ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                         ISSN 1819-6608
   
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences             October 2013 | Vol. 8  No. 10
   
Title:

Clustering algorithms based on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks: survey

Author (s):

Aouad siham, El ganami Driss and Maach Abdelilah

Abstract:

This Technological development of micro-electronics and wireless networks have created a new generation of large scale sensor suitable for a varied range of applications, it is the wireless sensor networks (WSN). In spite of the remarkable advances in WSN, there are still many problems to solve. However, the control of the energy consumption by sensor networks and maximizing their lifetime are the most fundamental issues. The use of wireless sensor networks is often correlated with an absence of infrastructure this raises the problem of activation of the network topology and maintaining this connectivity. Therefore the network needs to perform an initialization phase to self-organize. Actually most of self-organization protocols used in wireless sensor networks is mainly based on clustering. In this paper, we present a survey of clustering algorithms based on energy efficiency in WSNs highlighting their objectives, features, complexity, etc.

 
 
 
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Title:

Single phase cascaded multilevel inverter using multcarrier PWM technique

Author (s):

P. Vinod Kumar, Ch. Santosh kumar and K. Ramesh Reddy

Abstract:

This paper deals with Single Phase Five level Inverter using Multi Carrier Based Pulse width modulation Technique. The voltage quality of conventional two level inverter is poor due the presence of harmonics and hence produces power loss which reduces the efficiency of the system. The multilevel inverter is used to improve the voltage quality by reducing the harmonics, as the number of voltage levels of multilevel inverter is increased the harmonics are reduced and hence losses  are minimized significantly. The simulation of single phase cascaded five level multilevel is done using mMulticarrier PWM technique and compared with stepped wave. Hardware module is designed for stepped wave and multicarrier PWM. The outputs of both simulation and hardware are analyzed.

 
 
 
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Title:

Comparative study on mechanical properties of geopolymers and their composites

Author (s):

Venkateswararao J, Srinivasa Rao. K, Rambabu. K and Brahma Reddy T.

Abstract:

This paper presents the relative results of an experimental investigation on the fresh and hardened properties of  Geopolymer concrete(GPC), Geopolymer Concrete Composites (GPCC) containing 80% Fly ash (FA), 20% Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS). Sodium based alkaline liquid is used as an activator. The study also analyses the impact of steel fibers on the workability and mechanical properties of GPCC. Steel fibers were added to the mix in the volume fractions of 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% volume of the concrete. From the results it is observed that as the age of concrete increases the mechanical properties of GPCC are found to be improving significantly. Inclusion of steel fibers resulted in improved compressive and flexural strengths at the early ages. However tensile strength is found to be improved significantly at later stages.

 
 
 
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Title: Performance analysis of MINO wireless system with array antenna
Author (s): Mihir Narayan Mohanty MIEEE
Abstract:

High data rate in wireless communication is a great demand in modern age, but the limited available bandwidth motivates the investigation and new area of research in wireless systems. Increasing demand for higher wireless system capacity has catalysed several transmission techniques, among which is the multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) technology has an attraction. In this paper, it has been compared among various multi-antennas (MA) at both the transmitter and receiver ends for significant capacity achievement. The use of antennas at both sides of the wireless communication link can result in high channel capacity provided the propagation medium is rich. Rayleigh fading has been considered as the propagation medium for verification. Also the performance has been measured in terms of bit error rate (BER) along with the capacity measurement. The result shows its performance. As the number of antennas to be increased for better performance, array structure is the suitable solution. The radiation pattern for linear array has been observed for maximum of 16 elements.

 
 
 
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Title:

Complexity measuring approaches to assessing of assembly supply chain structures

Author (s):

David Marton

Abstract:

Networked manufacturing systems are becoming increasingly complex. One of the major challenges at the early configuration design stage is to make a decision about a suitable networked manufacturing structure that will satisfy the production functional requirements and will make managerial tasks simpler and more cost effective. An experimental approach for assessing the structural complexity of supply chain networks is presented in this paper. Its main scope is to present a methodical approach to generate assembly supply chain structural models and subsequently to test and evaluate their structural complexity properties.

 
 
 
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Title:

Simulation results on experimental implementation of crone control strategies for speed control of a dc motor

Author (s):

N.N. Praboo and P.K. Bhaba

Abstract:

This work deals with the design of Commande Robuste dOrdre Non Entier (CRONE) control strategy for the speed control of DC motor. The systematic design of three generations of CRONE control strategy is detailed. The transfer function of DC motor is derived analytically and represented as a second order model. Using this model the three generations of CRONE control strategies is designed and tested in simulation. The servo and regulatory responses of all the three generations of CRONE control strategy is compared and the result is reported in terms of error indices. The simulation results show that the third generation CRONE control strategy is more effective and gives superior performance over the other.

