ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                            July 2018  |  Vol. 13  No. 14
   
Title: Design and performance analysis of low power SRAM using modified MTCMOS
Author (s): G. Rajesh Kumar and K. Babulu
Abstract:

Present day mobile communication devices equipped with large capacity memories in order to fulfill all the multimedia needs of customers. Now a days, design engineer mainly concentrating not only to equip high capacity memories, but also high bandwidth and low power consuming memories. This paper presents a low power structure for an SRAM cell by modifying the Multi-threshold CMOS architecture. Multi-threshold CMOS architecture is a technique in which transistors with different threshold voltages are used to reduce power consumption and also to reduce delay. This paper presents a more interesting method to reduce power consumption by reducing leakage current in idle condition. This method depicts how the voltage, temperature and transistor size effecting the power consumption in an SRAM cell. This paper presents a novel architecture for SRAM cell to reduce power consumption in the memory structure. SRAM cell is designed with 45 nm technology and is compared with standard 6T SRAM structure. Simulation results shows that power consumption reduced to around 21% when compared with standard 6T SRAM structures.

   

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Title: Effects of flow velocity on RBI analysis of cooling water heat exchangers
Author (s): Ainul Akmar Mokhtar and Azhani Zulkifli
Abstract:

Failure of heat exchanger tubes is a common problem in the oil and gas as well as petrochemical industry across the world. Cooling water corrosion and fouling are closely related and should be analyzed together. Fluid temperature, type of water, type of cooling system, oxygen content and fluid velocities are the critical factors contributing to these damage mechanisms. In this study, the effects of flow velocity in the cooling water service to the corrosion rate was analyzed and the risk assessment was conducted using the risk-based inspection (RBI) principal. A condenser type heat exchanger used to cool water at the bundle/tubes side was chosen as a case study. The results showed that the flow velocity in the cooling water system gave a great effect on the corrosion rate, and ultimately affecting the risk category. Higher corrosion rate was seen at the minimum flow velocity.

   

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Title: Hybrid technique based PAPR reduction in CO-OFDM system
Author (s): Leqaa Al-Hashemi, Sinan M. Abdul Satar and Ghaida A. AL-Suhail
Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing can be considered as a principle multiple carrier modulation formats and used in various types of applications such as wireless and optical communication. It is regarded as a perfect method which is used for high speed optical communication; furthermore it has high spectral efficiency and robustness to path losses. Nonetheless, it suffer from High Peak to Average Power Ratio which is considered as one of the main problem that is experienced by the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system, which directly has an effect on the characteristics of the system. Notably when the Peak to Average Power Ratio increases, the nonlinear and linear impairments in optical fiber will be high. Chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion as linear impairment and nonlinear characteristics include self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing. This paper proposes an efficient cascade hybrid technique to reduce the PAPR by combining the nonlinear technique of modified sliding norm transformer (MSNT) and the clipping linear technique in the coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) system. In effect, the proposed technique does not need to send side information to the receiver; in addition it doesn’t degrade in bit error rate and bandwidth. The simulation results reveal that the system performance has been significantly improved when using this proposed technique in comparison with other individual techniques of clipping and modified sliding norm transformer. As a result, it is found that PAPR reduction can be achieved to 5.1 dB from the original signal for error probability of 10-3. Further, the measured Quality factor enhanced in about 1.1dB and error vector magnitude in about 1 dB with optical fiber long up to660 km.

   

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Title: Local conditions wind multiplier map as supporting tool in windstorm hazard assessment for Malaysian districts (Study Case: Kuantan, Pahang)
Author (s): Mohd. Fairuz Bachok, Khairi Khalid, Supiah Shamsudin, Roslan Zainal Abidin, Ponselvi Jeevaragagam and Sobri Harun
Abstract:

Local conditions wind multiplier map considered as one of the essential supporting tool in windstorm disaster management because through this map effected of local conditions to windstorm intensity (gust/wind speed) in any grid area of 1 km x 1 km can be made known. Local conditions multiplier for each grid area need to be multiplied with predicted windstorm intensity from the source (downdraft) in order to determine the actual intensity on land surface. Next, through the actual intensity, potential damages can be identified. Information regarding potential damages enables local authorities and public in the affected area to make early preparation in minimizing the impacts caused by windstorm occurrence. Production of this map is according to severe wind gust risk assessment which taking into account of terrain (roughness), shielding multiplier and topographic (hill-shape) factors. Multiplier for each factor are based on the Malaysian Standard (MS1553: 2000) and Australian/New Zealand standard (AS/NZS1170.2: 2011). Kuantan District has been selected as a case study based on two factors, one of a district in Malaysia with highest number of windstorm occurrences and the only district that has been studied about its land cover roughness. As a matter of fact, this article is to provide guidance in producing supporting tool that could be as added value in windstorm disaster management in the future.

