ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                      September 2019  |  Vol. 14  No. 18
   
Title: Pressurized hot water extraction of carrageenan and phenolic compounds from Eucheuma cottonii and Gracilaria Sp.: Effect of extraction conditions
Author (s): Siti Machmudah, Widiyastuti, Wahyudiono, Hideki Kanda, Sugeng Winardi and Motonobu Goto
Abstract:

This work was focused on the investigation of the extraction parameters influence on the yield of carrageenan and phenolic components as well as the antioxidant activity of extracts. Pressurized hot water extraction of carrageenan and phenolic components from Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) and Gracilaria Sp. was performed in a semi-batch system at various pressures of 1 - 10 MPa and temperatures of 120 - 200 oC. Carrageenan and phenolic compounds were characterized by using FT-IR and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The yields of carrageenan and phenolic components were strongly influenced by the alteration of extraction temperature. The highest extraction yield was resulted at 200 oC for 97% of carrageenan yield and 22 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dried sample for phenolic components extracted from E. cottonii. The results confirmed that pressurized hot water extraction is an effective technique to isolate bioactive components from macroalgae and can be an advanced technique for utilization of biomass components.

   

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Title: Optimization of surface roughness using RSM and ANN modelling on thin-walled machining under biodegradable cutting fluids
Author (s): M. Yanis, A. S. Mohruni, S. Sharif and I. Yani
Abstract:

Precise milling of thin-walled components is a difficult task process owing to the geometric complexity and low stiffness connected with them. This paper is concerned with a systematic comparative study between predicted and measured surface roughness. RSM and ANN applied in prediction and optimization of milling thin-walled steel components. Cutting speed, feed rate, radial and axial depth of cut are the main affecting process parameters on surface roughness. In order to protect our precious environment, this work utilized vegetable oil as biodegradable cutting fluids that resolve the lowest amount of ecological contamination provide well economic conditions. The milling have done under flood cooling and using uncoated carbide as cutting tool. The results indicate that the RSM and ANN models are very close to the experimental results, ANN predictions show better convergence than the RSM model. The best of surface roughness value (0.314 µm) can be achieved with a desirability of 98.6%, cutting speed, feed rate, radial and axial depth of cut were 125 m/min, 0.04 mm/tooth, 0.25 mm and 10 mm, respectively. The best configuration of the ANN structure was 4-16-1. The feed rate cause most significant effect on surface roughness, followed by axial and radial depth of cut.

   

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Title: Hybrid free-obstacle path planning algorithm using image processing and geometric techniques
Author (s): Fernando Martinez S., Fredy H. Martinez and Holman Montiel
Abstract:

This paper shows a hybrid path planning algorithm based on image processing and geometric techniques, where the main idea is to obtain a free-obstacle path for a mobile robot over a known environment through a camera located in top of it. The algorithm uses image processing operations like dilation, skeletonization, image convolution among others, combined with simple geometric operations like distance between points and middle point calculation. Those operations had the goal to find some amount of navigable points including the starting point to the ending one. The A* algorithm was used to select the shortest combination of navigable points to take the mobile robot through, avoiding all the obstacles in the environment. Some reduction rules were implemented into the proposed algorithm with the purpose of decreasing the number of key points and/or navigable points and thus optimizing the density of the navigable network reducing the total computing time. Finally, the result of testing this approach over a total of 8 different navigation environments are displayed, comparing the number of obstacles and their relationship with the computing time.

