ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                            March 2019  |  Vol. 14  No. 5
   
Title: Rainfall intensity probability for design of drainage system in Basrah City, south of Iraq
Author (s): Ali H. Al-Aboodi, Ayman Alak Hassan and Husham T. Ibrahim
Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to derive relationship between rainfall intensity and recurrence interval at Basrah City, south of Iraq. Four common frequency analysis techniques (Gumbel, Powell, VenTe Chow, and Log Pearson Type III distribution) were used to develop this relationship from observed rainfall intensity data during the interval (1971-2000). The first three methods (Gumbel, Powell, and VenTe Chow) presented similar estimated relationship between the rainfall intensity and recurrence interval, while the estimated values of rainfall intensity by Pearson Type III distribution method are higher estimation compared with other methods, whilst, VenTe Chow method is presented the minimum estimated values. Based on the estimated values of rainfall intensity for recurrence intervals 25 and 50 year, the appropriate values of rainfall intensity for design the road drainage and highway drainage are 43 and 50 mm/hr respectively in Basrah City. It is very useful to conduct a study in the future to evaluate the optimal value of the recurrence interval for a set of possible design rainfall recurrence intervals, according to this proposed interval, the corresponding construction of drainage networks, maintenance and operation costs are evaluated.

   

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Title: Analysis of impact velocity of rice grain on impeller speed variation in the centrifugal flow thresher by using CFD
Author (s): Zaimar, Mursalim, Hammada Abbas and Supratomo
Abstract:

The use of a mechanical thresher could cause grain damage. This was due to friction, collision, and impact factors. The impact velocity of rice grain is one of the problems encountered by using the centrifugal flow thresher. Therefore, the aimed of this research to analyze the impact velocity of rice grain on the impeller speed variation in the centrifugal flow thresher by using CFD. The input parameter that applied of the CFD simulation is the impeller speed. While the output parameters are total pressure, impact velocity, and normal contact stress of rice grain. The simulation results indicated that the addition of the impeller speed caused the total pressure, impact velocity, and normal contact stress of the rice grain increased. The higher impact velocity and normal contact stress of the rice grain were obtained of 24.1 m s-1 and 27.28 MPa respectively at 960 RPM impeller speed at the wall of the fan housing. Based on approximating the critical stress of rice grain is 38.7 MPa so that could be predicted the critical impact velocity of the rice grain of 31.9 m s-1.

   

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Title: Optimization of fermentation to enhance ethanol production from palmyra sap (borassus flabellifer) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Author (s): Tri Widjaja, Ali Altway, Dennis Farina Nury and Toto Iswanto
Abstract:

Ethanol is widely needed in various field such as for making food and beverages, pharmaceutical products, personal care and cosmetics, as well as for medical and laboratory purposes. Palmyra is an agricultural product which is abundant in Indonesia, especially in the coastal and tropical area of East Java. Legen is known as traditional drinking juice from fresh palmyra sap. It has high sugar content which reaches 10-15%, that potential for ethanol raw material. In the present study, Palmyra sap has been fermented in a batch-wise fermentor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a working volume of 100 ml for 80 hours. The optimum independent variables for the fermentation of palmyra sap such as pH, initial inoculums, and sugar concentration have been investigated based on the experimental design by central composite design (CCD) recommendation in response surface methodology (RSM). The result of the experiment at the optimum condition and theoretical prediction obtained yield ethanol of 0.2221 (g/g) and 0.2368 (g/g), respectively. The highest ethanol yield using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 0.2368 (g/g) obtained at pH 4.77, inoculums concentration of 12,740,970 (cell/ml)/(g.l-1), and sugar concentration of 110 g.l-1. The P-value of interaction of variance was <0.005, indicated that the interaction effect was significant.

