally to see the flow characteristics of liquid film at the rotating vertically disk, especially at the low rotational speed around 1-20 rpm. The other parameter affected to the thickness characteristics of liquid film dealing with the disk depth to the water surface was also considered. Finally, the research result showed that hydrophobic surface had an effect to the flow profile and its depth of liquid film. However, liquid film was not capable of sticking very well especially at the low rotational speed of 1-7.5 rpm. Besides, the thickness profile of liquid film was not always equally the same and was not capable of achieving to the top of disk when it was rotating up.

   

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Title: Utilization of SC-FDMA and OFDMA based uplink and downlink resources in LTE-A network assisted device to device communication for effective spectrum management
Author (s): A. Rama Krishna, A. S. N. Chakravarthy and A. S. C. S. Sastry
Abstract:

Increasing data traffic demands high data rates. Device to device communication (D2D) underlying cellular network improves the spectrum utilization, hence increases the overall cell throughput if we take proper care on two aspects. First one is physical resource block (PRB) allocation between D2Ds and cellular network users (CEs) and the second one is interference avoiding between PRB sharing CE and D2D with controlled transmission power. An efficient allocation of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) PRBs simultaneously at a time for D2D underlying LTE-A cellular network along with an efficient power control mechanism is proposed in this paper. To efficiently use the spectrum, which accommodates more number of D2D, we share SC-FDMA based UL and OFDMA based DL, LTE – A PRBs simultaneously. During PRB allocation high priority is given to the UL PRBs for D2D communication and there after DL PRBs are allocated, if no UL PRBs are free or signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) is high on UL PRB, as peak to average power ratio (PAPR) is low for UL when compared to DL. The propose method uses proportional fair (PF) scheduling algorithm for PRB allocation to guarantee at least cellular or D2D communication to be continued with accepted fairness in worst case scenario. Proposed power control mechanism avoids the interference caused by PRB sharing pairs effectively. Simulation results shows that the proposed PRB allocation and power control techniques improves the overall cell site throughput.

   

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Title: Assessment of impact strength of fibre reinforced concrete by two parameter Weibull distribution
Author (s): Murali G., Monika Vincy T., Suraj K., Ramkumar V. R. and Karthikeyan K.
Abstract:

The investigation of impact strength (first crack strength N1 and failure strength N2) of two different type of steel fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) subjected to drop weight test was statistically commanded in this paper. For this purpose, a former researcher results were statistically investigated using two parameter Weibull distributions and presented the impact strengths in terms of reliability function. Furthermore, the Weibull parameters were determined by two estimation approaches such as least-squares (LS) regression of Y on X and least-squares (LS) regression of X on Y. Analysis suggested that the both the methods are more effective to estimate the Weibull parameters accurately due to that the deviation between the Weibull parameters obtained from the two methods was very less. In this respect, designer can choose the impact strength design value based on the required reliability.

   

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Title: Application of high frequency system for improvement of output properties of standing wave electron linear accelerators
Author (s): Aleksandr Evgenevich Novozhilov, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Filatov and Vladimir Kuzmich Shilov
Abstract:

This article discusses high-frequency systems of standing wave linear electron accelerator which enable fine tuning of high-frequency energy supplied to accelerating resonator sections upon simultaneous variation of time constant of transient process of electric fields setup in sections. In these systems complete decoupling of generator from high-Q accelerating sections is achieved, the influence of current load by accelerating sections decreases, and beam output properties are improved.

   

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Title: Zone thermal recrystallization of thin layers from a discrete source
Author (s): Sergei N. Chebotarev, Alexey N. Yatsenko, Vladimir N. Lozovskii, Adnan A. A. Mohamed and Georgy A. Erimeev
Abstract:

We have proposed and investigated a new technique for growing thin uniform layers onto a large semiconductor substrates. The method uses the system of hexagonally arranged round local sources filled with liquid growth substance. The growth substance evaporates on very close substrate, which is removed from the discrete source by about 1 mm. In these conditions vapor pressure of the residual gases is reduced by two orders of magnitude. It is found that to obtain uniform thickness layers by the proposed technique it is strongly necessary that the distance between the discrete source and the substrate will be greater than the critical thickness lcr. It is shown that this parameters lcr increases with the increasing of radius of local sources and the distance between the local sources. For example, to achieve uniformity of better than 97% the critical thickness must be equal to lcr = 1.2 mm for a hexagonal arranged system of round local sources with the radius of r = 0.75 mm and the distance between the sources of h = 0.5 mm.