   

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Title: An improvement of reservoir rule curves for increasing storage capacity
Author (s): Anongrit Kangrang, Rattana Hormwichian Pairot Pramual and Komgrit Wongpakam
Abstract:

Reservoir rule curves are necessary guide lines for both flood and drought control in operating multipurpose reservoirs. As sure storage enough water for next dry season controlling by rule curves with the maximum storage at the end of rainy season. This study applied the conditional genetic algorithm and reservoir simulation model to improve reservoir rule cures for storing the highest capacity at the end of rainy season. Historic inflow data and future inflow data under a climate change scenario were used in searching procedure. Three large reservoirs in the northeast region of Thailand were considered for this study-Ubolrat reservoir, Lampao reservoir and Nam Oon reservoir. The future inflow and the synthetic inflow were used to evaluate the efficiency of the newly obtained rule curves. The situations of water shortage and excess water as well as the stored water at the end of the wet season were used for describing the performance. The results showed that the optimal rule curves with objective function of maximum storage at the end of wet season can provide more stored water at the end of wet season than when other rule curves are used. The obtained rule curves can control the maximum storage at the end of rainy season and mitigate situations of water shortage and water excess better than the current rule curves.

   

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Title: Prediction of humidity in weather using logistic regression, decision tree, nearest neighbours, naive bayesian, support vector machine and random forest classifiers
Author (s): G. Sujatha, Chinta Someswara Rao and T. Srinivasa Rao
Abstract:

The ultimate objective of this system is to predicting the variation of humidity in the weather over a given period. The weather condition at any instance is described by using different kinds of variables. Out of these variables, significant variables only are used in the weather prediction process. The selection of such variables depends strongly on the location. The existing weather condition parameters are used to fit a model and by using the machine learning techniques and extrapolating the information, the future variations in the parameters are analyzed.

   

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Title: Physico - Mechanical properties of NBR/SBR blends
Author (s): Abadir E., Al-Mersafy S., Esmaeel A., Hadhod M. and Makarem M.
Abstract:

Three compatibilizing agents (maleic anhydride, styrene maleic anhydride and styrene butyl acrylate) have been added to NBR/SBR blends to improve the phase morphology and interfacial adhesion, thereby improving the physical & mechanical properties of the blend. The physico-mechanical properties such as rheological properties, tensile stress and sorption properties were examined, for different formulae of NBR/SBR blends. The sorption of toluene into non- compatibilized NBR/SBR blends was studied. Pure SBR and 50/50 blend NBR/SBR showed the minimum sorption and the highest mechanical properties. Three different compatibilizers where added at a different levels to 50/50 NBR/SBR blend and their effect on swelling diffusion coefficient, transport mechanism, tensile stress and elongation at break were studied. It observed that the rheological properties are not affected with the kind of compatibilizer or its doses. the best value of tensile strength and elongation percentage at the break can be obtained when add 0.6 phr of maleic anhydride, 4 phr of styrene maleic anhydride and 4 phr of styrene butyl acrylate as a compatibilizer with NBR/SBR 50/50. Less sorption of toluene is showed with high amount of maleic anhydride or styrene maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer, and also when used butyl acrylate as a compatibilizer at 2 phr. Diffusivity reduced at the higher doses of either maleic anhydride or styrene maleic anhydride in the blend and it increased at a dose of 6 phr of styrene butyl acrylate as a compatibilizer.

   

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Title: Experimental and analytical investigation of hybrid textile reinforced concrete in flexure
Author (s): Shaik Jeelani and P. Sriram
Abstract:

Textile reinforcement was made up of non-corrosive materials and its structural application is very large based upon its properties. The paper deals with the behaviour of thin shells reinforced with textile reinforced concrete in both experimentally and analytically in flexure. The size of the specimen used was 1200mm x 250mm x 50mm“tested under the four point bending load” test. The Thin shells was reinforced with S-glass textile reinforced concrete with fully replaced the steel reinforcement. The experimental result shows that the load and deflection varies accordingly by changing the thickness of textile layers in the shells. It was observed that failure of due to inner shear slip resistance. From the results S-glass shows more load carrying capacity and deflections was controlled. Further analytical investigation was done to validate the experimental results. In analytical investigation, S-glass textile reinforced concrete with fully replaced with steel reinforcement. It was observed that the S-glass having more flexibility.

