ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                             May 2021  |  Vol. 16  No. 9
   
Title: A Response Surface Method for the preparation of N-Lauroyl lysine from medium chain fatty acid catalyzed by sodium metoxide
Author (s): Zuhrina Masyithah, Nuraina R. Purba, Muhammad Syukri and Armansyah Ginting
Abstract:

N-lauroyl lysine is a non-ionic surfactant obtained from the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids with lysine. This study aims to obtain data on the effect of the molar of a substrate, solvent ratio, and catalyst concentration on the fact of lauric acid (LA) conversion by compiling and observing a mathematical model with Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid amidized with lysine and sodium methylate catalyst in a solvent mixture of 2-propanol and n-hexane. In the optimization stage, with the variables of lysine to a fatty acid molar ratio (2-4 M), solvent ratio (1-3 v/wLA), catalyst concentration (3-7 w/wLA), with a temperature of 55oC and reaction time 2 hours, the maximum conversion is 85.94%. The results showed that the independent variables affected the conversion with an R2 value of 84.85%. Analysis of the sample results using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the formation of N-lauroyl-lysine.

   

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Title: Sumudu transform method for finding the transverse natural harmonic vibration frequencies of Euler-Bernoulli beams
Author (s): Charles Chinwuba Ike
Abstract:

The determination of the natural frequencies of flexural vibrations of Euler-Bernoulli beams is a vital consideration in their analysis and design for dynamic loads. This paper presents the Sumudu transform method for the determination of the natural frequencies of Euler-Bernoulli beams under transverse free harmonic vibration for different boundary conditions. The end support conditions considered are: (a) simply supported at both bends, (b) clamped at both ends, (c) clamped-free ends (d) clamped-simply supported ends, and (e) simply supported-clamped ends. The governing partial differential equation is converted by the Sumudu transformation to an integral equation, which upon evaluation becomes an algebraic equation. The solution gives the dynamic modal displacement shape function in the Sumudu transform space V(u). Inversion gives the dynamic modal displacement function in the physical problem space V(x). The enforcement of boundary conditions for the end supports considered yielded systems of homogeneous equations. The condition for nontrivial solutions is used to determine the characteristic frequency equation for each considered boundary condition. It is found that the characteristic frequency equation has an infinite number of eigenvalues (roots or zeros) corresponding to the continuously distributed parameter model of idealization of the problem. The characteristic frequency equations obtained are solved for the n roots using computational software methods, Symbolic Algebra Software and Mathematica Software to obtain the eigenvalues (zeros or roots) for any (n) vibration mode. The eigenvalues are then used to obtain the eigenfrequencies or natural frequencies of flexural vibration for each considered boundary conditions. It is found that closed form solutions obtained are identical to the solutions in the literature; obtained by classical methods of separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion methods.

   

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Title: Stability Analysis and Heat Transfer of Rayleigh - Bénard convection of Bingham Fluid through a vertical channel in a porous media
Author (s): J. Murali kumar, Y. V. K. Ravi Kumar and M. N. Rajasheker
Abstract:

The studies on gravity modulation are made for non-internal heating systems. However, in many practically important situations the material offers its own source of heat and this leads to a setting up of different convective flow in a fluid layer through internal heating. Here we considered Stability Analysis and Heat Transfer of Rayleigh convection in a Bingham Fluid in a porous media with heat generation is explored by making a linear stability investigation. The steadiness of a flat layer of liquid heat-generation from inside is analyzed by accepting time-period of the power within the sight of the source. The impact of gravity regulation on the beginning of Rayleigh-Bénard convection a standard perturbation technique is used to show up at an articulation to process the basic Rayleigh number for little and dimensionless inner heat source. The Venezian approach is embraced to acquire the eigen estimation of the issue. The buoyancy effects will occur when the Rayleigh number exceeds a certain critical values are found.

