ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                            July 2018  |  Vol. 13  No. 13
   
Title: Performance improvement of OOFDM systems based on modified A-law Companding Technique
Author (s): Ali N. Kareem, Sinan M. Abdul Satar and Mohammed A. Husein
Abstract:

Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a bandwidth efficient multicarrier modulation where the available spectrum is divided into subcarriers, with each subcarrier containing a low rate data stream. However, the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio is a major drawback factor of multicarrier transmission system such as Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Various methods have been proposed to reduce this factor and one of these methods called Companding Technique and due to their flexibility and low complexity, the Companding Technique is gained great attention. A comparison between the original, companded, and modified companded signal has been implemented in Intensity Modulation/Direct Detection Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. The proposed Modified A-law Companding technique is guarantees the improved performance in terms of Bit Error Rate and Quality Factor while reducing Peak-to-Average Power Ratio effectively and efficiently by modifying the amplitude of Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing signals. The simulation results allow an optimum companding based on the use of both of (a and A) parameters to be chosen in relation to acceptable or desired Peak-to-Average Power Ratio, Bit Error Rate and Quality Factor requirements. The proposed modified companding scheme can offer better Peak-to-Average Power Ratio reduction, Bit Error Rate, and Quality Factor at A=30 and 87.6 where a=1. The simulation results at the transmission link=900Kmshow that A at 87.6 is the best value measured in term of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio= 5dB at a Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function nearly 1×10-3compared with the original, Quality Factor is 12 and Bit Error Rate is1×10-3.

   

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Title: Strength properties of geopolymer concrete using M-sand by assessing their mechanical characteristics
Author (s): Saravanan S. and S. Elavenil
Abstract:

Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is a latest innovation in the construction sector and an environment friendly construction material obtained as a result of polymerization chain reaction of inorganic molecules comprising of readily available materials like low calcium fly-ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS). Suitable mix of the same is prepared by adding a blended alkaline solution of (NaOH + Na2SiO3). The alkaline solution of various molarities are chosen based on the molecular weight of NaOH, here this research work involves usage of 10M sodium hydroxide solution. Also, the demand for river sand (RS) has gone in great hike and ultimately become costlier and scarce in availability on account of various acts and legislations confronting illegal dredging of the same. In such a case, Manufactured sand (MS) is an economic alternative to river sand in concrete. The ultimate objective of this research paper is to focus the eco-friendly alternative material for cement and river sand by introducing Geopolymer concrete with manufactured sand as a complete replacement for fine aggregate and thereby assessing the strength properties by establishing their mechanical properties and comparing the same with nominal cement concrete mix (CM). Concrete mix design of G30 was done based on Indian standard code (IS 10262). Concrete cubes and cylindrical specimens were casted and tested for attaining the mechanical properties at two curing time period of 28 and 56 days, by varying the percentage of binder as 100% Fly ash (GP-1) and GGBFS (GP-2) each, and in the ratio 50:50 (GP-3) of the same. It was seen that, all mix involving M-sand as fine aggregate showed increased compressive strength results irrespective of the binder replacement. The increase in compressive strength from RS to MS was in the range of13.56% and 13.07% at 28 and 56 day curing period respectively for all the three GP mixes. However, conventional concrete mix involving OPC showed increased strength with river sand mix. Unlike compression test results, split tensile values showed strength hike from RS to MS for only two mixes (GP-2 and GP-3) in the range 9.34% and 9.04% at 28 and 56 day curing period respectively. The areas and tests involving decline in strength characteristics of GP with respect to conventional ones showed much reduced levels of decline in case of m-sand mix in contrary with that of the river sand mix. Test results, therefore, confirm that M-sand replacement by 100% is effective and considered nominal. Also, the GPC being the better option to OPC in the longer run both economically and with respect to environment friendly aspects reducing the carbon footprint up to 80%.

   

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Title: A three dimensional foot Fourier Descriptors model
Author (s): Omar Bin Mohd. Rijal, Mohd. Faizal Mohd. Hamzah, S. Sankaraiah and Norliza Mohd. Noor
Abstract:

Knowledge of the 3D foot shape is important for the shoe industry, in particular, to provide comfort and fit to the users. In this study a random sample of 150 Malaysian adult women aged 19-60 years feet were scanned using the Infoot scanner system. Fourier Descriptor (FD) was then used to reconstruct a new model, with additional properties, and labeled as the FD foot model from the 3D homologous model. Six similarity measures and the Bland-Altman plot showed that the 3D FD foot model is almost identical to the 3D homologous model. Measurements of foot length, foot width and ball girth from both types of models were found to be almost identical. The FD terms was then showed to have a complex normal probability distribution which allows a way of quantifying the variability of individual points. This knowledge will be of great use for the shoe industry.