   

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Title: Analysis of the effect of climate change on rainfall intensity and expected flooding by using ANN and SWMM programs
Author (s): Basim K. Nile, Waqed H. Hassan and Ghofran A. Alshama
Abstract:

The flooding of the storm water network is caused by climate change, land use change and an increase in urbanization and the wider population. This study deals with the development of models to extrapolate future change in rainfall events in order to protect the infrastructure of the storm water network from flooding. The Al-Abbas quarter in Karbala city, Iraq was selected as a case study. For the first analysis, the effect of climate change on the predicted rainfall intensity for the future period (2017-2070) depends on historical data for the period of 1980-2016. This was conducted using the artificial neural network (ANN) model. Following this, a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) model is constructed in order to assess the flood conditions of the study area for expected rainfall intensities. The results indicate that the maximum rainfall intensity will reach 46.48 mm/h. in 2067. This figure represents 400% of the design intensity.

   

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Title: Uncertainty of spectral mismatch factor for Spot White (LEDS) and Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Author (s): Manal A. Haridy
Abstract:

The present work focused on analyzed the uncertainty spectral mismatch factor for Spot White Light Emitting Diodes Lamps (LEDs) and Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) by applied the method of ISO Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements. The excel program build for calculating the spectral mismatch correction factors and their uncertainties from the spectral power distribution (SPDs). A set up based on National Institute of standards of Egypt (NIS) Spectroradiometer and the photometric bench used for measuring the spectral power distribution of the test lamps against the NIS luminous flux standard lamps. The spectral power distributions (SPDs) diagrams for Spot White Light Emitting Diodes Lamps (LEDs) and Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) showed typical White LEDs and CFLs responses. The results of spectral mismatch correction factors show that theses mismatch values and their uncertainties could be added to the of luminous flux measurements as correction. The color temperature of the standard lamps varied from 2400 Kelvin to 2750 Kelvin which has effect on the uncertainty.

   

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Title: Systematic analysis and strategic review of MIMO-NOMA systems
Author (s): Khaleelahmed S. K. and Venkateswara Rao N.
Abstract:

One of the effective technologies dealing with the transmission that occurs at the overloaded condition with limited resource and improved spectral efficiency is Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA). Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) is used for fulfilling the demands of 5G communication systems. Integration of both MIMO and NOMA approaches is also explained in the previous researches for improving the communication. The purpose of NOMA is for utilizing multiple access into power domain for providing channel assignment and power allocation. Thus, optimal power allocation is an important parameter in 5G communication so as to utilize the NOMA systems effectively. Accordingly, this survey presents different techniques in MIMO-NOMA systems. Thus, this review article provides the detailed review of research papers presenting various MIMO-NOMA methodologies. The papers reviewed are classified into following types, namely Pilot based techniques, Pre-coder based techniques, Beam forming based techniques, Sum rate based techniques and Cluster-based techniques. Moreover, an elaborative study and discussion are made by concerning fading channels, antennas utilized, implementation tools and evaluation parameters obtained by various techniques. Eventually, the research gaps and issues of various MIMO-NOMA classification schemes are presented for extending the researchers towards a better contribution of significant MIMO-NOMA systems.

   

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Title: Solvation methodology for separation and micro determination of lead (II) in different sample
Author (s): Sahar Aqeel Hussain and Safa Majeed Hameed
Abstract:

In this paper, separation, preconcentration and determination of Pb (II) as solvation species have been achieved by using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) as an organic reagent. The spectrophotometric study of extracted solvation species shows that maximum absorption wavelength is 287nm. Accordingly, the experimental studies of extraction have optimum concentration of salting out KNO3 to form solvation species with higher extraction efficiency of 0.5M in the presence of 100µg of Pb+2 with 1×10-4 M from MIBK dissolved in chloroform and shaking the two layers for 10 minutes. Besides, this study involves thermodynamic and interferences investigations with application of spectrophotometric determination of Pb(II) in different environmental and vital samples.

   

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Title: A proficient method for human actor detection in video sequences
Author (s): Anuradha Kalyanam and N. R. Raajan
Abstract:

The detection of human actors in scenes against static and dynamic backgrounds has gained significance in numerous vision-based applications. Numerous techniques were proposed to identify actors in scenes with such backgrounds. This work offers a technique to identify human actions with static background and changes in illumination. This technique applies background modeling for recognizing the foreground. The proposed approach also focuses on identifying actors in image sequences with static background. The proposed approach was compared with methods such as ViBe+, GMM and SGMM-OD. The comparisons were performed on benchmark datasets viz., KTH, CAVIAR and CDnet. The outcome of evaluations reveals that, this approach produces accurate and improved results.

