ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                            August 2019  |  Vol. 14  No. 16
   
Title: Mechanical study of concrete column wrapped with natural fibres
Author (s): R. Arun Vidhiyagar and S. Karthiga
Abstract:

Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP’s) are made known into a vast field of civil engineering functions. FRP is defined as a material which is composite made of polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. Their ability involves strengthening and rehabilitation of structures. The use of FRP as an external confinement on cylindrical columns and on different wrapping patterns helps us to determine the structural behaviour and variation in confinement strength of structures. There are so many existing researches in artificial fibres for confinement of structures and this paper concentrates on wrapping of structures with Natural FRPs because of its superior endurance and environmental friendly directories. In this paper, 39 cylindrical specimens of diameter 150mm and height 300mm are cast with m40 grade of concrete in which 9 specimens are unwrapped and remaining 30 specimens are wrapped with FRPs. The wrapping pattern includes different types such as one layer full wrap, two layer full wrap, centre wrap, partial wrap and two layer wrap. Axial compressive load is applied on all specimens and their strength is compared to find an effective one. Two types of Natural fibres such as Flax and Hemp are used for confinement in which 15 specimens are wrapped with flax and remaining 15 specimens are wrapped with hemp. The percentage gain of confinement strength of wrapped specimens are compared with different patterns of wrapping and among with different fibres and also with unwrapped specimens.

   

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Title: A study on the behaviour of Geopolymer concrete funicular shell
Author (s): Sriram Jagadeep, N. P. Rajamane and D. Arul Prakash
Abstract:

Compression structure provides an alternative construction technology which optimizes the use of building materials and natural resources. Geopolymer concrete is an eco-friendly and sustainable material which gives initial setting, elimination of water curing, good durability and mechanical properties. In the view of above considerations, present work is carried out for funicular shells of different spans from 1m to 2m with varying rises of L/10 to L/20 are analyzed by using SAP2000 software. Experimental study is carried for both conventional and Geopolymer concrete funicular shells of specimens of size 1m X 1m and the thickness of 30mm with and without Mesh Reinforcement. The solution with 0.55MR were prepared along with 50% Flyash and 50% GGBS are used instead of cement for the casting of cubes, cylinders and Geopolymer concrete funicular shells. UDL load is applied over the shell; load carrying capacity and deflection are measured. Analytical and experimental results are compared. Funicular shell with mesh reinforcement gives more strength than normal shell for both conventional and Geopolymer concrete funicular shell.

   

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Title: Experimental investigation of high strength concrete beam with hybrid fibers
Author (s): Karthick Rajan and C. Sudha
Abstract:

The aim of this work is investigating the high strength concrete beam using hybrid fibers with different grade of concrete M40 and M50. In this study fiber is added into the concrete in different proportion 0%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1% for testing the Mechanical properties of concrete cube and cylindrical specimen were prepared and for testing the flexural strength concrete beam was prepared. Polypropylene and ceramic fiber were used in this study ceramic fiber which high temperature resistance so few specimens were has kept in the high temperature oven at 600 ˚C almost five hrs. Then the flexural strength of concrete beam was analysed and other primary test were conducted for cement coarse and fine aggregate and the experimental result shows the addition polypropylene and ceramic fiber in the concrete slightly improves the compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of high strength concrete.

   

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Title: Investigation on behaviour of FRP - Concrete - Steel tubular column
Author (s): C. Pavithra, Daggupati Subrahmanyam and N. Lokeshwaran
Abstract:

FRP has been generally acknowledged as a productive binding material for cement as a result of its high solidarity to-weight proportion and tailor-ability in mechanical properties. The concept of using various materials optimally in order to achieve a more efficient member is presented in this paper. Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) - Concrete- Steel double skin tubular (FCSDST) column is an advancement that emerged recently. It consists of outer FRP layer and inner steel pipe with concrete infilled between the tubes obtaining many advantages over existing columns in the vertical direction. This paper presents an analytical study on the behaviour of FRP concrete steel tubular column subjected to axial compression The stiffness and energy absorption capacity are determined. The analytical program includes testing of 12 specimens having height 500mm, varying parameters like thickness of 2mm & 4mm and diameter 160mm of the FRP tube and steel pipe of diameter 88.9mm of 1.6mm thickness. The analytical study has been carried out using Finite element software. Comparing with regular concrete GFRP attaining 25% more strength and prudent to other members.

