
ARPN Journal of Engineering and
Applied Sciences July 2020  Vol. 15 No. 13 


Title: 
Analysis of the influence of the rear end sedan vehicle profile on the
aerodynamic efficiency 
Author (s): 
M. S. Shafiq, V. Kausalyah and S. Shasthri 
Abstract: 
When the fluid flows over the surface, the surface will resist its
motion. This is called drag. Aerodynamic drag is the sum of pressure
drag and viscous drag. This research will focus on how rear end
parameter will affect the drag coefficient of the sedan car. Although
drag coefficient will not give a big effect towards the rear end of the
vehicle in comparison to the front end, this research focuses its
initial stages in studying what is the effect of rear end drag if
present .16 common sedan vehicle models from the different segments are
measured at the rear end profile to determine the maximum and minimum
range of the rear end parameters. Seven rear end design parameter will
be used in the designing process while the front end data will is taken
from previous research. Using the DoE method, 79 units of car models
were designed using CATIA software. ANSYS software will be used in this
research for finding which rear end parameter will give the lowest drag
coefficient value. From the findings, the lowest Cd value was 0.22495. 


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Title: 
Use of 3D scanner and photogrammetry
method for scanning foot deformities: CAD data analysis of morphology and shape of geometry 
Author (s): 
Kartini W., Ikhsan M., Ismail R., Jamari J. and Bayuseno A. P. 
Abstract: 
Orthotic footwear requires a comfortable design to solve biomechanical
foot issues such as walking, standing or running of the patients. In
this case, the accurate geometrical data are needed by applying a 3D
scanner. However, geometrical deviations of the final product may be
often found in the manufacturing process related to the system or
changing the CAD data format. The purpose of this research was to
investigate the effect of the data transfer process on the geometry and
morphology of the foot scanning results. Firstly, variations in data
format from the patient's foot were obtained using 3D scanning with
Handyscan 700 scanner, Einscan Pro 2X Plus, ScanPod 3D and
photogrammetry method with a Canon EOS 500D camera. The second step
involved the data transfer to the CAD modeller using Solidworks
software. The results showed that the geometry and morphology of the
scans from each scanner were indifferent and the variation of CAD data
formats did not affect the geometry and morphology. In CAD software, the
very large CAD data format is IGES, the result of a Handyscan 700
scanner with a file size of 38,864 KB. The smallest data format is the
STL on the ScanPod 3D scan results of 671 KB. 


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Title: 
Impact of Moringa Oleifera seed extract on various drinking water
quality parameters in IkoleEkiti, Nigeria 
Author (s): 
Ndububa O. I., Akanji O. O., Ndububa E. E. and Adetayo O. A. 
Abstract: 
The prevalence of water related diseases has led to the critical need
for water treatment before domestic use; water treatment usually
comprises several processes needed to improve the quality of raw water.
This research aimed at comparing the efficiency of Moringa seed extract
on twelve drinking water quality parameters, evaluating and comparing
the performance and effectiveness of Moringa seed extract to alum in
different domestic water samples in IkoleEkiti, Nigeria. Moringa
Oleifera extract was added to collected water samples which were
subjected to laboratory investigations, results showed that the Moringa
Oleifera seed extract improved the characteristics of odour, total
solids, turbidity, pH, nitrate, chloride, hardness, iron and sulphate
parameters in collected water samples; to levels that met standards for
drinking water. It was recommended that private investors are encouraged
to invest on the production and use of Moringa Oleifera based on its
high economic value. 


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Title: 
Design and construction of tankchassis and lifting structure for
centrifugal pump HL260m powered by a diesel engine 
Author (s): 
Cristian A. PedrazaYepes, Jorge E. GonzálezConeo, Carlos A.
ManceraTrejos, Luis E. FlorezSarmiento, Gabriel TorresDiaz and Y. Camilo GonzálezOlier 
Abstract: 
This article deals with the design, simulation and construction of a
fuel storage tankchassis and a lifting system coupled as a single unit
to a Cummins QSK19 engine driven HL260m pump that can guarantee an
operating autonomy of up to 12 continuous hours and can be transported
to different locations by means of lifting systems. For the mechanical
design the recommendations of the American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC) and the application of the failure criteria for Von
Mises ductile materials or Maximum Energy Distortion were used. For the
dimensioning of the storage tank, the average consumption stipulated by
the manufacturer was used and the simulations were performed with
SolidWorks®. A functional and safe system that can be used in onsite
applications was achieved. 