   

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Title: Quality improvement of the voltage level in the transmission lines using Static Var Compensator Controllers
Author (s): Raghad Hameed Ahmed
Abstract:

In these aspects Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) technology with relatively low investment, compared to new transmission or generation facilities allows the industries to enhance power system performance, improve quality of supply and also provide an optimal utilization of the existing resources. FACTS devices are divided as Shunt controller and Series controller. Shunt controller called Static Var Compensator (SVC) are used for power factor correction and to improve voltage profile. The modeling and simulation results obtained in MATLAB software too.

   

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Title: Proximate analysis and metabolizable energy of poultry feeds
Author (s): Ofori H., Amoah F., Arah I. and Krampah E. K.
Abstract:

The study was conducted to find the proximate analysis and metabolizable energy values of feed samples sold in Ho Municipal. It also assay to establish variations in the feed samples. Moisture content, crude protein, ash, fat, carbohydrates and energy values of the feed samples were studied. Levene’s test and ANOVA were used to ascertain the variability among the feed samples at P = 0.05. Results obtained were compared with Ghana Standard Authority (GSA) and National Research Council (NRC) recommended values for poultry feeds. The results shown some discrepancies in the means of the feed samples at p = 0.05. Minimum fat contents were found inlayer mash feed and grower mash feed respectively at 2.02 % and the maximum was found in broiler starter feed at 4.60 %. The mean moisture contents of all the feed sampled fell below GSA baseline of 12%. The crude protein content values for grower mash and layer mash feeds were highly in deviation from the mean, and were respectively at 3.32% and 3.33%.There were significant differences among the mean feed composition at p = 0.05. Some of the feed compositions were inconsistence with recommended baseline stated by GSA. Quality and standards are vital to ensure farmers security to feeds and growth of birds, for this reason frequent monitoring and feed analysis by authorities are key to ensure feed standardization.

   

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Title: Kinematic, dynamic modeling and design of A P-D controller for a four-degree-of-freedom robot
Author (s): Juan Gabriel Jimenez Perdomo, Oscar Andres Otalora Castro, Jorge Luis Aroca Trujillo and Ruthber Rodriguez Serrezuela
Abstract:

In this work the kinematic and dynamic modeling of an industrial robot with four degrees of freedom is obtained. The kinematic model is found and validated through the Matlab software. For the design of the controller, a proportional and derivative feedback (P-D) is selected to determine the control signal, generating a linear PD driver feedback linearization type using Matlab / Simulink. The main current bibliographical references for the kinematic and dynamic analysis of industrial robots are taken into account for this work.

   

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Title: Petrol quality analysis for different level of adulteration using thermal imaging and GLCM features
Author (s): R. Ganesan and K. Somasundaram

Abstract:

The most common adulterants in petrol is kerosene. The combination of kerosene and petrol affects the engine working and pollutes the environment as a whole. In this paper, a novel thermal image processing based approach applies to detect the presence of adulteration in fuel. The GLCM (Gray level co-ocurrence matrix) algorithm apply to detect fuel adulterants in a given sample. Test results shows, GLCM algorithm detects adulterants in fuel with 98% accuracy.

   

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Title: Key node selection network analysis and centrality measurements on a dataset of cancer documents
Author (s): V MNSSVKR Gupta and CH.V. Phani Krishna
Abstract:

Network analysis deals with interdisciplinary study of analyzing relationships. Networks possess inherent topological characteristics and integrate multiple sources of high throughput data. A dataset which contains 1000 article titles on cancer disease were considered to evaluate the importance of centrality measurements of nearly 47 cancer genes, and their associated data is also considered to select the most central group of nodes from a network. Centrality analysis revealed that the variable “cancer” and “patient” were reported to have high values than others which suggest the fact that these two parameters are highly influential in communicating with other nodes. Further, key node selection analysis comprising eight centrality measurements resulted in “cancer” as the most central group of nodes from a network.