   

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Title: The self compacting concrete (SCC) using seawater as mixing water without curing
Author (s): Erniati
Abstract:

The number of problems found in the construction world include the difficulty or lack of fresh water in some areas to be mixed in the concrete, negligence in the maintenance of concrete and working process of concrete mainly on the concrete structures have a complex reinforcement and high concrete building structures. This study aims to find out the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, absorption, and porosity of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) using sea water as mixing water and with or without curing in sea water. The test specimens were made for each test specimen with the variation on age 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days. The test method of compressive strength according to ASTM 39/C 39M-12a standard, tensile strength according to ASTM C496 / C496M-11 standard and the porosity and absorption according to ASTM C642-13 standard. The result of research was 1) the decrease in compressive strength in the specimen SCC-SWC was from 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days consecutive 13.20%, 12.90%, 12.80%, and 12.50%; 2) the decreases in splitting tensile strength in the specimen SCC-SWC were from the age of 3 days, 7 days, 28 days until the age of 90 days consecutive by 3.10%, 8.05%, 9.51%, and 9.21%; 3) the increase in the porosity values on the specimen SCC seawater without cured in sea water (SCC-SWC) at age 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days was 2.86%, 7.90%, 5.86%, and 5.55%, respectively; 4) the increase in the absorption values on the specimen SCC without curing at 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days was 15.80%, 20.57%, 15.84%, and 30.80%, respectively. The increase in mechanical properties (compressive strength and tensile strength) in the both of the specimen SCC-SC and SCC-SWC along with the decrease of porosity and absorption. Conversely, the decrease of compressive strength and tensile strength in the both of the specimen SCC-SC and SCC-SWC along with the increase in porosity and absorption value in the SCC.

   

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Title: Control of the interconnection between the decentralized electricity networks of the Adrar region (Southern Algeria) and the network of Algeria with optimal location of SVC devices for the improvement of stability
Author (s): A. A. Tadjeddine, A. Chaker, M. Khiat and N. Khalfalah
Abstract:

The region of Adrar is located in the Algerian South, which is fed by power plants, wind and photovoltaic farms, however it’s not interconnected to the Algerian national grid, which involves many disturbances of the grid voltage. The industrial development of the region requires an interconnection with the national grid to explore renewable sources of energy and allow having sufficient power. The work carried out concerns the interconnection of the Adrar region with the entire Algerian national grid. A modelling, a control and a real time analysis were realized for various scenarios. A FACTS device in shunt mode with an optimal location has controlled the improvement of the voltage of the interconnected grid.

   

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Title: Effect of sacrificial zinc anodes on current density for effective cathodic protection of RCC
Author (s): Krishna Shinde, R. K. Shrivastava and R. D. Angal
Abstract:

This work reports recent results of sacrificial zinc strip anodes performance and its effects on current density variations in the effective protection of reinforced concrete structures. This work is carried out at a location situated in Navi Mumbai. This paper reports the results of 18 months study conducted on reinforced cement concrete specimens of different additive compositions of aggregates, attached with zinc anodes electrically, immersed in electrolyte solution and exposed to normal coastal atmosphere. The performance and effect of zinc sacrificial anodes was recorded regularly and evaluated by measuring Current in Shunt µA (voltage drop in mV) and a detailed discussion of the effects on the current density is included in this report.

   

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Title: Design of Smart Tracking system using microcontroller
Author (s): M. Sivarathinabala, K. Vinulakshmi and T. Niruban Projoth
Abstract:

Smart Tracking Vehicle (STV) can be considered as a special Tracking Vehicle because it is used by fishermen, Boat man/users who have special needs. Using the Smart Tracking Vehicle the fisherman can use their boats independently. Security is one of main factor for the country, increasing tensions between Indian and Sri Lanka due to the maritime border issues as fishermen from Tamil Nadu are being abducted by the Sri Lankan navy for crossing the border which is unintentional most of the time. This paper presents an add-on smart tracking of the system to help fishermen to use the vehicle/boat independently and safely. The system integrates microcontroller unit with GPS and GSM, mobile phone and an alarm system. The tested prototype uses Arduino microcontroller, interfaced with GPS tracking unit and GSM mobile communication system. The system is extendable and more facilities for fisherman can be added. The GPS tracking unit provides the location of the boat and data are acquired by an embedded system microcontroller kit and displayed on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Data are also sent to the authority person and via GSM module for monitoring. In emergency cases, alarm signal is triggered. Moreover, a SMS messages are sent to the people in charge of monitoring the user. The system was tested and validated.