   

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Title: Novel 11-T full adder in 65nm CMOS technology
Author (s): C. M. R. Prabhu, Tan Wee Xin Wilson and Thangavel Bhuvaneswari
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an improved 11-T full adder circuit design for minimum power consumption. A novel adder cell is designed with new top-down approach using total number of 11 transistors, thereby, known as 11-T cell. After simulation of the circuit, a clear view of the circuit performance is studied. The proposed adder circuit is compared with reported cells and observed consumed lower in power consumption. The proposed cell gives faster response for the carry output and can be used at higher temperature with minimal power loss. The drawback of the circuit is that it occupies larger area on the chip.

   

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Title: Additive manufacturing for industrial benchmarking: An application to vehicle’s under-hood design
Author (s): Alessandro Naddeo and Nicola Cappetti
Abstract:

All over the world, and mainly in United States, since 1977 to 1991 the research centers of automotive companies have processed several statistical data on real accidents between vehicles and pedestrians taking care, obviously, to pedestrians’ injury. In latest years, a research group of EEVC (European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee) had realized some documents about “pedestrian test” procedures. In reference papers of period 1977 - 1997 and in EEVC documents, the scientists describe a proposed homologating test for child-head impact; it is represented by the impact of some standardized impactors on car bonnet, in order to evaluate the child-head injury as deceleration of its gravity center. Injury evaluation criteria is an energy criterion and is quantified by the HPC index (see below) calculated by acceleration resultant vector, measured by an accelerometer mounted in the head-impactor. Our research wants to propose a new potential-injury evaluation method based on virtual reconstruction of the surface that envelopes all the deformation surfaces in internal part of the bonnet and on its rapid prototyping. This surface is so processed and rapid prototyped as a puzzle of shells with their support. This prototyped surface is super-imposed on the real under-bonnet layout of a car and allow to evaluate easily where and how much our deformed bonnet could hit the hard-parts of the engine layout. This paper shows the results of this research project.

   

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Title: Image based street light block out monitoring
Author (s): Vasagiri Krishnasre, Ghanta Sahitya and Challagulla Kaushik
Abstract:

Street lighting system is an essential facility for any civilization. It plays a pivotal role in providing enhanced social security and reducing night time accidents. Therefore, one of the main priorities in Electrical Distribution Companies is timely repair and maintenance of the street lightening, which should be regularly checked. The common mechanized monitoring of the street lighting is based on measuring the consumed current of each lamp and comparing it with the lamp nominal current. In this way, the error in network is identified. Monitoring street lighting is presently conducted by traditional inspection and check-out method. We suggest a new method for monitoring and remote sensing of the street lighting system which is completely isolated from electricity network. It applies picture shooting of the street lighting network, image processing and identifying the off lights in the image. This system conducts monitoring and remote sensing of a large number of passageway lamps which are fed by different branches easily. It monitors the street lights automatically by a system without physical interference. So, the main idea to implement this is by the usage of drones to collect the images of street lighting network continuously. Those images are sent to the system, where they are processed using image processing techniques to identify the off lights in the network.

   

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Title: Behavior of pack carburizing with bone buffalo charcoal and BaCO3 against mechanical properties of low carbon steel
Author (s): Y. Bontong, Nitha, H. Abbas, R. Syam, H. Arsyad and H. S. Asmal
Abstract:

Carburizing Pack method is one method to improve mechanical properties of carbon steel lace that is hardness value and value of tensile strength of low carbon steel at surface. In this process the low carbon steel remains strong and resilient at the stadium. This study aims to determine the effect of carburizing media with the percentage variation of bone powder of buffalo bones as carbon in carburizing process to mechanical properties of low carbon steel. The temperature used in the carburizing process lasts is 9000C with a holding time of 60 minutes. In this process the carbon obtained from the buffalo bone char is made into a fine powder and combined with BaCO3 as its the energizer. In the percentage study of buffalo bone powder as carburizing medium is 65% ATK + 35% BaCO3, 75% ATK + 25% BaCO3, 80% ATK + 20% BaCO3 from the weight of buffalo bone charcoal used in carburization process. In this study steel will be added with barium carbonate and heated buffalo bone charcoal in a furnace with a temperature of 9000C. Then tested hardness Vickers sensitivity and tensile strength. From the research result of hardness for normal material or without treatment equal to 74,333 kg/mm2 and tensile strength 636,94 N/ mm2. While after experiencing the method of carburizing pack treatment then the hardness has increased, the highest hardness at percentage 80% ATK + 30% BaCO3 that is 91,667 kg/mm2. Likewise in tensile strength after pack carburizing process is the largest value in percentage 80% ATK + 30% BaCO3, it is 1233,78 N/ mm2. This research results show that the percentage of buffalo bone charcoal powder as a medium in the method of carburizing pack can improve the mechanical properties of hardness and tensile strength of low carbon steel.

   

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Title: A review of hybrid converters for DC-based renewable energy nanogrid systems
Author (s): S. Annapoorani and R. Jayaparvathy
Abstract:

Hybrid converters produce AC and DC output simultaneously in single stage from single DC input. These types of hybrid converters play an important role in DC-based renewable energy nanogrid applications which can feed both AC and DC loads simultaneously. Conventional two stage conversion in DC nanogrid uses dedicated DC-DC converter and DC-AC converter with DC input that may be supplied from solar panel, fuel cell etc. and suffers from shoot through problem, reduced EMI immunity and reduced reliability. On the other hand, the component count is also less in hybrid converters and has increased reliability resulting from its inherent shoot-through protection, and also, eliminates the need of dead time circuitry. Various modified PWM techniques are applied to obtain the required DC and AC output. This paper presents the review of various hybrid converters for DC nanogrid systems.

   

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Title: Explosive consumption reduction by introducing hollow plastic tubes in explosive column
Author (s): Vineeth Balakrishnan and Manoj Pradhan
Abstract:

There is a huge demand for explosive in India and it will increase further as the mining activities are on a rise. India consumed around 1211427 metric tons of ammonium nitrate based explosive in 2016-17. The emulsion explosive is an ammonium nitrate based explosive which is dominating the commercial explosive market. It mainly consists of an oxidizer and a fuel. Since the fuel used is generally any hydrocarbon, explosives generate huge quantity of fumes some of which are toxic in nature. Further, these fumes contribute to environmental pollution by polluting the air, water, and soil. This paper suggests an innovative method of using hollow plastic tubes with explosive which can reduce the total fumes generated due to blasting by reducing the total explosive consumption.

   

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Title: Investigation of the influence of fullerene-containing oils on tribotechnical characteristics of metal conjunction
Author (s): Derkach O.D., Kabat O. S., Bezus R. M., Kovalenko V. L. and Kotok V. A.
Abstract:

The influence of fullerene soot additive to M10g2k oil on some tribotechnical characteristics of "steel-steel" tribosystem had been studied. It had been discovered that optimal content of fullerene soot in oil is 0.1% wt. At this concentration, the lowest values of the friction coefficient of - 0.045 and linear wear intensity - 2.7 × 10-9 are observed. Optical studies have confirmed the involvement of fullerene soot in the formation of friction surface saturated with carbon, which resulted in an increase of tribotechnical characteristic of studied samples.

   

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Title: A framework for decision making and quality improvement by data aggregation techniques on private hospitals data
Author (s): Syed Ahmed Yasin and P. V. R. D. Prasad Rao

Abstract:

Predictive analytics using big data is emerging field which help to make quick, accurate decisions from structured as well as unstructured data. There is vast field like healthcare, education, whether forecasting where predictive or data analytics can help us for getting insights of data. The Biggest challenge for healthcare industry is huge data, rapid generation of speed, & complexity of data. In this paper we have concentrated on how data science & big data analytics can help us for improvement in health care analysis and prediction of accurate results. Tools used in data science and big data is also discussed. For experiment we have used two data mining techniques decision tree and naïve bays which are applied on UCI Data set and Actual Hospital Data set. Performance analysis is done for 13 and 15 attributes of data.