   

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Title: Numerical investigation of natural convection in a porous enclosure with a flush mounted heater on the bottom wall
Author (s): Sumona Huq, M. M. Rahman, M. F. Karim and M. R. Amin
Abstract:

In the present study, natural convection flows in a porous enclosure with a heater on the bottom wall have been investigated numerically. To change the heat transfer in the cavity, a heater is placed at different locations on the bottom wall of the cavity, while the top wall is considered to be cold and the vertical walls are kept adiabatic. The governing equations are obtained by applying the Brinkman extended Darcy flow Model and Boussinesq approximation to characterize heat flow paths along with the heat transfer rate. Finite element method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations with the specified boundary conditions. The parameters leading the problem are the Rayleigh number (Ra), Darcy number (Da), Thermal conductivity ratio of porous media (k), Prandlt number (Pr), length and location of the heater. To observe the effects of the heater locations at various length of heater on natural convection in the cavity, three different locations of heater at bottom wall for various heater length with different values of Ra varying in the range 104 to 106 are considered. Simulated results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number at the hot wall in the cavity for the mentioned parameters. The results show that the length, locations of the heater and Rayleigh number have significant effect on the flow and thermal fields as well as the rate of heat transfer from the heated wall.

   

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Title: Effect of sample dimension on effective shear strength parameters of remolded sedimentary residual soil
Author (s): Farah Wahida Mohd. Latib, Mohd. Raihan Taha, Anuar Kasa and Zulhafizal Othman
Abstract:

The residual sedimentary soil is one of the largest residual soils in peninsular Malaysia. Its vast presence enables engineering activities to use this type of residual soil in the construction sector such as in construction of retaining walls and roads. Nevertheless, this residual soil often brings in heterogeneities because it is structurally complex and extensively weathered in most places which it can cause a structure to fail. This can be solved by determining the value of the shear strength parameter of the soil in a particular area. In order to determine the effect of sample’s dimension on the effective shear strength parameters of the samples, consolidated drained (CD) triaxial test was conducted on two different diameters size of 38 mm and 50 mm. This study shown that is has a significant effect in different sizes of sample used. 22.5 kPa and 32° were recorded for effective cohesion value, c' and effective friction angle, Ø’ for 38 mm soil samples and for 50 mm soil samples, the recorded c' and Ø’ values were 20 kPa and 30° respectively. 38 mm size soil sample recorded high values of both parameters. The small size of remolded sample will make soil particle denser hence reduce the void. This will not represent the actual condition on the site. As a result, by using small size samples for determining shear strength parameters can result in false value in designing while large sample dimension is more accurate representation of soil condition.

   

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Title: Performance analysis of Modified Geometric Codes
Author (s): Samer Issa and Osama Nashwan
Abstract:

Geometric Codes are a class of three different groups of codes that are easily implemented. This group of codes has greater efficiency over fading channels than regular forward error correcting codes. This paper presents a performance analysis of Modified Geometric Codes and studies the effects of the various parameters such as the number of bits per symbol, the number of parity lines and the code rate as well as compare their performance to the performance of Basic Geometric Codes.

   

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Title: Development of animal hazards in an accident profile chart and its application
Author (s): Siti Hawa Rosli, Farah Wahida Mohd. Latib, Mohd. Fakri Muda, Mohd. Razmi Zainudin, Zulfairul Zakariah and Mohd. Fairuz Bachok
Abstract:

An animal hazard by accident profile is a profile chart that classifies the risk of collision between animals and vehicles. It is described through a color-coded profile along the road. Through animal hazards by accident map, road users can accurately identify hotspots along roads that are at risk of collision with animals and take precautionary measures. Besides, local authorities can plan mitigation measures, so that collisions with animals can be avoided or at least minimized. The main thrust of profile charts is mass and velocity (speed) of animals as main indicators, while endangered animal as supporting indicator. The article discusses in detail the creation of the profile chart, in addition to its implication as an additional mitigation measure to deal with collision with animals on the road. Overall, road users and local authorities agree that profile charts and profile maps are mitigation measures capable of reducing accident rate involving animals, as well as easy to understand and being used. The only challenge regarding of utilizing the profile chart is to ensure that the collection of comprehensive, valid and prompt of animal accident information.