   

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Title: The development of an electronic educational quiz board that test student knowledge on Control Principle’s second order transient response by using DC motor speed control as application
Author (s): Muhammad Farhan Zuhaili Mohd. Zakaria, Siti Asma Che Aziz, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin, Mohd. Anuar Adip, Norain Rahim and Wan Haszerila Wan Hassan
Abstract:

Control Principle is one of the subjects available at Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. One of the difficult part in Control Principles is transient response analysis where students have difficulty relating the output versus time graph of a system. The objective of this project is to build a proof of concept of an electronic educational board project that able to plot the actual data of DC motor speed versus time, then prompt questions related to second order underdamped transient response questions to student, every time the student provides an answer, the education board provide feedback to student of the correct answer and keep the student score. This project uses a survey that consists of nine questions and was done among the Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka students to validate whether the educational quiz board helps in aiding student understanding of transient response. The result indicates that the educational quiz kit proved to be effective based on the positive feedback provide by the students and lecturer.

   

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Title: Enhancing fuel economy of a plug-in series hybrid vehicle system
Author (s): Hussein Awad Kurdi Saad
Abstract:

In this paper, a design and simulation of a hybrid vehicle with a fully functional driving model is presented. Actual velocities and desired velocities are compared and matched to get optimum values of a vehicle. Fuel economy is calculated to get Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe). The MPGe for the hybrid vehicle is compared with the MPGe for the conventional vehicle to get the best MPGe in a hybrid car. A higher performance of output power of a vehicle is obtained.

   

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Title: Concomitant power controlling by multiport DC–DC converter for renewable energy sources using PI controller
Author (s): B. Ashok Kumar and G. Angeline Ezhilarasi
Abstract:

In this paper, for providing the optimal operation of multiport DC–DC converter for renewable energy sources, PI Controller has been implemented. Here, the proposed controller is utilized to achieve the concurrent power management of compound renewable energy sources, which are of various types and capacities. Initially, the modeling and control topology is designed after that, the principle and operations are analyzed. The suggested DC–DC converter uses only one switch for control in every port where the source is associated. The photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) are considered as the sources and these are associated with the converter. The PV is worked in view of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller and WTG is associated with the battery source. In MATLAB/Simulink environment, anticipated method is implemented and their performances have been evaluated. The performance of the suggested method is compared with the existing controller. The simulation results are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed converter. Then the efficiency of the converter is also determined to evaluate simultaneous power management of the PV and WTG panels for converter.

   

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Title: Compression of colour images using machine learning algorithm
Author (s): Shashank Mishra, D. Malathi, Ashlesha Vaidya, Apoorva Dhar and Niveditha Kumaran
Abstract:

The increase use of transfer of images from one device to another created a need to compress them without compromising their quality. Machine learning algorithm forms a potential method to compress an image by clustering thus leading to elimination of redundant colours. K-means algorithm is an unsupervised machine learning algorithm which clusters data and hence elected as best method for compression of colours. In this paper we propose compression of an image using k-means algorithm and variation of size of image for different values of k. Moreover comparison of k-means with JPEG and wavelet compression algorithms is performed deriving their advantages, disadvantages and compression ratio.

   

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Title: Face recognition using complete gabor filter with random forest
Author (s): Yuen Chark See and Norliza Mohd. Noor

Abstract:

This paper proposes a hybrid face recognition technique called Complete Gabor Classifier with Random Forest (CGC-RF) in biometrics technologies. CGC-RF uses Gabor Filter and Oriented Gabor Phase Congruency Image (OGPCI) with Random Forest as the learning framework. The Gabor Filter provides the magnitude information of Gabor responses, where the OGPCI contains the phase information of Gabor response. Random Forest is used as the learning framework to classify images based on the features extracted from both Gabor Filter and OGPCI. We tested the proposed technique by assessing the face verification and identification on two face databases namely, the Georgia Tech Face and Faces94. These databases consisted of face image with varied characteristics such as head positions, head orientations, occlusion and light illumination. The results of the assessment suggest the proposed CGC-RF produced high recognition rates of face images on all two databases. It is of our view that GGC-RF outperformed existing face recognition techniques such as PCA, LDA and Gabor-PCA.