   

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Title: Novel flowchart to compute moment magnification for long R/C columns
Author (s): Abdul Kareem M. B. Al-Shammaa and Ehsan Ali Al-Zubaidi
Abstract:

For computing moment magnification and then design R/C columns with rectangular or circular sections, there is a number of procedural steps and equations provided by ultimate strength design method according to ACI-Code. The large number of equations and fork of solution steps causes a lot of confusion and boredom for the students or designers. Having consulted the most common and authoritative textbooks that dealt with design of reinforced concrete structures as well as my long experience in teaching reinforced concrete material. I have concluded that the novel flowchart according to ACI 318-2011 has more effect to give beginner engineering students speed to achieve design steps by less time and effort. This study focuses on compression members within braced (nonsway) or unbraced (sway) frames which have rectangular or circular sections subjected to axial compression loads and uniaxial moment. Finally, the author has enabled to draw a simplified flowchart to track steps of moment magnification easily and conveniently by using SI units.

   

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Title: Ventilation systems failure prediction on the basis of the stochastic branching processes mathematical model
Author (s): Valentin I. Gorshkov, Tamara I. Koroleva and Evgeny G. Ezhov
Abstract:

The article considers a procedure of reliability evaluation of ventilation systems on the basis of controlled stochastic branching processes. The ventilation system under study is presented as a set of four main subsystems-modules interacting in the process of operation. The reliability indicators of functioning of the considered modules are defined, i.e. the probability of failure-free operation, average failure-free running time and indicator of durability - technical resource. As part of the research, a software and methodological complex was developed on the basis of the resulting mathematical model.

   

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Title: Logistic regression scoring index for detection of interstitial lung disease
Author (s): Norliza, M. Noor, Ahmad F. Roseli, Zuriani Dahlan, Rosminah M. Kassim, Ashari Yunus and Omar M. Rijal
Abstract:

The decision for a lung transplant requires the knowledge of the severity of interstitial lung disease (ILD). A manual scoring sheet was developed for discriminating ILD cases from non-ILD cases based on eleven indicators selected by the radiologist. The manual scoring sheet requires the radiologists to score the severity of general ILD from visual inspection on the changes of lung tissue using the high resolution computed tomography images. This paper investigates the use of logistic regression in developing a scoring index, , to investigate the presence of ILD. The result shows that the scoring index, , is robust and has discriminatory potentials. The threshold (c, d) having values (0.7, 0.24) allowed correct classifications of 80% of ILD cases and 61% of non-ILD cases in a total sample of 134 cases. This study suggests that may be used as a simple and practical scoring index in initial investigations for ILD detection.

   

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Title: Study and optimization of advanced heat sinks for processors
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli, Luca Sportiello, Eugenio Pezzuti and Stefano Cassani
Abstract:

The main task of this project is the development of a modular heat exchanger to dissipate a TDP (Total Dissipated Power) of 140-180 W on a microprocessor. This exchanger should be able to dissipate the reference target TDP respecting the maximum operating temperatures (above these temperatures the CPU goes into thermal throttle) and the longevity temperatures (lower than the thermal throttle temperatures). This result should be achieved while providing product versatility (based on the concept to adapt the exchanger to each socket), acceptable noise, acceptable size and cost. The heart of the project is the design of a suitable fin surface to protect processors with high TDP. In this case, a significant increase in fan speed and in the size of the finned body is inevitable. In this way, an increase in the heat removal is obtained by larger airflow rate (high number of revolutions of the fan) and the large exchange surface. Considering the impact of these changes, the design of the exchanger is extremely critical in terms of size and noise level. Another physical limit is represented by the progressive and unavoidable phenomenon of electro migration that afflicts each circuit, the more the temperatures separate from those of longevity, the lower the useful life of the CPU. Once the longevity temperature is exceeded, the useful life of the processor decreases with increasing temperatures until the thermal throttle temperature is reached, which causes an abnormal system shutdown. The processors with a TDP from 65W to 95W are the most numerous. For this reason, most aftermarket solutions are designed to dissipate this TDP. The main purpose of this study is to examine the best geometry for a modular exchanger that is able to effectively dissipate the higher TDP (up to 180W) typical of modern high performance processors. For this purpose the Golden-section search is introduced for optimizing the number of fins. The heat exchange is simulated with fluid dynamic simulations (CFD). This new study allows obtaining an optimal design for the construction of the exchanger. The use of an optimal finned surface avoids the use of heat pipes. This approach simplifies the design. Moreover, by using materials with high thermal conductivity (such as copper alloys instead of aluminium alloys) we can certify the heat exchanger for TDP larger than the design one and therefore cope with even higher thermal loads. In this way, we can also effectively dissipate very performant CPUs (very uncommon) with extremely high TDPs such as FX-9590 with a 220W TDP (declared by the manufacturer AMD), maintaining in any case temperatures below the maximum thermal specifications.