   

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Title: The development of archery games using Motion Capture and VR devices on archery virtual reality
Author (s): Riki Prasetia Aprial, Tito Waluyo Purboyo and Anton Raharjo Siswo Ansori

Abstract:

Motion capture is the process of capturing motion information, and the location of the subject over time. Animation production is the largest user of the Motion Capture system, examples of applications like movies, broadcasts, games, production stages, demonstration, and more. Motion capture is an attractive method for making movements in computer animation. Motion capture techniques rely on recording and retrieval of movements of humans, animals and inanimate objects as 3-dimensional data. This motion capture technique has various ways of applying it. With the development of technology as it is today, a new technology has been created, namely virtual reality. Virtual reality is a technology that allows us to interact with objects of imagination by using computers and displaying a 3-dimensional atmosphere that seems real. Virtual reality technology has also been widely used in the game world. Game is one of the entertainment media that is the choice of the community to eliminate boredom or just to fill their spare time. In addition to being an entertainment medium, games can also be a learning media to improve one's brain development. In this study, we will discuss archery games using motion capture and virtual reality (VR) devices on archery virtual reality.

   

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Title: Structural optimization of Go-kart chassis by geometrical modifications based on modal analysis
Author (s): A. A. Dere, M. Singh, A. Thakan and H. Singh
Abstract:

A chassis houses various key component such as the powertrain, suspension system and the bodywork of an automobile. Thus, the chassis must be robust enough to absorb the static and dynamic forces generated by these components to assure safety and superior rideability of an automobile. In this work, efforts were made to improve the static and dynamic characteristic of a Go-kart chassis by using the modal analysis. The results of the modal analysis were carefully examined and the members are geometrically modified on the basis of excessive deformation. At the termination of the of this analysis, it was observed that geometrical modification has not only improved the dynamic characteristic by 17.5% but also shown improvement in the stiffness and crashworthiness of the chassis.

   

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Title: Sustainable studies about general public transport performance in the city of Bogor
Author (s): Syaiful Syaiful and Yogi Pratama
Abstract:

Public Transport Passengers in Bogor City commonly called Angkot is one of the means of transportation used to serve community activities in the city of Bogor. Based on the decision of Mayor Bogor No.551.2.45-108.1 year 2017 about the determination of passenger route passenger trajectory in Bogor route network, there are 30 routes for passenger services, there are 3 routes serving strategic locations such as some public facilities such as: 06 pass through Pakuan University , 07 passes Merdeka Market, 11 pass through Baranangsiang Terminal. Therefore, these three routes must be re-evaluated in order to meet the minimum service standards (SPM) Bogor City. Based on the evaluation result using technical guidance of public transportation in urban areas in fixed and regular route for determination of city transportation fleet and SK Dirjen 687/2002 and parameters of Word Bank standard obtained public transportation performance in Bogor city, especially route 06 (Ramayana - Ciheuleut), 07 (Terminal Merdeka-Ciparigi) and 11 (Pajajaran Indah - Pasar Bogor) are still below the established SPM and the number of public transport route 06 is reduced while 07 and 11 are added to close to the average number of vehicles operating daily.

   

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Title: The development of the Queue Management System that prioritize handicapped person
Author (s): Chin Pei Fen, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin, Kamaru Adzha Kadiran, Mohammad Bin Abdullah, Ahmad Khudzairi Khalid, Haszeme Bin Abu Kasim, Diana Che Lat, Roslizayati Razali and Noor Shazreen A. Rahman
Abstract:

Queue Management System is a system that manages the queuing number of the given customer in obtaining services. One of the problem arise normally is the long wait in the queue, due to system inefficiency regardless at the government or private sector. To make matter worse, some services in the current Queue Management System does not give any priority to elderly people, pregnant woman, and handicapped person. The purpose of this system is to propose a proof of concept of a Queue Management System that able to give priority to handicapped person automatically. This article presents the design of the Queue Management System that expected the result to prioritize handicapped person.