   

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Title: Harmony search optimization based method for multi-area economic load dispatch
Author (s): S. Geethanjali and S. Shanmugapriya
Abstract:

This paper presents a harmony search optimization (HSO) based method for solving multi-area economic load dispatch problem with a view of obtaining the global best solution. HSO, mimics the improvisation process of music players, is one of the evolutionary computing models for solving multimodal optimization problems. Each harmony is defined to denote the real power generations of all the generating units and a fitness function representing the problem objective is formulated. A repair mechanism is suggested to handle generation limit and prohibited operating region constraints. The proposed method is tested on a two area economic load dispatch problem and the results are presented.

   

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Title: Comfort and ergonomics evaluation of a checkout workstation
Author (s): Mario Comentale, Francesco Naddeo, Antonio Contrada, Giovanni Forlone and Gerardo Saturno
Abstract:

The ergonomic principles to the design processes, workplace and organization, has to be applied not only to respond to legal requirements, but also for answer to the companies’ needs for pursuing a business logic. This paper shows a cheap and effective method to acquire workplaces, work-cycles and workers-postures, in a supermarket, in order to analyze how cashiers move them-selves into their workspace, with their own tools and devices and do their jobs. Photo and video acquisition has been done to acquire postures and movements by DARTFISH® software; DELMIA® software was used to model humans postures, workstation and interactions. Simulation results were processed by CaMAN® software for evaluating comfort indexes both for each task and globally. Lastly, results have been correlated to subjective perceptions through experimental tests, in order to validate the comfort model.

   

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Title: Behaviour of soils under the impact of earthquakes: A study case from the center of Hanoi
Author (s): Gospodarikov Alexandr and Thanh Nguyen Chi
Abstract:

Hanoi located in the North of Vietnam; it is the capitol and second largest city in Vietnam. Hanoi has contains many important and large buildings. Hanoi is affected by two major fault systems; there are Red River fault and Lai Chau - Dien Bien - Son La fault. According to studies and assessments, the center Hanoi’s could be impacted by earthquakes of magnitude up to 6.5 Richter, the maximum ground acceleration under the impact the largest earthquake that occurs in Hanoi amax = 0.2g, so the study for effects of earthquakes to layers of soil in the center Hanoi’s is needed to serve the research, design and construction of works that are safe under the impact of earthquakes. This paper presents the results of research and experiments about changes parameters of soil layers under the impact of earthquakes-dynamic load, which are G-dynamic shear modulus and D-damping ratio these are two main parameters for describing the dynamic performance of soil layers in the center of Hanoi under the impact of dynamic load corresponding to the impact of the earthquakes.

   

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Title: Secure and humanless auto EB meter using Li-Fi
Author (s): Rajeesh Kumaar N. V., Arunangshu Singha and Akella Srikanth
Abstract:

Smart Meters assumes a vital part in measuring energy consumed by each user with device details. However, privacy of the users is not kept up. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is an answer intended for programmed accumulation of utilization and determination of information status from utility meters. After that the gathered information is exchanged after the recovery to a central database for different purposes like charging, investigating, billing and troubleshooting. AMR is worked for checking the vitality utilization and getting to the day by day vitality information which can bring about better vitality administration. This paper portrays the learning about Automatic Meter reading and the conditions under which it is working. It implements actualizing a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) depending on Li-Fi innovation. Automatic Meter Reading is utilized for remote accumulation of the utilities information. What's more, these utilities may mean power information or some other. It will be on Electricity control observing framework which can get the power meter perusing in remote and figuring and sending the bill amount to the owner’s mobile as SMS from the server in the EB office. This innovation basically spares utility suppliers the cost of occasional outings to area to peruse a meter. Another is billing can be founded on close utilization instead of on appraisals in light of past or anticipated utilization. Client conduct is checked, Current Consumption is ascertained. This framework even tracks clients in all probability TV Program by checking TV Remote from remote Place. Gadget control Time distinctive methods of the control are altogether observed. The principle point of the Project is to keep up the User Privacy. All the above data are stored preserved securely. Current Sensor is associated with the gadget to check the switching state of the device. Android Application is deployed to the client for Payment System. Cost is charged according to the government rules when the permitted utility of current is crossed.