   

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Title: Interaction between gas dynamic and geomechanical processes in coal mines
Author (s): Oleg Ivanovich Kazanin and Andrey Alexandrovich Sidorenko

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to provide safety of underground mining upon intensive excavation of coal measures of flat gas bearing seams at Kotinskaya mine, AO SUEK-Kuzbass. Current approaches to estimation of methane emission under the influence of geomechanical processes at excavating sites are analyzed. Methane bearing capacity of long wall, extraction area and goaf is analyzed as a function of load on long wall faces in the course of mining operations both in the boundaries of area and in the boundaries of field of Kotinskaya Mine. It is demonstrated that complicated character of investigation into interaction between geomechanical and gas dynamic processes in natural conditions is stipulated by low working rhythm of long wall faces. Interaction of gas emission into goaf and mined-out extraction area with roof caving increment sat Kotinskaya Mine is determined. Significant variation of litho logy and physic mechanical properties in the boundaries of extraction areas of Kotinskaya Mine is demonstrated with the consequence of necessity to differentiate zones along the length of extraction area upon calculation of roof caving increments. The performed studies have demonstrated the necessity to account for roof caving increments upon forescat of gas emission and selection of reasonable management parameters of methane emission into mined-out extraction areas.

   

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Title: Physicochemical characterization and sensory evaluation of banana pulp (Musa paradisiaca) dehydrated in sheets
Author (s): Jennifer Katiusca Castro, Nestor Enrique Cerquera and Eduardo Pastrana
Abstract:

The present work deals with the characterization of banana pulp (Musa paradisiaca) dehydrated in sheets and its further sensory evaluation. For the drying tests, a static type equipment was used, and the fresh and dehydrated banana pulp was characterized taking into account its moisture content, soluble solids, pH, acidity and proximal analysis. The conservation parameters of the dehydrated pulp were satisfactory, which are favored by the low water activity reached in the dehydrated product; the sensorial analysis showed that temperature and speed of the drying air exert a big influence in the quality factor called "Appearance and Color".

   

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Title: Analysis of BER-based on-demand and link State Routing Protocols under realistic conditions
Author (s): Tiguiane Yelemou, Jonathan Ledy, Benoit Hilt, Philippe Meseure and Anne-Marie Poussard
Abstract:

Wireless networks are known to offer lower performance compared to wired ones. These networks are lossy due to obstacles in the wave propagation field, frequent topology change and interference due to simultaneous transmissions. To address these limits, many improvements of basic protocols are proposed. However, few studies focus on a detailed analysis and performance comparison of QoS protocols. In this paper, we first highlight the impact of wave propagation model on the performance of wireless network routing protocols. Second we detail the behavior of Bit Error Rate (BER)-based approaches on link-state and on-demand routing protocols. A fine-analysis allows us to understand the performance of Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR) and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) compared to Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV) in urban environment. In this study, we highlight the need to reconsider the node vicinity when filling routing tables in QoS-based link-state protocols. We also point out benefits and limits of blacklisting approach often proposed for reactive protocols enhancement.

   

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Title: Analysis of transportation mode choice using a comparison of Artificial neural network and multinomial logit models
Author (s): Hussain Dhafir Hussain, Ahmed Madha Mohammed, Ali Dawod Salman, Riza Atiq Bin O. K. Rahmat and Muhamad Nazri Borhan
Abstract:

The transportation system around the globe is witnessing a dramatic change which possibly generating from the massive increase in the population. This contributed to a legitimate dilemma which is traffic congestion taking into consideration the accompanying problems that raised namely air pollution as well as traffic accidents. Public transportation is substantial and their importance reflects in both economic and social quality of each and every citizen life. Despite these facts, the public means of transportation is still to this day not the people’s choice to perform their daily trips, this applies, particularly, to private car users. The candid solution to this problem is to turn people’s attention to public transportation system (bus and vanpool) and simulate them to abandon their private cars. This study works on a comparison between two mode choice models, Multinomial logistic regression (MNL) and Artificial neural network (ANN) for the purpose of prediction of the behavioral transportation of mode choice with the purpose of evaluation of the accuracy levels in the predictability in each model. The results show that artificial neural network readily outperformed the multinomial logistic regression in the predictability of mode choice.