 
 
 
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Title: Sustainable concrete for the construction industry
Author (s): S. Bala Murugan, G. Mohan Ganesh and A. S. Santhi
Abstract:

The experimental investigation is mainly focused on the development of cost effective high strength concrete containing high volume fly ash. Fly ash is a byproduct of coal fired electric power station. The current annual worldwide production of coal ash is estimated about 700 million tonne. Fly ash is a beneficial mineral admixture for concrete. It influences many properties of concrete in both fresh and hardened state concrete. Utilization of waste materials in cement and concrete industry reduces the environmental problems; also utilization reduces the amount of solid waste, green house gas emissions associated with Portland clinker production and conserves existing natural resources. Due to increase in demand for cement, there is a need of alternate material. Since fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, it can act as partial replacement material for Portland cement. In this study, keeping the binder content as constant and replacing cement with fly ash upto 60%, the mechanical behaviors such as compressive strength, and split tensile strength were studied. Concrete with higher percentage of fly ash (60%) attained compressive strength of 47.08 N/mm2 and 50.50 N/mm2 at 28 and 90 days respectively. Further the Cost analysis was done for all the mixtures. C60 mixture concrete can seem 22 % savings of cost than conventional concrete.

 
 
 
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Title: Irradiance distribution of image surface in microlens array solar concentrator
Author (s): Ali H. Al-Hamdani, Hayfa G. Rashid and Alaa B. Hasan

Abstract:

Irradiance distribution of image surface has been investigated in multiple prototypes of microlens array solar concentrator by using optical design program ZEMAX in sequential and nonsequential ray tracing mode. The prototypes composed of 1-D or 2-D acrylic microlens array with and without multimode slab waveguide to concentrate sun light in photovoltaic cell PVC. The all optical concentrator systems ensure roughly organized power distribution in all photovoltaic cell (PVC).

 
 
 
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Title:

Mathematical analysis for the loss of future storage capacity at Maithon reservoir, India

Author (s):

Biprodip Mukherjee, Subhasish Das and Asis Mazumdar

Abstract:

Reservoir siltation is inevitable because of continuous deposition of silts, pollutants etc due to soil erosion from upstream part of river and domestic / industrial waste intrusion in the river. The pace of siltation process can only be retarded which would indirectly aid to life of the reservoir. This paper presents a study on the future storage capability along with reliability in the serviceability of the Maithon reservoir, India. The surveyed capacity elevation data for the year 1956, 1965, 1971, 1979, 1987, 1994, 2002 and 2010 were considered for the analysis. A graphical relation for storage loss at different stages such as dead storage, live storage, flood storage level and overall capacity loss are presented. Mathematically linear trend equations of the above relations are developed with vide validation with the original surveyed data. From the above equations the loss of storage capacity in the future years are also found out at the various stages of the reservoir storage.

 
 
 
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Title:

Exoskeleton robot manipulator for gait refrainment

Author (s):

Aann Smita Abraham, N Arunai Nambiraj and P. Vivekananda Shanmugan

Abstract:

Design and implementation of a low cost gait refrainment device which helps in the mobility of the MS (multiple sclerosis) patients is discussed. Walking impairment is one of the most ubiquitous features of MS. There is an increasing trend in using robots for medical purposes like rehabilitation. There is some commercial exercise machines used for rehabilitation purposes. However, these machines have limited use because of their insufficient motion freedom and lack of flexibility. This paper introduces an exoskeleton robot manipulator for gait assistance of MS patients. The exoskeleton is capable of supporting the bodyweight of the patient partially. It takes the EMG signals of the patient to generate the control signals to the actuator. The exoskeleton proved to be of much help to the MS patients in walking as the patient can control it like a normal leg.