   

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Title: A computer simulation of the fuel injection characteristics of a GDI injector according to the injector driving pattern
Author (s): Choong Hoon Lee
Abstract:

The fuel injection characteristics according to the injector driving pattern of a GDI (gasoline direct injection) injector were calculated by a computer simulation. The injector needle lift, fuel injection rate, and cumulative injected fuel mass were simulated by the computer. Five injector driving current patterns were used. The five injector current driving patterns combine peak & hold current waves. The fuel injection duration was increased in steps of 0.5 ms from 0.5 ms to 3.0 ms. The fuel injection durations for the computer simulation were greatly shorted to 0.25 ms. The fuel injection pressures for the simulation were 50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar. As the fuel injection duration was shortened, the effects of the injector drive current pattern on the injector needle lift, fuel injection rate, and cumulative injected fuel mass became stronger. Specifically, the fuel injection characteristics of the GDI injector varied considerably with the variation of the driving current pattern at the fuel injection duration of 0.25 ms. The dynamic flow range (DFR) characteristics of the GDI injector were determined using the simulated results of the cumulative injected fuel mass. The DFR curve showed linear characteristics for all injector driving current patterns and fuel injection pressures in the fuel injection duration range of 0.5 ms - 3.0 ms.

   

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Title: Using interior point optimization technique for mufflers cost reduction
Author (s): Waleed El-Sallamy and Ahmad Abosrea
Abstract:

Muffling devices are essential parts of any vehicle/machine that uses internal combustion engines. From automotive manufacturers point of view, they contribute massive sheet metal processing and production time, especially mufflers that are produced at high rates for commercial vehicles. This paper is concerned to reduce the production cost of any commercial automotive mufflers through theoretical studies and experimental measurements verification. Mufflers design parameters (transmission loss and pressure drop) were selected for performance judgment, parameters were simulated and experimentally measured. The transfer matrix method was used to calculate the propagation of sound waves along the muffler. Interior point optimization algorithm in MATLAB optimization tool box was used in this paper. A commercial automotive muffler with a hybrid combination of dissipation and reflection was selected for application and a new optimized design was proposed for this muffler with a reduced manufacturing cost. The manufacturing operation time was reduced by 92% and consequently the cost relative to the original muffler was reduced by 60%.

   

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Title: Stair step pattern and triangle pattern synthesis using TLBO algorithm
Author (s): R. Krishna Chaitanya, P. Mallikarjuna Rao and K. V. S. N. Raju
Abstract:

Optimization methods have played a vital role in the design of Array antenna. Array antennas have wide range of varying parameters which cannot be predicted by traditional methods. Large random values are involved in the design of Antenna parameters. Random optimization methods are used in linear array antennas not only for beam shaping methods but also for side lobe reduction and beam width optimization. Stair step and triangle shape pattern are generated using TLBO algorithm. Stair step is used for communicate to different entities at different levels. Triangle pattern is used for communication to a particular entity in particular direction. An error plot based on number of iterations has been used to evaluate the error minimum value in order to generate stair step and triangle pattern for linear array antennas and the same are presented in this paper.

   

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Title: Integration of fully reconfigurable single-inductor DC/DC converter with AC grid for renewable energy applications
Author (s): S. Balaji, V. N. Ganesh, J. Ajay Danie and D. Sivakumar
Abstract:

This work presents a compact but fully functional design of a simplified single inductor converter structure by combining and integrating basic converters, keeping minimum number of operating switches. This gives a fully reconfigurable structure of converter where all possible power flow combinations among the PV panel and load are achieved by various switching patterns.