   

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Title: Analysis of strontium addition on Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloys
Author (s): Salahuddin Junus, Prasetya EkaIndradiant, Gaguk Jatisukamto, Welayaturromadhona and Achmad Fitoyo
Abstract:

The use of metal based materials has high potentials following the development of the automotive industry. It follows the increase of demand in automotive vehicles, machine components, and many more. Aluminum is a type of metal that is of interest in the industry. The lightweight aluminum properties and corrosion resistance make aluminum widely used in various industries. Al-Si-Mg alloy is one alloy that is able to increase the strength of aluminium. The purpose of this study is to understand the addition of strontium modifiers and the expected improvement of mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg alloys. The addition of strontium, in general, is able to change the shape of eutectic silicon particles from the form of acicular particles into finer shapes. The results showed that the addition of strontium modifiers in Al-Si-Mg alloys was able to increase tensile strength and hardness. The results of the observation of the microstructure were found to change the shape of eutectic silicon particles with the addition of a strontium modifier. The addition of strontium found the micro-change of eutectic acicular silicon structure to fibrous in the Al-Si-Mg alloy.

   

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Title: Reduction of fluctuations in nuclear reactivity using the Simpson’s 3/8 rule
Author (s): Daniel Suescún-Díaz, Jesús A. Chala-Casanova and Freddy Humberto Escobar
Abstract:

This article studies the reduction of fluctuations in the calculation of nuclear reactivity using the Simpson’s 3/8 rule and a 1st order low-pass filter. Numerical experiments are performed for several time steps and standard deviations. It is assumed that the density of the neutron population has Gaussian noise around a mean value. The results indicate that the method can be used for time steps of up to 0.1s with standard deviations of up to 0.1 without having any limitation on the assumption of the neutron density form.

   

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Title: Artificial neural network models for the prediction of asphaltene onset pressure (AOP) in oil reservoirs
Author (s): Cristian Loaiza, Jairo Sepúlveda, Germán Arce and Vladimir Mosquera
Abstract:

Formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation is one of the most serious problems that can appear to a greater or lesser degree in practically all the stages of production, transportation, and processing of crude oil. Asphaltenes tend to destabilize under certain conditions of pressure, temperature, composition, and flow regime, causing them to aggregate, flocculate, precipitate, and deposit into the porous medium. One of the most popular techniques to evaluate this phenomenon is through the determination of asphaltene onset pressure (AOP). The term "onset" represents the point at which the first solid particle forms after asphaltene destabilization. Thus, in this work, highlights of different artificial neural network models (ANN) developed to predict AOP of oil reservoirs are presented. The research process was carried out in 3 different stages. The first approach was published in 2016. The ANN model was called Neuross-Asph, which was constructed with two self-organizing maps (SOM) and one feed-forward back-propagation network. Later, a modified version of the Neuross-Asph model was introduced in 2018. An extensive statistical analysis (ANOVA) was performed to determine the most appropriate ANN input parameters. Finally, a new ANN version was developed in 2019. In this stage, a fully connected neural network, called AsphPy, was implemented to predict the onset pressure of several crude oil samples. The main advantage of all proposed models was the use of few and accessible data as input parameters. Model predictions showed a good match with the experimental information. Consequently, the strategy designed was appropriate since the network topologies considered the relationships that have more influence on asphaltene precipitation.

   

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Title: Studying the oxygen requirement for aeration systems in wastewater treatment plants
Author (s): Mona A. Abdel-Fatah, Ahmed Abd El Maguid and Ashraf Amin
Abstract:

Aeration system is an essential part of wastewater plants. Aeration system represents the major energy consuming element in the wastewater treatment plants. Mathematical model is developed to calculate the energy usage for the diffusion and mechanical aeration systems. To evaluate the model parameters, oxygen transfer in clean water was studied. The model parameters were estimated using non-linear regression method. The model can be used to predict the oxygen and energy requirements for diffused-air and mechanical aeration systems. For 1000 m3/day, the size of aeration system will be 10.6 kW using mechanical aeration system or 31.3 kW using diffused aeration system. The calculation indicated that using diffused aeration system will increase energy requirements by more than 200%. However, the calculation is only valid for the system under study. The article represents a simplified mathematical model to estimate the energy requirements for the mechanical and diffused aeration systems.