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Title: 
Sustainability of pavement slabs based on 3D FEM 
Author (s): 
Julián Andrés Pulecio Diaz, Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz and Wilson
Rodríguez Calderon 
Abstract: 
The sustainability of pavement slabs was analyzed using finite element
models with Abaqus and EverFE to establish both surface and deep stress
zones and the delimitation of damage. The stress results of finite
element models with these two tools were verified with the results of
the Westergaard analytical model. It was found that, in the case of load
located at the edge of the slab where the main stress is higher the
EverFE model is better verified with the analytical model while, in the
load cases located at the corner and interior the slab where stresses
are lower, Abaqus model is closer to the results of the analytical
model, concluding that both tools are powerful and reliable for the
analysis of stresses in pavement slabs. This type of analysis with a
sustainable focus leads not only to better decision making in the
design, management and construction of pavement slabs, but also to
better conservation alternatives for these structures. 


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Title: 
Performance analysis of an optimized robust controller based on tracking
error and control effort 
Author (s): 
Chong Chee Soon, Rozaimi Ghazali, Shin Horng Chong and Chai Mau Shern 
Abstract: 
Commonly, outcome of the end product in industry depends on the
trajectory tracking performance of the machine. Concerning positioning
or trajectory tracking, the endorsement of the control system to
compensate the common drawback in most physical system is required.
Thus, in this paper, three different control approaches are proposed and
implemented in the ElectroHydraulic Actuator (EHA) system. As a
benchmark of the control system, the ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID)
controller is initially designed. Followed by the designs of an enhanced
version of the PID controller, known as FractionalOrder (FOPID)
controller. Lastly, the designs of the robust Sliding Mode Controller
(SMC) is carried out. Subsequently, the performance evaluation,
particularly in trajectory tracking and controller effort are performed.
To comprehensively analyse the output response, the data are extracted
by using the popular performance indices including Root Mean Square
Error (RMSE), Integral Square Error (ISE), Integral Time Square Error (ITSE),
Integral Absolute Error (IAE), Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE). In
the past study, most of these indices are applied to analyse the error
generated from the system. In this paper, all the performance indices
are performed not only to the system error but including the energy
consumption of each controller. It is observed in the results, based on
the performance indices in terms of error and voltage, the SMC capable
of generating better outcomes with reference to tracking capabilities
and energy usage. 


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Title: 
Experimental effect of multi nozzle on turbine
cross flow performance 
Author (s): 
Corvis L. Rantererung, Titus Tandiseno and Mika Malissa 
Abstract: 
Cross Flow turbine with multi nozzle is very suitable to be used as a
power plant in rural areas to optimize the use of small or large scale
water energy. Water energy is converted into mechanical energy in
turbines and then mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy
by generators. However, turbine performance must be improved by using a
multi nozzle cross flow turbine and its maintenance is continuously
maintained. Cross flow turbine with multi nozzle, turbine blades are
able to absorb water energy greater than water jets through multi
nozzle. Potential water energy is first converted into kinetic energy in
the water turbine nozzle. The spray jet of water coming out of the
nozzle that has a high speed is able to move the turbine blade,
resulting in high rotation in the multinozzle cross flow turbine so
that it is very effective to improve the performance of the cross flow
turbine as an electric generator drive. 


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Title: 
Classical and predictive control applied to a nonlinear system of
coupled tanks 
Author (s): 
German A. PulidoCortes, Alejandro MorenoArtunduaga and Diego F.
SendoyaLosada 
Abstract: 
In this work, two controllers, a Proportional Integral (PI) and a
Modelbased Predictive Controller (MPC), have been designed to regulate
a nonlinear liquid level system. First, the modeling and linearization
of the system was performed using Taylor series. Then the PI controller
was designed around a certain set point. Next, an algorithm was designed
according to the Extended Prediction SelfAdaptive Control (EPSAC).
Finally, the performance of the controllers is evaluated for set point
tracking and disturbance rejection. 