   

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Title: Chilled Water Pump trouble-shooting by A. I.: A case study
Author (s): Priyabrata Adhikary, Ashok Kumar, Sumit Bandyopadhyay and Asis Mazumdar
Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (Artificial Neural Network-ANN, Fuzzy Expert System - FES, Genetic Algorithm - GA etc.) are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems in HVAC industry. It can learn from previous data, are fault tolerant, are able to deal with non-linear problems and, once trained, can perform prediction and generalisation at a very high speed. It has been used in diverse applications in controlling system, robotics, manufacturing, optimisation, signal processing etc. This study presents application of ANN in HVAC chilled water pump (Various Global Chilled Water Pump Manufacturers: Grundfos, KSB, Armstrong, Kirloskar etc.) trouble shooting. In all those models, multiple hidden layer architecture has been used. Errors reported in these models are within acceptable limits, which suggest that AI or ANN can be used for such modelling. Good agreement was found between the ANN forecast results and actual pump manufacturer data (not shown here for the company privacy policy) for the Chilled Water Pump trouble shooting. To the best of the author’s knowledge these novel approaches for application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN)in chilled water pump (HVAC) trouble shooting problem is absent in fluid mechanics literature due to its assessment complexity.

   

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Title: Effect factors of strut strength for reinforcement deep beams
Author (s): Eyad K. Sayhood and Nisreen S. Mohammed
Abstract:

The strut efficiency factor () is an important for the strength of concrete for the analysis and design of reinforced deep beams based on the strut and tie model. Because of ACI 318M-14 code uses constant values for strut efficiency factor , the proposed empirical formulas used to evaluate the strut efficiency factor will be based on the effect of many parameters , the shear span to effective depth ratio of beams (av/d), longitudinal reinforcement percentage (), horizontal reinforcement percentage (), vertical reinforcement percentage (), yield strength of reinforcement (), and effective depth (d). A 121 reinforced deep beams from the literature are used in this study to predict the proposed equation that have minimize the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and maximize the coefficient of multiple determinations (R2). A good results with the experimental strut efficiency factor and proposed models as it has (R2 is range 0.979 to 0.982).

   

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Title: Performance analysis of transformation techniques with prediction algorithms on diagnosing carotid plaques
Author (s): Asha Kulkarni and S. M. Shashidhara
Abstract:

This paper, attempts a novel prediction algorithms involving smart concepts is being developed for the medical diagnosis field applications. Premature diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is of paramount significance, being the principal basis of fatality in western countries. Fat or cholesterol deposition on the walls of the arteries results in the growth of intima media thickness (IMT). These depositions also called, as carotid plaques are the potential indicators of the CVDs like atherosclerosis. Although majority of the literatures have dealt the prediction of carotid plaque ominously, but, this paper attempts to put a light on the performance indications of different prediction algorithms which involves intelligent techniques like Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM), with the transform based feature extraction methods like Wavelet transform, Curvelet transform, Haar method and Integer wavelet transform. MatlabTM simulations on about 20 images of arteries with and without carotid plaques is carried out which indicates that, the integer wavelet with Haar Wavelet method performs better in the faster prediction of the plaques. The proposed methods depicted in this paper shows the efficacy of the developed method which is justified by the simulation results.

   

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Title: A TRIZ-based approach in investigating finger grip function degradation among elderlies
Author (s): Dominic Wen How Tan, Poh Kiat Ng and Ervina Efzan Mhd Noor

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the pressing issues of weak finger grip among elderlies and examine the underlying causes and potential solutions. The outcome of this study intends to benefit the development of ergonomic finger grip enhancers for the elderly. A problem-solving tool known as TRIZ was used to identify root causes to the problem and establish engineering contradictions which led to the solution models. The contradictions were resolved using proposed recommendations from some of the 40 inventive principles of TRIZ. The recommendations were cross-examined with existing inventions, concepts and ideas in order to substantiate their viability. The inventive principles generated from TRIZ included mechanics substitution/another sense, dynamisation and parameter changes. These individual principles led the researchers towards suggesting design ideas using visual feedback substitution, extended “finger” mechanisms to stabilise griping and devices to assist in force control. It may still be uncertain whether or not these ideas can integrate well with one another. However, as initial recommendations, these ideas have the potential to solve some of the root causes for poor finger grip due to the corresponding support found from previous studies.