   

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Title: Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on SI engine performance and emissions
Author (s): Osama Ghazal
Abstract:

One of the main challenges for the engine manufacturers is to reduce engine emissions to match Euro IV and Euro V standards. Many techniques have been adopted to improve the combustion process and reduce emissions. In this study, the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on performance and emissions of 4-cylinders Gasoline engine was investigated. A model was built using GT-Power professional software. The model was equipped with catalytic converter and EGR controller. The EGR were varied from 0.2 to 0.05 fraction. The engine speed was 4000 rpm and kept constant for all simulation runs. The engine torque, power, efficiency, fuel consumption, and emissions were calculated and discussed. The results showed that, the decrease of EGR ratio increase engine torque, power, and brake efficiency; while decrease fuel consumption. Moreover, the increase of EGR ratio resulting in decreased NO and HC and increased CO emissions.

   

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Title: Influence of elements of the “driver-car-road-environment” system on emergence of the transport jam
Author (s): Vladimir Baskov, Anton Ignatov, Pavel Gamayunov and Shamil Igitov
Abstract:

The article deals with the traffic intensity indicator as one of the factors influencing the risk of traffic congestion. On transport delays, which, with increasing duration, are transformed into transport congestion, various factors affect the geometric parameters of the road, the mode of operation of traffic lights, the presence of parked cars on the carriageway, the geographical scheme of the road network, traffic accidents, the psychophysiological state of the driver, the level of his professional training and others. The combination of these factors has a significant impact on traffic intensity and throughput of highways. The change in intensity is described by the times of the year, by the days of the week and by the hours of the day. An example of the change in traffic intensity by the seasons on the central part of the Saratov road network in 2016-2017 is given. A model for calculating the risk of traffic congestion at regulated intersections is presented, on the basis of which the dependence of this indicator on the magnitude of traffic intensity is displayed. The results obtained and the physical meaning is compared with the data of the main transport flow diagram. The maximum risk values for each category of traffic conditions are shown taking into account the risk of traffic congestion, the result of which defines the categories of conditions of traffic flow. Based on the obtained data, the average speed of the transport stream is determined, at which its state can be characterized as congestion. As an example, the cartogram of the section of the surveyed street-road network is shown. A description is given of the mutual influence of the psychophysiological characteristics of the driver, road and meteorological conditions on the traffic regime.

   

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Title: Combustion chamber design for efficient heat transfer
Author (s): Kshitij Kasturia, Abhishek Saha, Aayush Singhal, Satish Shenoy B. and Chandrakant R. Kini
Abstract:

A combustion chamber of an engine operating at really high temperature expels a hot stream of gas and thus, may be equipped with a cooling device. To achieve a lower temperature around the combustion chamber, a valve facing the combustion chamber in which engine oil is circulated with the help of valve stems which are equipped with oil introduction channels may be used or alternatively, the combustion chamber may have depressions formed in such a way that the stable outer layer of the stream of gas that that is formed around the inner wall of the combustion chamber is hydrodynamically destabilized in the area of the depressions during the operation of the engine.

   

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