   

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Title: Energy efficient consumption for quality based sleep scheduling in wireless sensor networks
Author (s): A. S. Syed Navaz, N. Asha and D. Sumathi
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This paper consider the problem of conserving energy in a single node in a wireless sensor network by turning off the node’s radio for periods of a fixed time length. While packets may continue to arrive at the node’s buffer during the sleep periods, the node cannot transmit them until it wakes up. The objective is to design sleep control laws that minimize the expected value of a cost function representing both energy consumption costs and holding costs for backlogged packets. Large number of very small size, low cost, low power multifunctional sensor nodes constitute the WSN. These sensors way the understanding of the physical world by sensing, processing and transmitting the data. The above functions are highly influenced by factors such as power, energy and lifetime of the sensor nodes. This technical paper explores various low power design architectures like reconfigurable hardware, sleep walker, variable dual VDD, modular architecture and folded tree architecture by presenting a comprehensive survey concerning passive and active power control mechanisms in WSN with investigation of the existing solution and evaluation.

   

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Title: Heavy metals content in low-priced toys
Author (s): Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Nurul Syifaa Mohamad, Karmegam Karuppiah, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Irniza Rasdi and Sarva Mangala Praveena
Abstract:

This study determines the level of selected heavy metals in 42 toy samples and its health risk to children obtained from various convenience shops in the urban area of central region Peninsular Malaysia. High Definition X-ray Fluorescence (HDXRF®) technique (Model 800701-01) was used to analyze the sample and the health risk was calculated using the USEPA method. Most of the samples in this study were detected with Zn (97%, N = 41), Sr (90%, N = 38) and Cu (79%, N = 33) and half of the samples were detected with Ni (64%, N = 27), Cr (59%, N=25), Ba (57%, N = 24) and Pb (50%, N = 21). The highest element detected in toys was Bain materials of polymer (2255.00 ppm), printed ink (1698.00±758.02 ppm), plastic (1160.82±898.06 ppm) and textile (1284.00 ppm). Plastic and metal toys contained the most heavy metals. Based on the level detected, Co and Ni pose carcinogenic health risk while Hg, Sb and Sn pose non-carcinogenic health risks in this study. Heavy metals in toys are varies by its material and bring a significant health risk to children.

   

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Title: System of the ICE gas-water fuel supply
Author (s): Ryzhikov V. A. and Batyshev D. Yu.
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The paper develops the principle of alternate fuel utilization for motor vehicles. The proposed solution improves fuel and economic figures of the internal combustion engine and reduces hazardous substances in exhaust gases. The principle of the gas-water mixture utilization with the distributed injection is taken as a basis to develop the ICE fuel feed system. The paper presents the numerical scheme of the gas-water fuel mixture combustion procedure in ICE cylinders and the results of its computer modeling in MathCad. Mathematical analysis of the obtained results proves thermal process parameter variations and determines the optimal concentration of water in the fuel mixture.

   

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Title: Study on heavy metal element detection of China tea based on ICP-MS method
Author (s): Zhao Cheng-Guo and Qin Shu-Zhi
Abstract:

In order to improve the heavy metal detection of China tea effectively, the ICP-MS method is applied in it. Firstly, the basic characteristics of ICP-MS method are summarized. Secondly, the experimental device, experimental material, experimental method, and the test solution preparation of heavy metal in China tea based on ICP-MS method are set, and the linear fitting is carried out based on weighted linear programming method. Finally, the experimental results are obtained, results show that the China tea sample has heavy metal excessive phenomenon, and therefore the heavy metal problem should be concerned sufficiently.