   

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Title: Sustainable sloping land used models in Mai Son district, Son La province, Vietnam
Author (s): Nguyen Xuan Hai, Nguyen Huu Huan, Pham Anh Hung, Tran Thi Hong, Phan Ba Hoc, Nguyen Thi Bich Nguyet, Nguyen Xuan Quynh and Vu Thi Thanh Huyen
Abstract:

The population growth accelerated in the mountainous areas of Viet Nam as well as expanded the development of Mai Son district, Son La province, which driven by migration from the lowlands by farmers seeking improved livelihoods. In order to meet the people’s basic needs, the growing population led to the intensified cultivation of natural resources including forests and forest land whose more than 10° steep slopes tolerating strong soil erosion, moisture shortage during the most important growing period, low crops as well as has increased pressure on the environment. This research focused on the improvement the utterly necessary to assist local people in cultivation to minimize erosion and soil degradation and simultaneously improve efficiency of sloping land. The research shown intercropping of forest trees, coffee, Guinea grass and black beans was the most effective treatment. The results also shown the effective treatment can reduced up to 55% of soil loss compared to the control and approximately 32% compared to other intercropping formulas.

   

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Title: Comparison of utilization of clamshell, rice husks, coconut choir as raw material making of membranes for sea water desalination
Author (s): Alia Damayanti, Septiani Rosiyana Fatmawati, Wini Hidayanti and Senastri Citra Dewi
Abstract:

Clamshell, rice husks, and coconut choir can be used as raw material for making membranes because they contain silica which is acted as main material. Membranes from clamshell, rice husks, and coconut choircan be used for sea water desalination. The objectives of the study were to determine the degradation of chlorida with clamshell, rice husks, and coconut choir as membrane material and to know the optimum flux (ml/cm2.min) for the manufacture of silica membrane with 15 grams weight of membrane and 600 rpm. Membrane-making techniques using phase inversion technique and sintering. Membrane structure testing was done scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy equipment. The results showed that 15 grams of membrane mass with 600 rpm velocity resulted 66,67% in optimum chloride rejection (R) with membrane material from coconut choir, since membrane material from rice husks was 61,08% and clamshell as membrane material was 53,87% optimum chloride rejection with same operation peak time 90 minute. The average flux optimum was 0, 48 ml/cm2.min with rice husks as membrane material, then 0, 36 ml/cm2.min with clamshell as membrane material and followed by 0, 22 ml/cm2.min with membrane material from coconut choir. The presence of Si also can be detected from SEM EDX spectrophotometry equipment and might be affected to rejection and flow rate of clamshell, rice husks, and coconut choir as membrane material.

   

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Title: Studies on Cu2SnS3 thin films: Review
Author (s): Ho Soonmin, Gincy Sunny and Sharadrao A. Vanalakar
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This review emphasizes the preparation of Cu2SnS3 thin films using pulsed laser deposition, spray pyrolysis and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The advantages and limitations of these techniques were discussed. Some aspects of the characterization of the obtained films were presented also. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the growth of various structures of Cu2SnS3 films under different experimental conditions.

   

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Title: Modeling of transient fluid flow in the simple pipeline system
Author (s): Gjelosh Vataj and Xhevat Berisha
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Temporary hydraulic fluid flow regimes, using the characteristic method, are applied based on the simplified theory of water hammer theory for a simple pipe system. Based on the model as a simple pipeline system, the tank-tube valve, a water hammer program was developed the WH program (water hammer) whose results are compared to current programs from the literature used. Numerical analysis in the transition process of the selected model is made by changing the spatial and temporal steps of integration, such as the time change of the pipe in the system and the closing time of the valve, respectively depending on the time for the shut-off valve: a number of hydraulic shocks - water hammer are analyzed. The frontal movement of the fluid pressure was also analyzed, depending on the speed of interruption, pressure and time. The obtained results are presented in tabular form and in diagrams.

   

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Title: Photovoltaic farm with Maximum Power Point Tracker using Hill Climbing algorithm
Author (s): Hari Agus Sujono, Riny Sulistyowati, Achmad Safi’i and Ciptian Weried Priananda
Abstract:

The electric power generated by photovoltaic depends on the radiation of sunlight and the temperature generated so that the photovoltaic will have an average maximum energy level during the day. Photovoltaic that is used directly to generate electrical power will not be optimal because solar radiation is affected by the weather. A Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) method on a photovoltaic system is required to harvest the sun's energy optimally. This method works by controlling the duty cycle on the switch converter thereby making the photovoltaic output power to operate at its maximum point. Hill Climbing algorithm is used as a power tracking algorithm embedded into the microcontroller. In this research used 2 photovoltaic 100 WP, Arduino Uno microcontroller and Boost converter to realize photovoltaic farm. Simulation results using a simulator program show that tracking the maximum potential power of 200 Wp photovoltaic can theoretically be implemented. For the potential value of photovoltaic power is 189.79 watts then this algorithm can detect 159.09 watt. In testing implementation using microcontroller found that by using Hill Climbing algorithm can reach 94.9 watt power from potency value of 113.68 watt photovoltaic.