   

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Title: 1-D simulation of the characteristics of fuel pressure pulsations and injected fuel mass variations caused by a high-pressure GDI pump operation
Author (s): Choong Hoon Lee
Abstract:

In general, a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine uses a single-piston type of high-pressure fuel pump (HPFP) driven by a camshaft. When the HPFP that pressurizes the fuel by a reciprocating piston operates, the pressure of the delivered fuel pulsates. If the fuel rail pressure (FRP) pulsation increases past a certain point, the fluctuation of the fuel injection rate also increases and the parts may be damaged. The FRP pulsation induced by a HPFP was computer simulated. The mitigation effect of the FRP pulsation with an orifice connecting the HPFP outlet and the fuel rail was investigated. Fuel pressure waves at both the HPFP outlet and the fuel rail were simulated according to changes of the opening and closing timing of a PCV (pressure control valve) in the HPFP. The signal-to-noise ratio from the simulated pressure wave was calculated. The fuel injection rate was also simulated. Three cases of fuel rail pressure conditions were used in the simulation: 50, 100, and 150 bar. In addition, four different engine speed conditions were used: 1500, 3000, 4500, and 6000 rpm. Three orifice diameters were also used: 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 mm. When the PCV opening time came before the TDC and the engine speed was high, the pressure pulsation and injected fuel mass variation were appeared to belarge. When the PCV opening time was later than the TDC, there was no pressure pulsation and little variation in the injected fuel mass for all simulation condition.

   

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Title: Efficiency of using biochar and drought tolerant maize varieties in costal sandy soil area of Thanh Hoa province
Author (s): Le Sy Chung, Nguyen Manh Khai, Pham Anh Hung, Tran Thi Hong, Le Sy Chinh, Tran Thien Cuong, Le Anh Tuan and Le Xuan Thai
Abstract:

The coastal area of Thanh Hoa province has a large proportion of sandy soils, about 24% of the natural land; this is a group of land with poor water and nutrition holding capacity. Studies show that biochar can improve soil environment, improve soil production through reducing acidity, increasing cation exchange capacity, increasing water and nutrient holding capacity. In addition, with advances in plant varieties, in Vietnam, hybrid varieties of maize with drought, cold tolerance, and good productivity and quality have been developed. This study conducted two factors: the amount of biochar applied and the drought tolerant maize varieties to evaluate the effects of biochar as well as the maize varieties in the dry sandy soil condition in coastal areas of Thanh Hoa province. Research results show that, when applying biochar at 5 tons / ha, the yield of maize varieties reaches the highest and is equivalent to applying 10 tons of manure. As such, biochar can replace manure used in maize cultivation in the study area. Experimental results of three drought tolerant maize varieties showed that, with the amount biochar applied was 5 tons / ha, the variety LVN061 has higher actual productivity than the two varieties of LVN092 and LVN17. For LVN061 maize variety, the level of fertilizing 10 tons of manure, 5 tons of biochar and 6 tons of biochar achieved the highest productivity and were similar at the 95% confidence level. With biochar applied at 5 tons / ha, the maize varieties actual productivity more than 6 tons / ha, higher than the current average maize actual productivity in the study area (below 6 tons / ha). The economically optimal amount of biochar applied for the three maize varieties LVN092, LVN17 and LVN061 were 4.98 tons / ha, 4.81 tons / ha and 4.65 tons / ha respectively. This is the amount of fertilizing for high economic efficiency as well as ensuring nutrition supply for growing maize.

