ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                            June 2019  |  Vol. 14  No. 11
   
Title: Macro and micro investigation of change in curing period on soil stabilized with lime and cement using stone dust and RHA as additives
Author (s): P. Samatha Chowdary and M. Rama Rao
Abstract:

Subgrade performance depend on its ability to support load which is often affected by optimum moisture content, and amount of compaction and the other most important factor is volume changes in subgrade when it is subjected to adverse conditions of environment for ex., extreme heating, excessive moisture and freezing temperatures. These changes are very well noticed in expansive soils generally termed as black cotton soils, contain montromillinite making the subgrade highly non workable. During the years it has been seen that with the growth of infrastructure has also led to the problem of disposal of waste materials such as Stone Dust and Rice Husk Ash. Most of the times in developing countries these waste materials are disposed in open and they mix with water land and air there by polluting the environment. But when observed carefully it has been seen that these materials are highly siliceous and prove to be cheaper material while used as additives together with cement and lime in subgrade soil stabilization for problematic expansive soils. This paper presents a study of effect of various curing periods on Soil-Lime-Rice Husk Ash, Soil-Lime-Stone Dust, Cement-Rice Husk Ash and Cement- Rice Husk Ash separately. It was seen from the results in all the mixes curing period has a considerable effect on strength of various mixes. This change was clearly visible when curing period of 7 days were compared with 28 days. All the analysis are well supported by scanning electron microscopy analysis.

   

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Title: A walking bipedal robot using a position control algorithm based on center of mass criterion
Author (s): Elmer R. Magsino
Abstract:

A position control algorithm based on inverse kinematics and a control strategy utilizing the Center of Mass criterion are implemented to yield a walking bipedal robot. The bipedal robot has no upper body, stands approximately 50 cm and weighs about four kg. Each leg of the robot has five degrees of freedom: two at the hip, two at the ankles, and one at the knee. The closed form solution of each joint angle is derived by using inverse kinematics, following the Denavit-Hartenberg guidelines to determine the structural parameters of the biped. Such closed form equations determine the value of the joint angle to achieve an instance needed to complete the walking activity. Bipedal locomotion is verified by both simulation and experiments. Simulation results provide desired joint angle trajectories and will serve as benchmark for the actual experiments. Experimental results show that actual step length, foot clearance and hip height gait parameters do not exceed one centimeter from the target. Also, the joint angle mean square error has a maximum deviation of 11 degrees.

   

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Title: Enhancing performance of AES algorithm using concurrency and multithreading
Author (s): Hasanain Ali Al Essa and Asmaa Shaker Ashoor
Abstract:

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm can encrypt and decrypt information and it's necessary to the security of the electronic information like the malware authors, unauthorized users and information leakage. However, AES is a complicated algorithm that imposes a major number of mathematical calculations to be done. Thus, a traditional execution lead to low throughput and consumption of CPU resources. In some application data flow needs faster rate of computation for encryption/decryption and traditional execution of AES algorithm may not be appropriate with fast transactions of electronic data. This paper focuses on increasing the performance time of AES algorithm to speed up the encryption/decryption procedure by using multicore processors efficiently. The AES algorithm has been executed and parallelized using C++17 Standard language programming and the results shown that our parallel design improve the throughput over the traditional approach.

   

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Title: Hybrid audio compression using fractal coding and wavelet transform
Author (s): Zahraa A. Hasan and Loay E. George
Abstract:

Fractal audio compression (FAC) is based on the concept of partitioning audio data, and then exploiting the self-similarity present in audio signal in order to eliminate the redundancy may exist in audio signal. This elimination plays a significant role in audio compression. The key step for fractal coding is to pick up the domain blocks which are similar to the original blocks (i.e., range blocks), and these range blocks are represented as a set of affine transformations [1]. Fractal compression has a significant draw back especially while coding large range blocks since the level of error produced is very high and unaccepted. In order to improve performance in terms of compression gain and fidelity error of the fractal coding especially in case of using long range blocks, the wavelet method is utilized. The tests results indicate that a significant improvement in the PSNR values occurs; making a significant decrease in the compression error level after the addition of wavelet method. Moreover, the attained results of the conducted tests when using the wavelet transform for multiple passes and rounds implies a significant increase in the compression ratio values as the block length increase, while the generated PSNR carries good and acceptable values which reaches 30db.