   

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Title: Performance comparison between Generalized Cross-correlation Time Delay Estimation and fingerprinting method for acoustic event localization
Author (s): Anantha Alifia Putri, Dirgantoro Kevin Putra and Wansu Lim
Abstract:

Using acoustic signals for localization is useful form any applications such as detecting trapped people during emergency situations by processing the sounds that are emitted in the face of danger. Different acoustic localization methods have been developed and proposed; each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Thus, this paper presents a performance comparison between two common Time Delay of Arrival (TDOA) based acoustic event localization methods: Generalized Cross-correlation Time Delay Estimation and fingerprinting. The experiment results show that the accuracy of sound source localization using GCC-PHAT TDE is high and PHAT is effective weighting function for GCC.

   

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Title: Water pressure monitoring in irrigation piping as quality management tools of sprinkler irrigation
Author (s): I. P. Kruzhilin, A. S. Ovchinnikov, N. V. Kuznetsova, O. V. Kozinskaya, S. D. Fomin, V. S. Bocharnikov and E. S. Vorontsova
Abstract:

Sprinkler irrigation in the Russian Federation, including Volgograd region as well, is one of the most common methods of irrigation. This is facilitated by the high level of irrigation mechanization, supply of irrigation water on the field imitating natural rain, relatively good uniformity of rain distribution, less high requirements for relief of watered area, as compared to surface irrigation. However, this method of irrigation has certain disadvantages: at the high irrigation rates sprinkler irrigation in the medium and heavy soil texture is accompanied by destruction of the soil structure and soil compaction and the formation of puddles and runoff, and consequently, irrigation erosion. The studies set the task to identify the elements of irrigation techniques and technical and operational performance of sprinklers at different modes of operation in order to support agromeliorative techniques that maintain optimal water regime in the active layer of the soil without the formation of irrigation water surface runoff. The objects of research are new sprinkler machines "Mini Kuban-FS" and "Kuban-LS", mounted on a range of irrigation equipment of All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, Volgograd. Soils of the experimental field are light brown, moderately clayey, density in the layer is 0.4 m - 1.35 t/m3, the lowest moisture content is 23.0%. The obtained results allow us to draw the following conclusions: in maintaining normal water pressure at the inlet of a feeding canal belt, small sprinkling machines "Mini Kuban-FS" and "Kuban-LS" provide spraying rain, responsible for agro-technical and environmental requirements by a more efficient irrigation coefficient 0.75. When the water pressure is below 0.80, normative use of "Mini Kuban-FS" and "Kuban-LS" on the agronomic and environmental requirements is not recommended.

   

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Title: The development of DWDM using OADM to influence a non-linear effect SBS
Author (s): Tomas Ivaniga and Petr Ivaniga
Abstract:

In 21st century it is not possible to create optical communication lines without software tools simulating a real network under the given conditions. The aim of the article is the development of a DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex) system according to the recommendation ITU-T G.694.1. An OADM (Optical add/drop Multiplex) will be incorporated into this system to add or drop particular wavelengths. In total three simulations were planned. The first simulation showed the non-linear effect FWM (Four Wave Mixing) caused by the gaps between the individual channels (50GHz, 25GHz). The second simulation was run in order to increase the bit speed while showing the decrease of BER (Bit Error Rate). The last one was created to illustrate the non-linear effect SBS (Stimulated Brillouin Scatering) in DWDM. The gain changed (3•10-11, 2•10-9) and two special optical channels were dropped (8 and 15). The whole article is aimed at the decreasing BER and subsequentially the related Q-factor in fully optical communications networks.

   

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Title: Study of river port with reference to seismic version of is 1893:2016
Author (s): Onkar S. Deshpande, Swaran K. R. and S. Elavenil
Abstract:

There are a large number of rivers in the country which widens the scope of inland waterways. The ports and harbours are major structural engineering aspect of inland waterway. This study mainly deals with analysis of berthing structure and multi storied building located in a river port with reference to seismic version of IS 1893:2016. Six different models of berthing structure are considered for analytical comparison using SAP 2000 (i) berthing structure supported on vertical piles (ii) berthing structure with diaphragm wall and tie rod (iii) berthing structure with front diaphragm wall and supported on vertical piles (iv) berthing structure with front diaphragm wall and supported on vertical and raker piles (v) berthing structure with rear diaphragm wall and supported on vertical piles (vi) berthing structure with rear diaphragm wall and supported on vertical piles. The static analysis and dynamic analysis including response spectrum were carried out. The results show that model 1 is the most efficient in terms of deflection, moments acting, base shear and the seismic performance. The analysis of building is done by using response spectrum analysis in ETABS 2015. The new version of seismic code IS 1893:2016 is used for the seismic analysis of building.