   

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Title: New switching technique for the modified cascade five levels inverter
Author (s): Mustafa F. Mohammed, Ali H. Ahmad and Abdulrahim Thiab Humod
Abstract:

In inverters design, the reduction in a number of switches and making the switching frequency at the fundamental frequency are good techniques for increasing the efficiency of single-phase inverters. In this paper, there is a new switching technique used for the modified cascade five levels inverter based on single pulse width modulation PWM method. A comparison is made by using of single PWM between the five levels and the three levels inverter (full bridge inverter). The shifting angles and its time equivalent relationships are derived. The single PWM method showed that, at a particular trend of harmonic elimination which is the 5th harmonic, lower total harmonic distortion percentage THD % can be achieved. All the simulations are made by using of MATLAB SIMULINK R2015a.

   

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Title: A review on energy optimization techniques used in WSN
Author (s): Vandana Reddy and Gayathri Prakasam
Abstract:

From decades the issue of energy optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has been resolved using various technologies ranging from physical modification to the network nodes or sensors to the software solutions such as changes to routing protocol, dealing with various optimizations on the network parameters and so on. There were many protocols proposed to increase the lifetime of the sensor node and with this Wireless energy transfer (WET) has been considered a favorable technique for extending the lifetime of WSN. However energy conservation on the network is also achievable if we compress the data flow in the network, reduce communication overheads and wireless energy transfer.

   

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Title: The technology of preparation of the oil sludge pit with polymerorganic screen for oil waste
Author (s): Panabek Tanzharikov, Ayfer Erken, Zhangyl Abilbek, Ulbosyn Sarabekova and Nurzhamal Ermukhanova
Abstract:

In this paper described technology of preparing oil waste sludge pit, where as antifiltration screen is used polymerorganic screen based on asphalt resin paraffin deposits (ARPD) and polymer material. Processing of oil waste and reducing their formation is a significant problem from the ecological point of view and requires new ecological and technological solutions. In this research paper analyzes the results of world practical experiments on the application of waste and presents technical solutions for the use of waste that are suitable for future application. The feature of this work is obtaining waterproofing materials based on asphalt - resin - paraffin deposits and polymer, moreover the improvement of its physicochemical properties. The results of experimental laboratory testing of the effects of aggressive components of waste on the physical and mechanical properties of the material made from polymerorganic and cement mixture are presented. The composition of the material for the bottom and walls of oil sludge pits are: the Portland cement M400 and the amount of dissolved lime are respectively 4; 5; 6; 7% and soil mass 3; 4; 5%. The soil content is 60% clay, 10% sand, 22% ARPD, 6-13% polymer materials.

   

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Title: Identification of the granulation process in the fluidized bed
Author (s): Bogdan Y. Korniyenko and Liudmyla V. Osipa
Abstract:

The article describes an algorithm identification process of dehydration and granulation in a fluidized bed in the preparation of granulated product specified particulate composition. The conditions characterize the kinetics of stable continuous granulation process with increasing the mass fraction of a given granule diameter by 40%. As a result of calculations after the foregoing algorithm with the initial value of the coefficient K1=0,009, we got K1 values, by which the granules mass distribution function changes in accordance with the set equivalent diameter of granules dеsd= 2,5 mm. At the transitional process duration of 3 s, the main changes of the K1 coefficient take place during the last 30 s and they are characterized by the significant reduction of the K1 coefficient, which results to the reduction of granules unloading of the set equivalent diameter from the apparatus. After the realization of the identification algorithm, the granules mass fraction of the set size of dеsd=2, 5 mm increase from 0, 26 to 0, 45, which substantially improved the granules size composition of the final product. As a result of the research, the identification algorithm of the dehydration and granulation processes of mineral fertilizers in the apparatus with a fluidized bed is developed. The defined conditions characterize a stable kinetics of nonrecyclable continuous granulation process with the mass fraction increasing of granules diameter of 2,5 mm by 40%.