   

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Title: Automated classroom resource note ontology generation using semantic knowledge graph
Author (s): Oke Akinniran O. and Eze Monday
Abstract:

An artificial intelligence solution for automation of classroom note ontology generation using semantic knowledge graph was proposed. This research serves as a ground work solution to challenges faced in schools as a result of inadequate and poor note formation in Nigeria school context. The solution leverages on semantic web while emphasizing on web scrapping concept, output from the former leading to enhancement by Apache Stanbol which generates ontologies adoptable and viewable by Neo4j database tool. The application extended the Online Education System (OES) learning management system while using Jboss application server and this leads to improvement of OES learning management system with Artificial Intelligence learning platform. In implementing this work, Java Programming Language Enterprise Edition (J2EE) was used with MySQL database with Apache Stanbol Restful API. Neosemantics API was also used in Neo4j Graph Database for displace of semantic knowledge graph generated. Finally, based on the topic area resource location, a Resource Development File (RDF) or Turtle file was generated by the system and this resulted in ontologies in a file.

   

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Title: How Green Ergonomic meet Eco-Efficiency in the batik industry
Author (s): Etika Muslimah, Kevin Wais, Muhammad Arsyad Rifai, Sudjito Soeparman, Bagyo Yanuwiyadi, Harsuko Riniwati, Muchlison Anis and Much Djunaidi
Abstract:

Batik is a genuine Indonesian product and has been its cultural heritage for several decades. The production process is mostly conducted manually by many small industries in different cities such as Solo, Yogyakarta, Pekalongan, Cirebon, Madura, and others. The small batik industry, however, has some limitations including simple production technology, marketing, human resources, and the knowledge of the impact of batik production on the environment. The purpose of this study was to recommend a workstation design for wax removal in the batik production process in order to improve the Eco-Efficiency Index (EEI) and provide comfort to the workers (ergonomic). This involved the application of the Eco-Efficiency analysis method and the Green Ergonomic concept in this study. The EEI analysis conducted on 2 Batik SMEs showed SMEs using firewood has a lower EEI compared to those using used oil while Green Ergonomic was used to recommend the change from the initial use of firewood in the furnace to used oil while designing a wax removal workstation. This new design is also expected to provide comfort to the workers.

   

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Title: Environmentally friendly and resource-saving technology for disposal of dusty asbestos-containing wastes and production of magnesium salts
Author (s): Abdrazak Auyeshov, Asem Satimbekova, Kazhymuhan Arynov, Aliya Bekaulova, Shaizada Yeskibayeva and Zhanat Idrisheva

Abstract:

This paper described a scheme for disposal of dusty asbestos-containing wastes (DAW), mainly containing serpentine minerals such as antigorite, chrysotile and lizardite with the grade of MgO and SiO2 of 32-38 wt. %, respectively, is proposed in the work on the basis of conditions and modes of acid treatment of DAW determined experimentally. Conditions and modes of acid treatment of DAW are proposed in order to produce magnesium salts (MgSO4, MgCl2 и Mg(NO3)2) using sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids to leach magnesium from DAW. It has been noted that the quality of produced magnesium salts is consistent with the currently valid quality standards, and a thick layer of polysilicic acid is formed on the surface of undissolved residues that changes composition and physical-and-chemical properties of surface layers of chrysotile-asbestos, including its adverse environmental impact. An environmentally friendly and resource-saving technology for disposal of industrial dusty asbestos-containing wastes produced from mining and beneficiation of chrysotile-asbestos has been proposed on the basis of the research results.

   

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Title: Sensors based vehicle crowed sensing in bad weather conditions
Author (s): Nauman Yousaf, Abdul Mateen, Saeedullah, Abdul Hanan and Robina Adnan

Abstract:

Bad weather and road traffic accidents are the main causes of vehicle losses and deaths. The degree of severity may be influenced by a number of factors. Various methods and techniques were tested with different distances, conditions and speed, to recognize the reaction of drivers in changing visibility in fog. On the basis of various types of fog generated on artificial and camera images, new algorithms have been proposed in recent studies for visibility improvement techniques. The core thing should be the development of operational fog detection and alarming system, with respect to speed and headway. Although the Advanced camera based driving assistance systems have the functionality in relieving the driver but they have drawbacks in terms of image quality, computation, working at night and with bad weather conditions. The proposed research contributes by analyzing existing work, detecting bad weather by measuring visibility distance, detecting moving or stationary vehicle on road in fog and providing alert to drivers in danger distance between vehicles and other objects using sensors.

   

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