   

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Title: ANN based computer aided diagnosis and classification of vertebral column images
Author (s): V. Asanambigai and J. Sasikala
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This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool (CADT) for tumor detection in vertebral column (VC) images that involves preprocessing of noise removal and gray scale conversion, segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The preprocessing step employs Median filter for removing noises, while the segmentation delineates the tumor region from the normal region. The method uses 46 reduced statistical features along with 13 GLCM based texture features that represent the unique characteristics of VC images, and an ANN classifier based on the evaluated features to classify the VC images into tumor and non-tumor. It presents the results of sample VC images and discusses the performances.

   

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Title: Methods for extraction of features and discrimination of Emergency Sirens
Author (s): Agustin Soto Otalora, David Eduardo Clavijo Osorio and Nicolas Charry Moreno
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This article presents the analysis, study and tests, carried out to four (4) different methods combined of extraction of characteristics and discrimination or identification of these, in order to determine an adequate and effective method of identification and discrimination of Emergency Sirens (Police, Ambulance etc). From the Cepstrum, MFCC's, FFT and Spectrogram as alternatives for extraction of characteristics of the signals to work, in addition Artificial Neural Networks( ANN) and Cross Correlation as discriminator and identifiers, we performed combined methods of these techniques to analyze their development and precision to the stated objectives. Finally a discussion of the methods worked on where we will present different guidelines and observations for the reader to keep in mind in his present and future works with related subjects.

   

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Title: Power speed reduction units for general aviation: Simplified gear design forpiston-powered, propeller-driven “heavy duty" aircrafts and helicopters
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli and Stefano Cassani
Abstract:

Bending fatigue (Strength) or surface compression/lubrication (Hertz stress) and scuffing resistance define aerospace gearing design and optimization. In addition, a correct design method must include adequate ability to resist all these types of failures. Of all the failures modes, tooth bending has the most severe consequences, whereas pitting and scuffing are durability-type failures that can be (theoretically) anticipated and corrected before final failure. However, in helicopter transmission pitting and scuffing are the main failure cause. Therefore, it is important for the designer to understand the criticalities of the different application. The third paper dealt with the general problem of designing the PSRU (Power Speed Reduction Unit) gear drives on a general aviation propeller-driven aircraft. This fourth part deals with aerobatic/racing/STOL-utility “heavy duty” aircrafts and with helicopters. In the first part of this paper, a verification method of a “general aviation PSRU” for a heavy duty aircraft is introduced. Then helicopter transmissions are discussed, starting from the most suitable gear types, the transmission architecture and the main problems. Bevel gearing are briefly introduced by defining design criteria, suitable materials properties and selection method. Then the flash temperature concept is briefly summarized along with experimental data on the most advanced steel alloys available on the market.

   

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Title: Tests of the local resistance of thin-walled Z-purlins clip connection to the supporting structure
Author (s): Premysl Parenica, Miroslav Rosmanit, Jakub Flodr and Oldrich Sucharda
Abstract:

The local resistance of thin-walled cold-formed steel Z purlin clip connection with the additional bolt connection thought the bottom flange of the purlin to the supporting structure was studied. Overall behavior of this purlin and its connection is highly influenced by the local stability problems. Twelve experimental tests with four different widths of the bearing structure were performed together with advanced numerical finite element study. The numerical model was verified by the experiment performed. Finally, the experimental and numerical results are compared; typical failure mode is discussed in the conclusions. Future planed research activities are presented.

   

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Title: Logical classification of geodesic shells and domes
Author (s): Lakhov A. Ya.
Abstract:

In this paper consideration of given to problems of classification of geodesic shells and domes. Here the article contains a description of existing classification of geodesic shells and domes and revealed their shortcomings. This classification considers only single contour plate geodesic domes. In order to remove the limitation of existing geodesic shell's classifications was built their logical classification. For the building of the logical classification of geodesic domes were picked out several classification attributes. A logical classification of geodesic shells and domes was built. It was constructed a grammar for notation of geometrical models of geodesic shells which shown types of geodesic shells. The logical classification reveals 48 classes of geodesic domes (if double-contour domes with the second contour with the same configuration are ineffective). New GEODOME library of parametrical objects of ArchiCAD was implemented. Here the article contains a description of existing forms of classification. Classification of geodesic shells and domes is in form of paper document. At present, there are electronic classifications which based on modern information technologies. The electronic document can be displayed to show investigated objects, phenomenon and process. An interactive electronic classification of geodesic shells and domes was built. The interface of a program of electronic geodesic domes classification is based on buttons which show classes and subclasses of geodesic shells. Classification of geodesic shells and domes has information, systematizing and predictive function.