   

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Title: Analysis of SAR images texture using RIM support vector machines
Author (s): M. Raja Sekar and N. Sandhya
Abstract:

This paper studies the performance of RIM support vector machine in the analysis of SAR based images. Analysis of complex Synthetic Aperture Radar images remains an inspiring and unsolved problem in the field of research. This paper proposes an optimal methodology to classify SAR based images with the help of support vector machines embedded RIM. The methodology which is proposed in this study is to classify the SAR based images is based on machine learning algorithms. The proposed implicit SAR image classification methodology has got many application areas such as filtering, routing relevant images to suitable databases and search engines. Proposed methodology is described by high dimensional data in which every pixel of SAR image is treated as an attribute. All SAR images used under this study are collected from publicly available AXA EORC database. This paper describes a mathematical model for automatic SAR image classification which is implemented in R programming language. Many algorithms were proposed to classifying SAR images but one of the most promising methodology is RIM support vector machine. The results shown in this paper to classify SAR images are highly effective with accuracy of 94% without heuristic and greedy concepts.

   

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Title: The ADRC linear power control applied to the wind turbine system based on DFIG
Author (s): Issam Minka, Ahmed Essadki and Tamou Nasser
Abstract:

This paper present the model and test of the robustness of the linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) applied to the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) inserted in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The objective is to show the tracking of the references and to prove the robustness of this control against internal parameters variations of the DFIG, in order to show their performances. Firstly we start by modeling the components of the Aeolian conversion chain (wind turbine, MPPT strategy, DFIG and the power converters). Thereafter, we study in detail the principle and performance of the ADRC technique used in the control of Rotor Side Converter (RSC) and Grid Side Converter (GSC). Using the Matlab/Simulink environment we present the simulation results of this control and their interpretations.

   

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Title: A collaborative intrusion detection system for MANET using data mining technique
Author (s): S. B. Ninu and S. Behin Sam
Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are vulnerable to various kinds of threats due to their dynamic nature and lack of a central point of control. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) which can act in collaboration with other IDS nodes in the network is getting popularity due to its faster adaptability to the changes in the behavior of network traffic. A standalone node in MANET will feel very difficult to set any predefined rule for identifying correctly attack traffic since there is no major difference between normal and attack traffic. Hence, in this paper we have proposed an intelligent collaborative model based on data mining for intrusion traffic detection system that can detect attacks. Here we find and deploy friendly nodes in the network that continuously monitors the behavior of other nodes to find nodes or set of nodes exhibiting anomalous behavior. NS-2 simulations were carried out to analyze the performance of the proposed system. We evaluated the performance of our proposed collaborative IDS scheme with various other existing IDS models. The results clearly showed that the proposed intrusion detection system considerably reduces the false positive rate, thereby proving that the proposed technique is capable of identifying anomalies in network better than other existing system.

   

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Title: An analytical solution for the determination of the loads acting on a semi-elliptical wing: The case of the Reggiane Re 2005 WWII fighter
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli, Vincenzo Errani, Stefano Cassani, Federico Calzini and Eugenio Pezzuti
Abstract:

Many papers for the analytical solution of the lift distribution on a semi in semi-elliptical wing have been published. These works [1] usually approximate the solution by series expansion. This paper introduces an original method for the closed-form solution of this problem. The solution is possible through the use of symbolic manipulators. The wing of the WWII fighter "Reggiane Re 2005" has been solved analytically with the proposed method. The results are similar to the ones obtained by the panel-method and CFD. A CFD simulation of the Re 2005 at maximum speed demonstrates that these results are reasonable.

   

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Title: Android location-aware mobile application for local events suggestion
Author (s): Mahendra Diwasasri Reka, Wildan Maulana and Wansu Lim
Abstract:

This paper describes Android location-aware mobile application for local events suggestion to recommend local events as the activities for boredom people. This application recommender system consists of two major components: 1) local events location recommendation and 2) Android mobile application component. Google location services API sapplied to display the nearest places for the android user based on his/her GPS position from a mobile device. To make the personalization, this application using build-in storage from android for the local events data. The researchers also implement an android application to use the recommender system via a mobile device. Offline experimental results demonstrated that the recommender system can achieve satisfying precision and recall of recommended local events places.