   

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Title: Design of NoC router with 3-PE, double and triple error detection by using improved hamming code
Author (s): M. Senthil Kumar and Md. Javeed
Abstract:

Network on Chip (NoC) router is mainly used in system on chip (SoC) application. Millions of transistor integrated into a single chip is called as very large scale integration (VLSI) to design a single integrated circuit (IC). Also, millions of IC is integrated into single chip is called as SoC. Hence, the routing is very difficult in SoC. To avoid this kind of problem, the NoC router is incorporated into SoC board. NoC router is mainly used to transmit data from source to destination based on request. To set the priority, Priority arbiter is used for which data will come first from multiple request at the time. Lot of priority arbiter is available such as regular round robin arbiter, distributive round robin arbiter, matrix arbiter… etc. FIFO or buffer is used for temporary storage. Finite state machine (FSM) act as controller of NoC router to control entire module. Network interconnect is used for linking. Multiplexing and de-multiplexing operation is carried out by Crossbar switch. The existing NoC router is designed with two programmable elements (2-PE) & single error correction with double error detection method by using hamming code. But the probability of error detection is low and speed is very less. To overcome this problem, the proposed NoC router is designed with three programmable elements (3-PE) and triple error detection is performed with less number of parity bit by using improved hamming code. Comparison between the existing and proposed router is carried out to analyze the various parameters. From the obtained results, it is illustrated that the proposed NoC router offers high speed, Low area and the highest probability of error detection than the existing NoC router. ModelSim and Xilinx ISE tools are used for simulation and synthesis process. Verilog HDL is used to design a different type of NoC router.

   

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Title: Test results for hydraulic drives of sucker-rod pumping units
Author (s): Sergey Lavrenko, Ivan Klushnik and Vladimir Iarmolenko
Abstract:

The article analyzes the structural characteristics of drives for sucker-rod pumping units (SRPU) used in oil production. It has been proven that it is important to make the use of pumping units for oil production more efficient, i.e. to reduce specific power consumption when extracting formation fluids, to make pumping unit nodes more reliable, to implement intelligent monitoring and control stations for comprehensive assessment of well-SRPU system performance as well as to control drive parameters in a wide range. We hereby present the results of pilot tests of hydraulic SRPU. It is proven that hydraulic SRPU drives are optimal for developing newly commissioned wells, for periodic and short-term operation of wells, as well as removing asphaltene deposits.

   

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Title: Experimental investigation on performance of low temperature multilayer insulation
Author (s): Shivang Naik, Shebaz A. Memon, Anand Bhatt and Niraj K. Shah
Abstract:

Heat leakage is a common problem involving cryogenics applications. Sometimes it is undesirable and should be maintained at the minimum level. At low temperature, it becomes more difficult to remove a given amount of heat and discharge it at ambient temperature. These unwanted heat leakage accounts into an economic burden and acts as a barrier in cryogenic applications. Therefore the cryogenic vessels and transfer lines are insulated with different types of Multi-Layer Insulations (MLI) which are very effective. MLI consists of alternate layers of high reflective shields or foils and separated by low thermal conductivity spacers. One of the most effective cryogenics insulations (MLI) involves a high vacuum. It is known that in high vacuum radiation plays a major role because gas conduction and convection are negligible. In order to improve mechanical strength and ease of application, Plastic materials like Mylar and Fiberglass are coated with Aluminum foil. The spacers for MLI are made of high resistive material. For the estimation of heat transfer, Apparent Thermal Conductivity must be known. Due to unpredictable changes in parameters such as uniform contact pressure and interstitial pressure, accurate theoretical performance of MLI is very difficult. Thus an experimental investigation has been carried out on a few indigenous MLI materials like Fiberglass cloth, R P Tissue, Nylon net etc. For that, a cylindrical boil off calorimeter has been developed and standardized for testing of the thermal performance of insulation. Its measurement principle for determining heat flux (Q) and Apparent Thermal Conductivity (KA) of a test specimen at fixed conditions. The present work is to develop optimum combination of shield and spacer from available materials (Aluminum foil- Fiberglass cloth, Aluminum foil-R P Tissue, Aluminum foil- Nylon net) by experimental investigation of apparent thermal conductivity.

   

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Title: Mathematical model of the cylinder rotational oscillation in air flow
Author (s): A. N. Ryabinin and N. A. Kiselev
Abstract:

The paper describes the mathematical model of the rotational oscillations of the elastically fixed cylinder with flat stabilizer in the airflow. The cylinder has the single degree of freedom. It can rotate around axis that is perpendicular to cylinder axis and air velocity vector. The ratio of the length and the diameter of the cylinder is equal to 2. The model predicts the oscillation of the cylinder with constant amplitude. Two cases are considered. In the first case, the cylinder has only stabilizer. In the second case, the cylinder has not a stabilizer and is supported by elastic holder. Predictions of the mathematical model are verified in the wind tunnel experiments.