   

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Title: Production of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC) with high rutting resistance
Author (s): Huda A. Kadhim, Basim H. Al-Humeidawi and Mutaz Kadhim Medhlom
Abstract:

The conventional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) may suffer from several distresses such as fatigue cracking and rutting. The High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) designed according to French method (Enrobés À Module Élevé - EME) can be considered as one of the important solutions for these distresses. The current research involved using the obtained hard grade bitumen from previous research by authors with good quality and specific gradation of aggregate to produce HMAC according to EME2 mix design method. The mix design procedure and the performance tests of EME2 method were adopted as much as possible according to the corresponding standards of EME; however, some alternative test techniques were adopted due to the unavailability of instruments. According to gained results of HMAC, the workability of HMAC showed satisfactory results, and the moisture sensitivity resistance of HMAC was higher than the conventional mixture by about 24%. The rut depth test results at 60°C showed that the rut depth of HMAC was 5.3 mm (as an average value for these specimens) at 10,000 cycles, while, the control mixture was tolerate a rut depth of 20 mm at 7500 cycles. The HMAC stiffness modulus value was more than conventional mixture by about 3.6 times. Based on the stiffness modulus test results, two programs of KENLAYER and FAARFEILD software were used to predict the fatigue life and reduction in pavement thickness for HMAC and conventional mixtures respectively. The results of estimated fatigue life showed that the HMAC mixture can carry about 7.2 times of axle-load applications more than conventional mixture before exhibited fatigue cracks. Regarding to reduction in pavement thickness, the HMAC showed about 33% reduction in thickness of asphaltic concrete layer. Consequently, the using of the obtained mixture is significantly reduced the construction cost of pavement roads in addition to the great improvement in mechanical behaviour of the obtained HMAC compared with conventional mixtures.

   

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Title: Speaker identification with whispered speech: different methods and use of timbral audio descriptors
Author (s): V. M. Sardar, S. D. Shirbahadurkar and Pradeep M. Patil
Abstract:

Whispered mode of speech is preferred by people for secret conversations or avoiding to be overheard. E.g. sharing information like credit card number, bank account number or to hide the identity intentionally. This study focus on various methods and techniques used for enhancing the accuracy in whispered speaker identification. MFCC is most popular feature in the speaker identification experiment as the mel scale is closer to the human hearing pattern. But the experiments with different feature-classifier combinations are tried by different researchers. However, considering the changes in vocal efforts while whispering, use of linear scale in feature extraction, separation of voiced and unvoiced part of utterances, whispered island detection, feature transformation from neutral to whisper, whispered to neutral efforts, contributes a lot. MIR toolbox have large number of feature sets suitable for representing the speaker specific information efficiently, which may further increase the identification rate especially with the timbral features.

   

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Title: Smart home using IOT
Author (s): Sandhya P., Siddharth Gupta, G. Saikishan and Harsh Mohan Garg
Abstract:

The core ambition of this article is to provide benign, Smart and Sophisticated Life for all the households. Our ultimate aim is to make our client feel safe and secure in their houses. Our methodology uses wireless communication. Our System has an Arduino which acts as a ‘Back Bone’ to whole project, its focal functionality is to accumulate information from sensors and provide them appropriate response. Our complete Smart System is energy efficient and intelligent enough to handle real world circumstances in real time without daunting.

   

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Title: Spatial and temporal variability in the harumanis mango leaves at vegetative stage in a greenhouse
Author (s): Normardhiyah Roslan, Rashidah Ruslan, Mahmad Nor Jaafar, Aimi Athirah Aznan, Fathin Ayuni Azizan and Ibni Hajar Rukunudin
Abstract:

SPAD meter served as a reliable tool to determine the nitrogen status of a plant. SPAD meter conduct nondestructive analysis and it can reduce the cost of chemical analysis. In this study, a field experiment was conducted using SPAD meter to indicate the vegetative growth of harumanis leaves in a greenhouse. SPAD value of bottom leaf was measured starting from the fifth week after bud burst. SPAD value and nitrogen content of the leaves were measured at a new developing leaf and were analyzed on the relationship while the results of SPAD value monitored on weekly basis were analyzed using descriptive analysis and geostatistical aspect in ArcGIS software. The regression between nitrogen content and SPAD value of harumanis leaves indicated a high correlation with r2 equals to 0.84. The result for ANOVA and t-test analysis of SPAD value indicated the significant differences for the leaves growth of each monitoring week. The accuracy of semivariogram increased with the growth period of harumanis leaves. The map illustrated the variability of SPAD value across the greenhouse field indicated an increase in the spatial dependence of the SPAD value with time. The results for SPAD value were consistent as the leaves grow. Therefore, the evaluation of nitrogen status of new developing leaves using SPAD meter was reliable. This study proved that SPAD meter is a rapid tool to accurately determine the growth of harumanis leaves in the vegetative stage. The variability map was found useful in illustrating the N variability of Harumanis mango leaves.