   

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Title: String hydraulics in oil wells
Author (s): Luis Humberto Orduz
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Every hydrocarbon well uses tools and equipment not only for drilling but also for well completion, stimulation and production activities; all equipment is tested at conditions of pressure and surface temperature before being lowered into the well; during the run and during program operation, all the equipment is exposed to pressures and temperatures and changes by fluid movements generating variations that can affect their behavior. In this document the changes to which they are exposed in the well and a condensed during the run in hole and during operations, with calculating regarding the proposed service by the company and some authors regard.

   

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Title: Study of the styrene and maleic anhydride copolymerization process by mathematical modeling methods
Author (s): Igor Grigoryev, Tatiana Mikhailova and Svetlana Mustafina
Abstract:

The mechanism of radical copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride in a homogeneous medium has been studied in the paper. There have been selected the conditions of styrene and maleic anhydride copolymerization. A mathematical model has been built on the basis of the radical copolymerization mechanism of styrene and maleic anhydride. The mathematical model is a system of ordinary differential equations. A numerical solution of the target system enables to determine the average molecular properties such as average number and average weight molecular weights. The calculations based on the model correspond to the experimental data.

   

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Title: Modeling and estimate of the strain-stress state of a bus body pillar with account for geometrical nonlinearity
Author (s): N. A. Ovchinnikov, V. I. Zhigulsky, E. A. Kozyreva and O. V. Chefranova
Abstract:

The paper considers practical problem solving in passive bus safety and particularly modeling of the strain-stress state of bus body elements under the safety and structural strength conditions. The authors of the paper present the results of the pursuance of numerical research in supporting capacity of the side window bus body pillars. The paper evaluates the detailed finite element model of a bus body pillar with account for geometrical nonlinearity. The realization of finite element analysis of the strain-stress state of a bus body pillar is presented for simple and compound bending. Modeling was made by using the opportunities of ANSYS packaged programs.

   

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Title: An appraisal on sanctuary issues in mobile ad hoc network (Manet)
Author (s): R. Srilakshmi and Jayabhaskar Muthukuru
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This survey paper examines the security issues and their present arrangements in the versatile improvised arrange. Be obliged to the defenseless way of the portable specially appointed system, there are various security hazards that frustrate the improvement of it. This paper concentrates on break down principle susceptibilities in the versatile specially appointed systems, which have made it much simpler to knowledge the ill effects of attacks than the customary supported system. At that point it examines the security measures of the portable specially allotted system furthermore, show the primary assault kinds that exist in it. At long last, this review presents security answers for the versatile improvised system.

   

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Title: Comparison of the structural stability of gravity concrete dams using USACE and USBR standards
Author (s): Mohammed Baqer Al-Shadeedi and Ebaa Jihad Hamdi
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Safety factors play an important role in the analysis of structural stability of gravity concrete dams. In this work the study of these factors was made according to two standard methods, USBR and USACE, which are varied in the procedure and calculation of the factors against overturning and sliding, in addition to the difference in their acceptable limits. The results obtained from the two standards did not show substantial difference when the dam base is horizontal. To avoid the sliding phenomena, the dam base must be inclined, the cohesion at the concrete-rock contact must be raised to a value achieving the desired safety factors; or a passive wedge has to be used at the downstream face to increase the sliding resistance. The study of stability criteria was done on many virtual dam cases, to obtain the height of water for safe operation and the strength of concrete, consequently the cohesion required. The value of cohesion required by USACE is smaller than that of the USBR for the various loading conditions; also the USACE calculations permit water elevations higher than those for USBR calculations. However, the two standards use the same procedure to evaluate the stresses in the mass of the dam. The behavior of the dam has been modeled and analyzed using analytically 2-dimensional gravity method and FEM with the help of ABAQUS software package in order to ensure the safe performance of the dam. Stresses were found acceptable in all profiles, where it is important to prevent undesirable tensile stresses at the heel, and to avoid crushing at the toe.