   

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Title: Focal curves of geodesics on generalized cylinders
Author (s): Georgi Hristov Georgiev and Cvetelina Lachezarova Dinkova
Abstract:

Geometric constructions are widely used in computer graphics and engineering drawing. A right generalized cylinder is a ruled surface whose base curve is a plane curve perpendicular to the rulings. In this paper, relations between the base curve and the non-planar geodesics on the right generalized cylinder are discussed. Based on these relations, a method for obtaining a new space curve from a given unit speed plane curve is presented. Firstly, we consider a new plane curve with a constant speed one divided by the square root of two. The original unit speed plane curve and the new plane curve coincide as point sets. Their parameterizations and signed curvatures are closely related. Secondly, we define a unique unit speed non-planar geodesic on the right generalized cylinder whose base curve is the considered plane curve with a constant speed one divided by the square root of two. Finally, we examine the focal curve of the obtained geodesic which is also a non-planar curve. The curvature and torsion of the geodesic and its focal curve are expressed in terms of the signed curvature of the above-mentioned plane curve with a constant speed one divided by the square root of two. We discuss also other two invariants of the same space curves with respect to the direct similarities of the Euclidean 3-space. They are called a shape curvature and a shape torsion. In particular, it is shown that the shape torsion (the ratio of torsion and curvature) of the unit speed geodesic and its focal curve is equal to either +1 or -1. The proposed method is demonstrated for several plane curves used in engineering practice. These curves include: the circle, the logarithmic spiral, the in volute of a circle, and the catenary.

   

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Title: Effect of Soret number and heat source on unsteady MHD Casson fluid flow past an inclined plate embedded in porous medium
Author (s): V. Manjula and K. V. Chandra Sekhar
Abstract:

The present paper describes the Soret and heat generation effects on MHD Casson fluid flow past an inclined plate immersed in porous medium. The non - dimensional governing equations are solved analytically through Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity, energy and species concentration are obtained, in terms of exponential and complementary error functions. For better understanding of physical insight of the problem graphical analysis was done under the influence of different critical parameters on fluid flow. Increase in values of Soret number raises the buoyancy force, which in turn results in raise in velocity of the fluid. Increase in thermal radiation results in fall in temperature of the fluid.

   

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Title: Investigative study of the impacts of temperature and pressure on the performance of PEM fuel cell: Modelling and experimental
Author (s): Ali Kadhem Hassan
Abstract:

One of the potential candidate substitute energy sources are fuel cells in the coming. Considering the climate change, global warming and fear of fossil fuel access, in this paper the impacts of operation parameters such as temperature and pressure on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance were examined numerically and experimentally. PROTIUM-20 fuel cell is employed in order to investigate the effects of temperature ranging 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C and pressure ranging 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1 bar on fuel cell performance. The net performance produced by PROTIUM-20 fuel cell was 20 W (2.38 A × 8.4 V). Experimental results showed that the PEM fuel cell performance enhances, when the operating temperature and pressure increases. Meanwhile, modelling results revealed that the performance of PEM fuel cell was enhanced, as the operating temperature and pressure both increased.

   

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Title: Classifying NACA airfoils based on thin airfoil theory
Author (s): Ahmad Faiz Aiman Faisal, Aslam Abdullah, Sofian Mohd., Mohammad Zulafif Rahim and Bambang Basuno
Abstract:

Thin airfoil theory idealizes the flow around a thin airfoil, and addresses an airfoil of zero thickness and infinite wingspan. It is particularly notable in providing a sound theoretical basis for the important properties of airfoils in two-dimensional flow. This paper gives attention to the gap between the theory and the numerical experiment data in order to make the classification of NACA airfoils and then proposing a simple guideline on the use of the theory. The two-dimensional viscous and incompressible flow around the airfoils is assumed. Several NACA airfoils are considered in the theoretical calculation against the numerical solution. It is found that the theory is applicable for real airfoils within specific range of angle of attack and defined accuracy.