 
 
 
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Title:

Analysis of submerged flow under a gate with prismatic sill

Author (s): Sarhan Abdulsatar Sarhan
Abstract:

Sluice gates are widely used in irrigation structure, sills under gates has positive effect on flow performance under the gate and reduce its height. An experimental study in a laboratory flume is carried out to study submerged flow passing the opening between the sill and the gate. Four different heights of trapezoidal sill models were used and one without sill, the five groups were ran with four different gate opening. The basic principles of statistical analysis are employed to correlate between the hydraulic and geometric dimensionless parameters with the discharge coefficient. Different relationship models with acceptable significance are suggested. It was found that the some of dimensionless parameters effecting positively on the value of discharge coefficient by increasing its value such as (d/B, Fr, P/Y1, P/d), and other decreasing the value of Cd such as (Yt/d, P/B, H/d, Y1/Y2, P/Y2, P/H). The value of Cd range from 0.34 to 0.77, with Standard Error 0.006411. Within the limitations of the present experimental work an equation for prediction the value of the discharge coefficient is suggested with  R square is 0.936 and stadard Error of estimate equle to 0.0240235. The actual discharge was checked by the sugested equation which shows a good greement  with Adj. R2=0.993.

 
 
 
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Title:

Cost-benefit analysis of road safety measures

Author (s):

Marco Guerrieri

Abstract:

Road accidents represent one of the most serious problems faced by the Ministries of Public Health in the World. In Italy for example, in the year 2007 there were almost 330, 000 injuries and 5, 131 fatalities; 230, 871 crashes in all which resulted in an estimated 30.4 billion financial loss, corresponding to 2% of GDP. In 1999 the National Road Safety Plan (NRSP), among other things, funded the requalification of several unsafe road infrastructures at higher risk of accidents. Unlike other infrastructure investment plans, NRSP usually requires: i) specific safety analysis of crash history to identify the critical road; ii) proactive action, e.g. RSAs and RSARs; iii) before-after accident study; iv) ex-post monitoring of road user behaviors, etc. The paper presents some unsafe roads in urban and suburban areas which were renovated through NRSP strategies and whose projects were submitted to Road Safety Audit procedure for black spot treatment. It examines the effect of physical traffic calming measures (e.g. roundabouts) on accident risk and user behaviours: ante- and post-operam evaluations are compared on the basis of accident data and investigations in situ (particularly traffic flow and operating speed). Finally, a profitability analysis of several parameters (e.g. accident social costs) is performed. In a region like Sicily, the first Road Administration investments on unsafe infrastructures, partially funded by NPRS, have shown very positive results as to safety and financial aspects.

 
 
 
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Title:

Roast-alkaline leaching of silica from kaolinitic clay

Author (s):

Y. Abdullahi, E.A. Ali and Lawal A.O.

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is to extract silica from calcined kaolinitic clay treated with sodium hydroxide solution. Beneficiated kankara kaolinitic clay was calcined at 1000 C for 1 hour to activate the silica content in the clay. The silica was extracted from the clay in an alkaline medium using 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w NaOH and a contact time of 20minutes. Although the logarithmic function gave silica extraction efficiency of 99.6% (R = 0.996) and solubility of 65%, with 40% w/w NaOH, the high solubility of alumina in this solution was a major drawback. Investigations on the effect of contact time on the solubility of silica in the alkaline solutions revealed 49% leaching of silica, decreased solubility of alumina and extraction efficiency of 84.9% (R = 0.849) at 30mins in 25% NaOH optimized concentration. The amount of alumina leached by different concentrations of NaOH increased with increase in concentrations of NaOH but the solubility of the alumina in the alkaline solution was less than that of the silica at any specific contact time studied.

 
 
 
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Title:

Nanostructured TiO2 and their energy applications-a review

Author (s):

E. Nyankson, B. Agyei-Tuffour, J. Asare, E. Annan, E. R. Rwenyagila, D. S. Konadu, A. Yaya and D. Dodoo-Arhin

Abstract:

Environmental sustainability and reliable energy sources are major challenges facing the world in the 21st century. Ironically, the solution to these taunting problems may lie in something small. Nanomaterials with attractive chemical and physical properties are being explored for potential uses in energy and environmental applications. Nanostructured Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has gained considerable attention in the energy and environment sectors due to their brilliant prospects in photo catalysis, solar cells, environmental pollution treatment and its use in solar water splitting for the production of H2. There are many processing techniques such as; the Sol gel (SG), the hydro-thermal (HT), the solvo-thermal (ST) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which are used in the production of nanostructured TiO2 for the applications stated above. This review aims at examining the general characteristics of nanostructured TiO2 and its application in dye sensitized solar cells, photocatalytic splitting of water and solid state hydrogen storage devices. The analysis is meant to demystify the anxiety associated with the application of nanomaterials in solving everyday challenges in the energy and environmental sectors.

 
 
 
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