   

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Title: Influence of assembly gap and shims on the strain and stress of bolted composite-aluminum structures
Author (s): Cephas Yaw Attahu and Luling An
Abstract:

Airframe structures are assembled using mechanical fasteners (bolts) and in assembling these structures, misalignments do occur due to parts’ geometrical imperfections. This leads to the development of assembly gaps which are detrimental to the structural integrity of the assembled structure when left unshimmed. This paper seeks to investigate the influence of the assembly gap and shims on the strains and stresses of a bolted composite-aluminum structure using a non-linear three-dimensional (3-D) structural solid elements on an assembled compressive open-hole model of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) - aluminum alloy (AA). The model was generated with the commercial finite element (FE) software package, ABAQUS /Standard and the assembled 3-D FE model simulated, as well as the specimen for the experimental testing, consisted of a CFRP substrate, AA 7075-T651 substrate, liquid shim (Hysol EA 9394), solid peel able fiberglass shim, a titanium fastener and washer. In distinction to previous investigations, the influence of assembly gap and shims (liquid shim and solid peel able fiberglass shim) were investigated by both numerical simulations and experimental work. To validate the results, six (6) strain gages were bonded at various locations on the surface of the composite plate and the strain values recorded. The experimental results corresponded very well with that of numerical results. The simulated model and the test specimen conformed to the composite bearing response and the open-hole tensile strength test standards of American Society for Testing and Materials, D5961/D5961M-13and D5766/D5766M-07 respectively which is the standard test configurations for this kind of study. It has been found that:(1) the shimming procedure as agreed upon by the aerospace industry for the resolution of assembly gaps in bolted joints for composite materials is same as that for a composite-aluminum structure; (2) there were large stress and strain concentrations generated between the assembly gaps for the unshimmed models :-increasing assembly gaps resulted in an increasing stresses and strains, and (3) the assembly gap and shims significantly influenced the strain and stresses:-the shims decreased the stress and strain concentrations generated between the assembly gap.

   

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Title: Development of a system of detection and prediction of somnolence through electroencephalographic signal processing
Author (s): J. Salgado Patron, J. Cruz Sanabria and I. Avila Vidal
Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm for the processing of EEG electroencephalographic signals with the objective of detecting drowsiness and wakefulness stages, mainly directed at individuals prone to cause accidents due to fatigue and/or numbness. The device selected for the acquisition of EEG records used during the development of this project is EPOC +, designed and manufactured by Emotiv Systems. Electroencephalographic samples, regularly contaminated by artifacts, must be subjected to a pre-processing step before proceeding with the logical steps in the characterization process. The artifact attenuation process was performed using the Wavelet discrete transform along with the soft threshold method, to then reconstruct the signal with its inverse transform. By means of the power spectral density function, we proceed to determine the stages of wakefulness and drowsiness. From this process, it was possible to extract six characteristics per channel, to construct a final vector of 84 characteristics, which represent a window of time of four seconds of duration. The Gaussian kernel support vector machine algorithm was the finally chosen supervised learning technique, which was responsible for the procedures for classifying and recognizing patterns that would establish the state of the person and with which it was reached 92% of accuracy.

   

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Title: Evaluation of competing personnel in software company using Expectation Maximization approach
Author (s): Krishankumar R., Ravichandran K. S. and Anil Bala K.
Abstract:

Human effort is an integral part of any organization. The success of the project is directly influenced by the candidates involved in the project. Due to the constraint of time and cost, selecting the right candidate for the task is a key factor to be investigated. Researchers have proposed different optimization model for achieving the task. But, all these models consider the input vector to be a known parameter. With the help of this vector, knowledge is derived. In this paper, we deviate from the traditional setup and make efforts to analyze the input with the help of known pattern. The pattern is generally binary in nature. We propose a novel research model that uses Expectation Maximization (EM) and Maximum Likelihood (MLE) approaches for evaluating the input vector. We test the model over a personnel evaluation setup in Startup Company. Finally, results from confusion matrix infer that, the proposed model is effective in guessing the right personnel for the project.