   

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Title: Application of artificial neural networks for estimation of liquid evaporated mass in case of accidental spills
Author (s): Kuptsov A. I., Galeev A. D. and Gimranov F. M.
Abstract:

The ability of using an artificial neural network to determine the mass of evaporated liquid in emergency spills is considered. The data from numerical experiments by computational fluid dynamics model (CFD model) on the evaporation of hexane at different wind speeds and pool sizes were used to form a training set for the artificial neural network model. In the present work, the K-fold cross-validation method was used to evaluate the model and its behavior on the independent data set. The selection of parameters of artificial neural network was carried out using successive approximation method. The advantage of the proposed method is ability to obtain acceptable results (the average deviation from CFD calculations is 14.17%) for a relatively small computational time.

   

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Title: A two-step catalytic production of coco fatty acid amide from coconut oil using a metal catalyst
Author (s): Zuhrina Masyithah, Samuel Oktavianus Purba and Dinar Rajagukguk
Abstract:

Coconut oil was used as a feedstock potential for alkanol amide production. For that, a two-step process was implemented in this research. Firstly, the triglycerides in coconut oil were transesterified with methanol to be fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and in the second, FAME was amidized with monoethanolamine (MEA) using metal catalyst ZrCl4 to coco fatty acid amide. Response Surface Methodology and 5-level-3-factor Central Composite Design were adopted to evaluate the effects of synthesis variables, including reaction time (1.3-4.7 h), substrate molar ratio (1.3/1-4.7/1 MEA/FAME), and the solvent ratio (2.3/1-5.7/1 v/wFAME) on the percentage of fatty acid conversion. Based on analysis of variance, the optimum condition for maximum fatty acid conversion (86.22%) was obtained at reaction time 3 h, substrate molar ratio 3/1 (MEA/FAME) and solvent ratio 4/1 (v/wFAME). The suitable range of the effective process parameters was achieved for the desirable the FAME conversion were at a catalyst concentration of 6% (w/wFAME), the temperature of 90oC and stirring speed of 350 rpm.

   

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Title: Analysis of high speed shear slitting machine based on cutting force, temperature and cutting speed
Author (s): N. Ab Wahab, Syed Ahmad Sharif Bin Wan Idrus and Abdul Khahar Bin Nordin
Abstract:

High speed machining is well known in manufacturing world and it is one of the most demanding process in every industry today. Almost every factory in this world using this process in order to make their product better in every aspect. This study is for high speed shear slitting process which is one of the oldest method in shearing process and it will have focused for academic purpose. Although there are many methods such as laser cut, plasma cut and water jet available but there is some problem occurred such as high cost, maintenance, and chip formation. The new model of high speed shear slitting prototype will be tested by simulation to evaluate cutting forces, temperature and cutting speed. The result is the parameter of the analysis can be analyzed. The conclusion is the shear slitting process can be invented from industry use and can be used for academic purpose.

   

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Title: Simultaneously trans-esterification and amidification of coconut oil into Cocamide-DEA using heterogeneous catalyst
Author (s): Zuhrina Masyithah, Lina Simanjuntak and Sicilya Ruth Yudhika

Abstract:

Cocamide-DEA were synthesized by trans-esterification of coconut oil to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) followed by amidification of FAME with diethanolamine (DEA) using CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst. The triglycerides in coconut oil were trans-esterified with methanol catalyzed by potassium hydroxide in the first step of the reaction. The trans-esterification reaction occurred in 3 h and GC spectra confirmed that FAME obtained was 84.08%. Furthermore, the amidification of a reaction of FAME was investigated by using Box Behnken Design and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Several effective parameters were evaluated in term of substrate mole ratio (4/1-6/1 DEA/FAME), the solvent ratio (2/1-4/1 v/wFAME), and reaction time (3-5 h) on the percentage of fatty acid conversion to Cocamide-DEA. The results showed that the effect of each variable, the effect of the quadratic variable and the effect of interaction between variables were significant on the yield. In contrast, the quadratic effect of solvent ratio has a negative effect, although it is not significant for cocamide DEA acquisition. The optimal condition from RSM obtained was substrate mole ratio of 4/1 (DEA/FAME), the solvent ratio of 3/1 (v/wFAME) and reaction time of 4 h. Under the above condition, the maximum fatty acid conversion of 84.65% was obtained.