   

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Title: Establishment of rural any time medical machine (RATMM) using IOT
Author (s): Rajeesh Kumaar N. V., Bodangi Surya Bhadra Praveen and Annem Veera Sarveswara Reddy
Abstract:

Amid the spending display of utilizations empowered by (Internet of Things) IOT, shrewd and associated social insurance is an especially vital aspect. The present study suggested a structure for observing the medicinal services of country individuals. In the current framework, the social insurance turns into a major question because of absence of specialists. Likewise there has been a checking the past reports pertaining to medicinal aspects and offering alarms to them. Essentially this has been into the components associated with electronics restorative records related to patients. Likewise it is exceptionally consumption of time for the people who take treatment to achieve the clinics for the wellbeing medical examination. According to the suggested framework, (RURAL ANY TIME MEDICAL MACHINE) RATMM would try to build up a Telemedicine Conference System commencing the distant position through mutually conversation by the Distinguished Doctors and Patients. An apparatus akin to ATM instrument is introduced in the rustic position for improved treatment of Medicine besides the healing related to the people living in rural areas. We send the AMC (Anytime Medical Counter) to whole of the rustic zones at which individuals can't get great/best specialist on path. We introduce Ultrasonic sensor, Temperature sensor, Heart Beat, Camera, Head telephone and stack cell are likewise associated with the Medical mechanism. Therapeutic counter client and is screened from the distant range. Function is introduced in the mutual closures for voice correspondence and talking with specialist. Patients are being inspected by the specialist furthermore endorses the prescriptions plus the Dispatcher related to the Medicine will send off the drugs as of the RATMM appliance to the client. Medications are overhauled in the server present in the cloud. A demand can be thrown to the server by the client to avail the drugs admission timings.

   

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Title: A unique cloud service for final year project management using Resource Management Techniques
Author (s): Surendran R.
Abstract:

Currently, the practice cloud services usage has become significant and essential for all. Cloud services are not like a webpage it become a wide service for all kind of people in the world. Computation, storage and services are the main theme of cloud computing. Cloud services capable of select the best resource, matchmaking, scheduling, fault tolerance, load balancing and real-time applications. This research work employ about real time application in simulation method. The simulation work does the Job Organization Method using Resource Management Techniques in Cloud Computing. Nowadays, the Final year project works of worldwide institutions are not maintain in common portal. So the young researchers ideas are not exposing to the world. Some of the researchers are publishing as papers with limited pages. This service use to make a common unique cloud portal for all kind of peoples in the world. It is support by all government to maintain a unique portal for project management. Here project as a job. This research work initiates an application called Unique Cloud Service for project management system for final year project students. The outcome of the service is capable to perform many operations such as operations of user authentication, reservations systems Final Year Project, showing the title of projects, download the previous reports, also the application can offers many services as link for searching engines, also connect to library searches engines. Therefore instructors, staff, students and visitors can get helpful, easy and fast services based on cloud computing techniques. Resource Management Technique of cloud computing is to solve this applications and evaluate its performance.

   

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Title: Assessment on microstructure of bone with osteogenesis imperfecta using medical imaging techniques: A review
Author (s): S. B. C. Wanna, K. S. Basaruddin, M. H. Mat Som and R. Daud
Abstract:

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease which affecting the bones. In a severe case, this disease can cause the death to the patients. The microstructure of OI bone tissue can be observe by variation of imaging technique such as Computer Tomography (CT) scan, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The observation on microstructural behavior of OI bone tissue allows more finding on the orientation and behavior of the damaged tissue in OI. OI bone tissue appears to have less bone mineral density (BMD) than in control group. This information helps in providing the suitable treatment needed by OI patients such as bisphosphate therapy (BP).

   

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Title: Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of hybrid bone cements
Author (s): Abdul-Rahman Najim Abd and Ayesha Aljuboory
Abstract:

This study investigates the influence of incorporating bioactive ceramic particles on the mechanical performance of acrylic bone cement. The formulated composites contain certain weight fractions of hydroxyapatite (3,8,16) wt%, magnesia (2,3.5,5) wt% and a fixed amount of titania (2 wt% ). Vacuum mixing technique was adopted in order to reduce porosity and stress concentration. The microstructure of fabricated composites was characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the mechanical properties were evaluated through tensile and michrohardness tests. Results showed deterioration in tensile strength with increasing amount of fillers which is attributable to the agglomeration of reinforcement phase which represented weak points in the matrix for crack initiation and propagation. Moreover, the strength results are consistent with the SEM images that showed significantly increased agglomerates with increasing amount of fillers. Results showed an enhancement in modulus of elasticity with the incorporation of strong fillers. However, the results of microhardness test did not reveal significant changes, where hardness can be affected by content of residual monomer, porosity and other material properties in addition to composition.

   

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