   

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Title: Linear analysis for progressive collapse on multistrorey steel frame under different temperature
Author (s): K. Thiagarajan, N. Parthasarathi, K. S. Satyanarayanan, Thamilarasu
Abstract:

Progressive collapse is one of the main reasons for the failure of structure. It occurs due to removal/ damage of a column by fire, blast or vehicle impact. The present study investigates the comparative behavior of 2D, three bay, four storey moment resisting steel frame using ABAQUS to predict the sensitivity of the structure in progressive collapse due to fire loads. Columns at different levels were given different temperature with reduced material properties and yield strength. Progressive collapse load combination was adopted as per GSA guidelines. Corner, middle and intermediate columns were subjected to fire load separately. The study covers linear analysis of steel frame due to different temperature. In linear analysis columns were subjected to different temperature and their results were studied. The results for displacement, stress, shear force and axial force were captured and discussed.

   

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Title: Preparation and application of a magnetic composite sorbent for collecting oil from a water surface
Author (s): D. A. Kharlyamov, G. V. Mavrin, I. G. Shaikhiev, T. R. Denisova, D. A. Albutova and S. R. Gafiyatova
Abstract:

A oil products are among the most dangerous pollution of water objects. They have a deleterious effect on the physiological and biochemical processes in the body of biological objects. In recent years, more and more attention is paid using of industrial waste for water treatment from oil products. In this study, the composite magnetic sorption material was received by chemical sedimentation using of the waste of MDF production (wood fiber) and iron chloride (II) and (III). Fractional composition and physico-chemical characteristics (Tamped density, content of moisture, ash content, buoyancy, specific surface area) of the reagent was detected, the micrographs were obtained by scanning electron microscope. The elemental composition of materials was identified using the method of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The remanent magnetism and the coercive force of the samples of modified wood fiber were calculated According of obtained hysteresis loops. IR spectra of the sorption materials were obtained and described using the method of FTIR spectroscopy in a frequency range of 400–4000 cm-1. Oil sorption capacity and water uptake of waste wood fiber and magnetic composite sorbent were evaluated in static system. Increase of oil sorption capacity and decrease of water uptake after modification of waste wood fiber was observed. Experiments to remove oil pollution from the water surface were carried out. The effectiveness of the proposed sorption material was discussed.

   

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Title: Laser scanner data capture time management
Author (s): Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Pravdina and Olga Jurjevna Lepikhina
Abstract:

Conclusions about an opportunity of laser scanner survey optimization are explicated in the article. It is offered to do this via scanner stations number determination and time spending forecasts. A method of obtaining the number of scan stations for different object patterns (truncated cone, a prism with a trapezoidal section, bounded on two sides by a truncated cone, the L-shaped prism) is shown. The maximum possible survey dump height, depending on the slope angle and the distance between the dump and the scan position was determined for this. Also dependency graphs were plotted for different object forms and various object proportions. In conclusion, the method to identify scan stations number is shown.

   

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Title: Stability studies of fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer in enhancing dynamic stability of a two generators tie-line system
Author (s): Hayfaa Mohammed, Marizan Sulaiman, Mohammed Rasheed, Rosli Omar and Shahrieel Arasand Ahmad Fateh
Abstract:

Electro-mechanical oscillations are created, in the machines of an interrelated power network, followed by a trouble or due to high power transfer through weak tie lines. These oscillations should be damped as quickly as possible to guarantee the reliable and stable operation of the network. This research presents the analysis of change of speed, change of angle position and tie - line power flow, fuzzy logic controller (FLC) two area symmetrical systems connected via tie-line are measured to show via performance of these controllers using Simulink/MATLAB. Simulation results described by fuzzy logic based controller having dual inputs of rotor speed deviation and generator’s accelerating power there shown better solutions for damping the inter area (tie-line) oscillations.