   

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Title: Online toll gate payment system using RFID
Author (s): A. Viji Amutha Mary
Abstract:

RFID is Radio Frequency Identification which is used for reading the tags on single products, which emit signals that can be detected by the reader devices. This Online Toll Gate Payment system provides online payment for tollgates and detecting theft vehicles using the RFID technology along with micro controller and GSM modem. The user has to register his/her number and when they need they can make the payment for the tollgates through online. Once the source and destination is selected the number of tollgates is listed and the payment is done. In all the tollgates where the user has made the payment, the number plate of the vehicle is detected automatically and is allowed to travel further. The same method is used to detect theft vehicles by requesting a search in the website for the registered ones.

   

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Title: The decisive advantage of CRDID on spark-ignition piston engines for general aviation: Propeller and engine matching for a specific aircraft
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli, Stefano Cassani, Federico Calzini and Eugenio Pezzuti
Abstract:

Aircraft fuel consumption depends on engine, engine installation, propeller and aircraft efficiency. The matching of the installed propeller is optimized for a design point and it is a compromise for the other working points. The matching of aircraft optimum lift/drag, the minimum engine fuel consumption and the maximum propeller efficiency is rarely achieved. The hyper simplified model on books does not reach the result. Practically very few aircrafts truly match the three conditions The champion of matching are current airliners that, at least in cruise and with half the fuel, reach the optimum at least at the nominal density altitude. In addition, a few fighters and record aircrafts also achieve the maximum possible speed at the nominal conditions. The large majority of the general aviation aircrafts are far from the optimum matching. Even Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are not champions of propulsion efficiency. Ultralight and sport aircraft are the worst. Turbines are very difficult for matching since their optimum efficiency is reached in a very limited working area. Even spark ignition engines are not efficient in off-design conditions. In fact, the spark ignition engine works with an air to fuel ratio by mass that can ran from 16:1 (lean mixture) down to 12:1 (rich mixture). Even spark ignition direct injection engines the combustion takes place within this range. At the relatively high torque settings typical of aircraft engines, the air inside the combustion chamber is burnt entirely and the power output depends on the engine volumetric efficiency. In diesel engines, the air inside the combustion chamber is never burnt entirely. The minimum air to fuel ratio is around 17:1, but the engine works well with any air to fuel ratio below this value. This means that CRDID (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) efficiency or BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) curve is flatter than the spark ignition engine one. This fact gives a decisive advantage in the propeller matching and in the fuel consumption. In fact, off-design performance is the strongest point in favour of CRDIDs in general aviation. Therefore, the fuel consumption of CRDID takes advantage not only from the extremely high efficiency of the engine, but also from the better matching. In fact, it is possible to map the CRDID FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) to optimize SFC (Specific Fuel Consumption). In the example shown in this paper, a CRDID needs nearly half the fuel necessary to a very good spark ignition engine.

   

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Title: A novel secured Boolean based secret image sharing scheme
Author (s): Javvaji V. K. Ratnam, T. Sreenivasulu Reddy and P. Ramana Reddy
Abstract:

A novel (k, n) secret image sharing scheme with high security by using Boolean XOR operations and circular shift operations for gray-scale and color secret images is designed and its performance is evaluated in this paper. The original secret image is encoded into n noise-like share images, transmitted over channel, and any k or more number of share images is gathered to reconstruct the secret image at the receiver side. The share images with less than k in number never reconstruct the original secret image. In this technique, the security of the secret image is improved by combining the secret with same sized random image and using distinct 8-bit identifier to each share. The generated shares have high randomness which indicates high security to the secret image. The overheads like codebook design, pixel expansion and basis matrices are not needed in this proposed method compared to other methods. The performance evaluation parameters such as correlation, mean square error and peak signal-to-noise ratio gives the performance and consistency of the proposed design. The experimental results prove the feasibility and security of the proposed Boolean based image sharing scheme.

   

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