   

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Title: Biochar from coconut frond as adsorbent for malachite green dye removal
Author (s): Shalney Pohs, Shafira Mahusin, Rosmawani Mohammad and Mardawani Mohamad
Abstract:

The use of low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent has been explored as alternatives to the current expensive pollutants removal methods. In this study, biochar from coconut frond (BCF), an agricultural waste was investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye, Malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Factors affecting dye adsorption such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and pH were investigated in a batch mode. BCF was prepared at a carbonization temperature of 800°C which resulted in the best percentage of MG removal (> 99%) at the optimized condition. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms have been employed to study the adsorption mechanism and favorability. The adsorption of MG dye using BCF was best explained based on the Langmuir model with the adsorption capacity of 126.58 mg/g. The result showed that the BCF has the potential as an efficient adsorbent for MG dye removal in aqueous solution.

   

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Title: Comparative study of steel and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars in RC members
Author (s): Rifat Resatoglu and Muhammad Sagir Muhammad
Abstract:

Corrosion of steel reinforcements is one of the main problems in reinforced concrete structures that shortens their serviceability and reduces their strength. The RC structures in coastal environments are usually exposed to early deterioration and damage due to the existing extreme conditions that initiates corrosion. Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar is regarded as a next generation substitute material to conventional steel bars. This paper focuses on the behavior of GFRP reinforcement bars and steel reinforcement bars in RC members in terms of bonding and flexure. The flexural behaviours were compared experimentally and using finite element analysis (ABAQUS). 6 beam specimens were used having dimensions 750x150x150mm and were subjected to four-point bending test until failure. Reinforcement ratios of 1%, 1.4% and 2.1% were adopted using each type of the reinforcement bar. The ultimate load capacity and flexural strength of the steel RC beams was higher than GFRP RC beams, the failure modes experienced in both beam are generally shear failures but the GFRP RC beams exhibited more flexural cracks. The crack width of GFRP RC beams was higher than steel RC beams but is independent of the reinforcement ratios. The finite element analysis results closely agree with the experimental results.

   

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Title: Simple maximum power point tracker based on perturb and observe technique for PV module
Author (s): E. T. El Shenawy and Aiat Hegazy
Abstract:

Solar energy can play an important role in solving the energy problems in those countries lie in the Sun Belt. Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the useful applications for solar energy. For any PV module, both current and voltage vary proportionally to the load and the solar radiation level as a nonlinear relation, which causes the continuous variation of the maximum power point (MPP). Since the maximum power for a certain load can be taken from the PV module at a distinct point for each radiation level, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) can be used to follow the optimum operating point. This paper presents design and build a simple MPPT based on perturb and observe technique for a small DC load driven by a PV module. The experimental results showed that using the proposed MPPT promotes a good matching between the PV module and its load. According to the good matching, the daily output energy can be increased by about 37-42% more than that of the direct coupling between the load and the PV module.

   

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Title: Optimized Memory Polynomial with Binomial reduction in Digital Pre-distortion for wireless communication systems
Author (s): Hong Ning Choo, Nurul Adilah Abdul Latiff, Pooria Varahram and Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali
Abstract:

The non-linearity of the Power Amplifier (PA) causes signal amplitude and phase distortion which contributes to Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI). Moreover, today’s inevitable increasing bandwidth and transmission speed causes Memory Effects, an undesired scattering of the PA output signal. Among various PA linearization methods, Digital Pre-distortion (DPD) stands out due to its balanced advantages and trade-offs in implementation simplicity, bandwidth, efficiency, flexibility and cost. An accurate modeling of the PA is required by the DPD, where the highly popular Memory Polynomial Method (MP) is used to model the PA with Memory Effects but with reduced complexity. This project presents the Memory Polynomial with Binomial Reduction method (MPB) which is a performance optimized MP with reduced addition and multiplication operations. When compared to MP, MPB is capable of achieving improvements in Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) of up to 35dB. The MPB and MP methods are simulated/compared using a modeled ZVE-8G Power Amplifier and sampled 4G (LTE) signals.

   

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