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Title: 
A finite elemental algorithm for calculating the arbitrarily loaded
shell using threedimensional finite elements 
Author (s): 
Yu. V. Klochkov, A. P. Nikolaev, S. D. Fomin, O. V. Vakhnina, T. A.
Sobolevskaya and M. Yu. Klochkov 
Abstract: 
A finite elemental algorithm has been developed for calculating an
arbitrarily loaded shell, the reference surface of which is determined
by Cartesian coordinates , which are functions of curvilinear
coordinates . For an arbitrary point of the shell located at a distance
from the reference surface, the radius vector characterizing its
position is determined by the sum of the radius vector of the
corresponding point of the reference surface and the normal vector to
the reference surface with the component . By differentiating the radius
vector of an arbitrary shell point by curvilinear coordinates and by
coordinate , three basis vectors of the considered arbitrary shell point
are determined in the form of a function of the unit vectors of the
Cartesian coordinate system. By differentiating the radius vector of an
arbitrary shell point with respect to curvilinear coordinates and a
normal coordinate , using the matrix relation between the Cartesian
coordinate system orts and the basis vectors of the point under
consideration, matrix expressions of the derivatives of the basis
vectors of the considered point in the basis components of the same
point are obtained. The specified load was determined in the components
of the basis vectors of the point of application of the load. The
displacement vector of an arbitrary point of the shell was represented
by the components of its basis vectors. The derivatives of the
displacement vector along the curvilinear coordinates and along the
coordinate along the normal were determined taking into account the
change in the basis vectors of the point under consideration. The
components of the strain tensor at an arbitrary point of the shell were
determined by the relations of continuum mechanics as the difference of
the metric point tensors in the deformed and initial states. As
volumetric finite elements, prisms with bases in the form of a triangle
and a quadrangle with orientation of the bases in surfaces approximately
parallel to the reference surface are taken. Nodal unknowns of
volumetric finite elements accepted displacements and their first
derivatives. The triangular prism was represented by three tetrahedra,
the stiffness matrices of which were formed using Lagrange correction
factors, which allow improved compatibility in the midpoints of the
sides of the triangular bases of adjacent prismatic elements. To form
the stiffness matrix of the tetrahedral element, we used the conditional
Lagrange functional when adding terms with correction factors. On the
example of calculating the strength of a fragment of a thinwalled tank
for storing fuel and lubricants of the agroindustrial complex in the
form of an elliptical cylinder, the efficiency of the developed finite
element algorithm is shown. 


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Title: 
Experimental study of Coconut oil as an alternative for mineral oil in
oilbased mud 
Author (s): 
Dinesh Kanesan and Mohd. Fazriq Hafizin Bin Jamaludin 
Abstract: 
The study on vegetable oilbased drilling mud has gained much attention
due to the detrimental effects of the conventional oilbased mud (OBM).
The conventional OBM contains additives which can endanger the safety of
personnel handling it. The objective of this study is to formulate a new
OBM by using coconut oil as a base fluid and analyze whether coconut
oilbased mud would be a viable option as opposed to conventional
mineral oil. Coconut oil will be used as a substitute to the
conventional base oil. The compared properties were rheological
properties, yield point, gel strength and filtration loss properties.
The mud density for both drilling mud is kept constant at 9.0 ppg for
comparison purpose. Results obtained show that the Coconut OBM exhibited
Bingham plastic rheological model with high yield point and gel strength
compared to OBM. Furthermore, the mud filtration test results were 3.8
ml for Coconut OBM and 1.7 ml for OBM. The thicker mud cake of Coconut
OBM would cause pipe to stuck compared to OBM thinner mud cake. In
conclusion, Coconut OBM exhibit poor performance in mud rheology and
filtrate loss with the exception of superior gel strength than OBM but
it is not sufficient to replace OBM in any drilling operations. 


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Title: 
Optimal cost of power system incorporating wind energy using
hereandnow approach 
Author (s): 
Ismail Marouani, Chefai Dhifaoui and Taoufik Guesmi 
Abstract: 
In this paper, a new approach for the economic environmental dispatch (EED) problem
with both wind turbines and thermal generators is presented. The
hereandnow (HN) strategy is used in the problem formulation by
incorporating the stochastic characteristic of the wind power (WP) in
the system constraints. Weibull probability distribution function (PDF)
is employed to describe the WP. An elitist optimization approach based
on particle swarm optimization and the nondominated sorting concept is
applied to solve the stochastic and nonsmooth EED problem. The
suggested framework is successfully evaluated on the 69bus tenunit
system. 


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Title: 
The effective use of irrigated land:
Resourcesaving technologies 
Author (s): 
Tastanbek Atakulov, Keistutis Romanetskas,
Kenzhe Erzhanova and Ashirali Smanov 
Abstract: 
The
article provides data on aspects of the effective use of irrigated land
in southeast Kazakhstan. For this, the authors calculated the effective
heat sum needed for crops and the actual values of this parameter in
southeast Kazakhstan. Based on this data and the results of field
research, aspects of the effective use of irrigated lands in the
southeastern region of Kazakhstan were established. For the effective
use of irrigated lands and an increase in their productivity, the
authors recommend sowing intercrops after the basic crops, which
contributed to the increase in the profitability level from 129% to
149%. According to the results of field experiments, the highest net
income of 171197 thousand tenges per hectare was obtained by sowing
intercrops after the basic crop (winter triticale). Usage of Sudan grass
as an intercrop for the herbage production did not produce any effect. 


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