   

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Title: Numerical modelling of clinching process
Author (s): Jakub Flodr, Pawel Kaldunski, Martin Krejsa and Premysl Parenica
Abstract:

This paper deals with usage of explicit analysis modelling of clinching process. Clinching process is often used in mechanical engineering. In this paper process of connecting of profiles in civil engineering is analyzed. The aim of this paper is creation of appropriate numerical model in LS-DYNA, which would correspond to manufacturing process of clinching. The most important parameters for creation of clinch connection are specified by comparison of numerical model and physical experiment. This paper is part of a larger research, which deals with clinching method used in civil engineering.

   

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Title: Collagen agent technology for foam concrete production
Author (s): Sarsenbek Aliakbaruly Montayev, Bekbulat Temerzhanovich Shakeshev, Muratbai Zhanaidarovich Ryskaliyev, Nurgul Bolatovna Adilova and Kanat Amangeldievich Narikov
Abstract:

We have developed protein foam agent on the basis of collagen raw material. Collagen should destructed in soft mode at Ca(OH)2 content of 2.0-2.5% and temperature of not higher than 120…125°C. Such hydrolysis mode provides complete retention of amino acids and break of disulfide groups (–SH), which leads to intensive protein foaming. The highest foaming ability of the considered agent is achieved at pH 5.80…5.87. Foam stability increases up to several hours as a consequence of addition of non-ionogenic or ampholytic high molecular surfactants to main foam agent. Additives of this family create strongly structured adsorption layers and films which retain high bulk of liquid in film. We propose the use of polyoxyethylene with molecular weight of higher than 1 million and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with substitution degree higher than 0.8 and polymerization degree higher than 500 as such stabilizing additives. Duration of curing upon production of foam concrete on the basis of protein foam agent can be reduced by addition of calcium nitrite-nitrate. Addition of these salts reduced cement curing duration by 35-65 min, as well as increased foam stability, which can be attributed to additional swelling of protein as a consequence of weakening of intermolecular bonds in the protein structure. Site of connection of salt cations to protein are primarily lateral amino and carboxyl as well as hydroxyl groups.

   

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Title: Nonlinear behavior of one way reinforced concrete hollow block slabs
Author (s): Adel A. AI- Azzwi and Abbas J, Al-Asdi
Abstract:

There are many techniques that would reduce the self-weight of reinforced concrete structures. The most important and the most common are those that depend on changing the cross section of structural members, especially the slabs and which constitutes the effective portion of dead loads. Eleven one-way simply supported slabs comprised three as reference slabs (solid slabs) and eight as hollow block slabs with two cases of reduction in cross sectional area (23.3% and 29.1%) were carried out in this experimental work. The holes were formed by placing styropor at the ineffective concrete zones in resisting the tensile stresses. All slabs have length 1100mm with effective span 1000mm, width 600mm and depth 120mm except one has depth 85mm (which has cross sectional area equal to hollow block slab with weight reduction (29.1%). Two loading cases (A and B) of shear span to effective depth ratio (a/d=3.125, 2) (as two-line monotonic loads) were used to investigate the structural behavior of hollow block slab. Nine out eleven of the slab specimens which were tested in experimental program and covered most of parametric study have been verified by the finite element method. The suggested finite element model shows good agreement with the experimental results. The obtained numerical load at failure agrees well with the experimental ones, since the difference between them is less than 10%. As results of this agreement, additional parameters of weight reduction up to 35% and decreasing compressive strength of concrete were also investigated in this study.

   

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Title: The theoretical optimization of the process of dehydrogenation of methylbutenes with the deactivation of the catalyst
Author (s): Dina Shaimukhametova, Svetlana Mustafina and Denis Shaimukhametov
Abstract:

The paper presents the formulation and solution of the optimal control problem of the process of the dehydrogenation of methylbutenes with the deactivation of the catalyst. The results of computational experiments to analyze the influence of the deactivation parameter on the optimum temperature of the process of the methylbutene dehydrogenation are given. The solution of the problem of the optimal control of the process is based on the use of the Pontryagin maximum principle.

   

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