   

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Title: Design of a fluid for Workover operations in the Gustavo Galindo oil field, Ecuador
Author (s): Alvarez Loor Alamir, Cedeno Macias Dario, Villon Pita Victor and Pinoargote Rovello Cesar
Abstract:

The Gustavo Galindo Field is considered a mature field, with more than 100 years of oil exploitation, so it becomes essential to carry out Workover operations in oil wells more frequently to restore, prolong or improve oil production. These interventions can develop into a major problem since the interaction between the Workover fluid and the fluid in low permeability reservoirs is not considered, causing a great fluid reduction in the formation area near the well which would decrease production. The objective of this article is to design a Workover fluid compatible with the properties of the production and fluid formations of the Gustavo Galindo field, minimizing the formation damage generated by the well’s intervention. The results are justified with the compatibility tests for each formulation of the fluid made in the laboratory.

   

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Title: Dual notch UWB monopole antenna with U-shaped slots
Author (s): K. Teja Babu, P. Syam Sundar, B. T. P. Madhav, B. Prudhvi Nadh and Sarat K. Kotamraju
Abstract:

This article presents circular ring loaded multiband antenna with notch band characteristics for wireless communication applications. The antenna is in compact structure with dimensions of 21 x 28 x 1.6 mm3 and designed on the FR4 substrate. Basically, the antenna provides the wide band characteristics and showing multiple notches. To attain the notch band characteristics, the antenna is loaded with two circular ring strips and four inverted C-shaped parasitic elements are embedded on either side of the feed line. The antenna provides maximum peak gain of 4.04 dB with efficiency of more than 78%. The proposed antenna providing notch band characteristics and showing the bidirectional and omni directional radiation patterns in E and H-Planes.

   

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Title: Artisanal gold mining challenges with special reference to mining and processing methods in Asgede Tsimbila and Lailay Adiyabo Woredas, northern Tigray, Ethiopia
Author (s): N. Rao Cheepurupalli, Hagos Abraha and Mearg Belay
Abstract:

Artisanal Gold Mining (AGM) operations in the global level are unregulated, informal and transient. Rudimentary mining and processing techniques used in AGM often result in degraded environmental, safety, health and social conditions. The main objective of the study is to assess challenges in AGM with special reference to gold mining and processing methods in Asgede Tsimbila and Lailay-Adiabo Woredas, Ethiopia. Qualitative and quantitative research methodology was used of this study. The views, opinions and attitudes of 64 miners and 20 local chiefs were gathered concerning about AGM methods and techniques. AAS instrument is used for the geochemical analysis of the soild waste materials from the artisanal gold mining and processing techniques. The miners are searching gold from the primary gold by digging more than 35meters into hard rocks, from shallow subsurface and surface soil using the most traditional tools to get gold. About 85.94% of the miners agreed that artisanal gold mining methods and processing tools on use are the major cause for life loss in AGM. The geochemical analyses of the solid waste materials from the artisanal gold mining and processing techniques were clearly indicated that the miners does not have sufficient knowledge on mining and processing techniques.

   

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Title: Interaction between heavy metals and microorganisms during wastewater treatment by activated sludge
Author (s): Irina Zykova, Nikolai Maksimuk, Maksim Rebezov, Elena Kuznetsova, Marina Derkho, Tatiana Sereda, Galiya Kazhibayeva, Yuliya Somova and Tatiana Zaitseva
Abstract:

In order to study the main regularities of the interaction of metals with microorganisms, a range of concentrations of heavy metals is determined. The kinetics of extraction of heavy metals by the example of Cu (II), Co (II), Cr (II) from the aquatic environment by microorganisms of the genera Pseudomonas and Micrococcus was studied. It is shown that adsorption is the main mechanism of metal absorption by microorganisms. The dependence of the number of adsorbed metal ions is described by the Freundlich equation for both Pseudomonas and Micrococcus, the coefficients of the equation are determined. It is established that the optimum temperature of adsorption of metals by microorganisms is 293 K. The regularities of natural processes in systems of microorganisms - heavy metals - substituting elements that allow finding methods of their control by human are studied. It has been established that the amount of microorganisms in the intracellular space or on the surface of the cell wall of microorganisms of the same or another metal influences the amount of extracted metal from the aquatic environment. Microorganisms containing calcium in their composition accumulate heavy metals 1.3-1.5 times less.

   

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Title: Concrete made for energy conservation using recycled rubber as insulating agent
Author (s): Moayyad Al-Nasra
Abstract:

Several research studies focused on the change in the concrete properties using recycles rubber. Most of these studies did not have practical engineering value leading to standardized procedure. This study uses two different types of conditioned rubber aggregates; rubber blocks, and shredded rubber. The focus of this study is mainly to produce concrete for better energy conservation, providing a practical solution to many environmental issues related to discarded used rubber tires, and lay the foundation for future studies in this area. Two different batches of concrete mixed with each type of rubber aggregates were prepared. In the first batch 10% of the mineral aggregates are replaced by rubber aggregates by volume and in the second batch 20% of the mineral aggregates are replaced by the rubber aggregates by volume. Out of each batch, three groups of samples were prepared to study the compressive strength of concrete, splitting strength of concrete, and the thermal properties of concrete. New well insulated hot box is built to study the concrete thermal conductivity. Slabs of concrete with and without rubber aggregates were prepared and placed in the center of the hot box. Several thermal sensors were installed to measure the temperature increase, in addition to a constant heat source. The hot box is divided into two compartments separated by the concrete slab. The results of these experimental tests are presented in terms of graphs and charts. The results also show that the new modified concrete can be used as structural and non-structural components in concrete structures. The increase in the amount of rubber in concrete improves the insulating properties of concrete and decreases the concrete strength. The tests of concrete strength mixed with rubber aggregates as well as the control samples are conducted at room temperature and the results are expected to change at high temperature.

   

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Title: Intelligent data mining of feedback from students for improving college infra
Author (s): P. Asha, M. Jahnavi and Dega Vasanthi
Abstract:

Extracting data intelligently from the social networks has attracted every field with greater interest. All education communities also used social media data extraction to simultaneously improve infra outcomes using student generated sentiments. With the excessive growth of social network (i.e., reviews, forum discussions, social networks) on web, individuals and organizations are mostly using public views and opinions for their decision making. Potential users also want to know the views and opinions of previous users before they purchase a product or use a service. These online social media techniques are providing greater opportunities for users to discuss about their experience and share opinions. So we preferred these techniques for analyzing the feedback given by students for improving college infra and hostel related reviews for hostel improvement and to come up with a decision where the development is in need. This project helps to increase the improved quality of education system. With the help of this, we can open the door for the education system to optimize service and quality in college infra. The proposed system gives opinion related to college info and improvement of student requirements.

   

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Title: Free and bound lipids in typical chernozemic soil in the territory appropriate to active oil cluster wells
Author (s): L. A. Fattakhova, A. S. Gordeev, A. A. Shinkarev, L. R. Kosareva, I. F. Minkhanov and O. S. Chernova
Abstract:

All technological processes used in petroleum industry (i.e. exploration, drilling, production, refining and transportation) cause soil contamination. Oil pollution can cause adverse and irreversible changes in soil ecosystems. The major soil self-cleaning process is biodegradation; however, paraffins, asphaltenes and tars are quite resistant to environmental microbial degradation. Their transformations are long-term and the least explored, that is why evaluation of these components’ concentrations in humus soils exposed to continuous systematic pollution is of particular interest. This paper addresses evaluation of lipid free and bound fractions in top layers of chernozemic soils surrounding oil producing well clusters.

   

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Title: Design, implementation and analysis of a wireless network coverage using a nanostation
Author (s): Michail Malamatoudis, Panagiotis Kogias, Nikolay Manchev and Stanimir Sadinov
Abstract:

Wireless networks are a popular technology offering great flexibility over traditional wired technology. This flexibility extends from increased convenience to customers and reduced construction costs to facilitating network installation. Wireless networks are also used to provide network access in places where there is no traditional network infrastructure. The radio devices providing the radio coverage of the network operate at a frequency of 2.4 or 5 GHz. At this high frequency, a high data rate is achieved, but there is also an important limitation - there must be direct visibility between the devices that communicate. The main objective of the report is the design, experimental study and analysis of IEEE 802.11b/g radio coverage in the 2.4GHz frequency band for a part of the territory of Gabrovo, realized using a nanostation.

   

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