   

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Title: Study on hydrodynamics coefficients of SWATH Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV) Hullform for bathymetry survey activities
Author (s): Ahmad Fauzan Zakki, Aris Triwiyatno, Bandi Sasmito and Insanu Abdilla Cendekia Abar
Abstract:

In this study, numerical modeling and simulation of an Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV) using Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) Hullform are shown. The paper emphasizes on the estimation of maneuvering performance of the ASV hullform which is needed to model the hydrostatic behavior, added mass of ASV, hydrodynamic characteristics and control surface forces and moments. The systematic computational fluid dynamic modeling was made to estimate the hydrodynamics forces of the submerged body of the SWATH Hullform. From initial design and prototype testing, a numerical analysis using computational fluid dynamics simulation is used to estimate the hydrodynamics coefficients in order to determine the control of maneuvering system of the SWATH Hullform. The various angles of attack will be considered to obtained the drag, lift and moment coefficients. The developed computational method is able to determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of SWATH Hullform for Autonomous Surface Vehicles (SWATH-ASV).

   

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Title: Experimental study of deformation and pore water pressure for embankment on soft soil using Rapid Impact Compaction
Author (s): Arifin B., Lawalenna Samang, Tri Harianto and Achmad Bakri Muhiddin
Abstract:

This study was conducted to analyze the deformation behavior and increases of pore water pressure on an embankment construction on the clay soil layer which is compacted using the Rapid Impact Compaction (RIC) Method. In this study, an equipment model was used that can simulate the RIC method which was electro-mechanically controlled at frequency of 30-40 blows per minute. The compaction test mold has a diameter of 80 cm and height of 120 cm, tested clay layer has a thickness of 80 cm and the sand-and-gravel embankment has a thickness of 30 cm. The clay layer was attached with pore pressure cell and earth pressure cell. An ultra-sonic sensor and a dial gauge were put on the surface. The compaction process with RIC was carried out up to 300 blows using a 45kg impact mass, falling height of 15 cm, impact base diameter (B) of 30 cm. The results showed the achievement of 90% of maximum vertical deformation on the impact foot occurred at 175 blows and heaving surfaces occurred at a distance of 0.80B from the center of the impact base, while at the 300 blows, the heaving surfaces distance was 0.90B. The analysis showed the generation of excess pore water pressure following the phenomenon of undrained conditions in the cyclic dynamic loading, where there was a very fast increases of pore water pressure at the 55 first of blows of the initial stage of compaction and then the increase rate reduced until reaching the constant line after the 175 blows.

   

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Title: New model of brittleness index to locate the sweet spots for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs
Author (s): Omer Iqbal, Maqsood Ahmad and Eswaran Padmanabhan
Abstract:

Rock characterization in term of brittleness is necessary for successful stimulation of shale gas reservoirs. High brittleness is required to prevent healing of natural and induced hydraulic fractures and also to decrease the breakdown pressure for fracture initiation and propagation. Several definitions of brittleness and methods for its estimation has been reviewed in this study in order to come up with most applicable and promising conclusion. The brittleness in term of brittleness index (BI) can be quantified from laboratory on core samples, geophysical methods and from well logs. There are many limitations in lab-based estimation of BI on core samples but still consider benchmark for calibration with other methods. The estimation of brittleness from mineralogy and dynamic elastic parameters like Young’s modulus, Poison’s ratio is common in field application. The new model of brittleness index is proposed based on mineral contents and geomechanical properties, which could be used to classify rock into brittle and ductile layers. The importance of mechanical behavior in term of brittle and ductile in shale gas fracturing were also reviewed because shale with high brittleness index (BI) or brittle shale exist natural fractures that are closed before stimulation and can provide fracture network or avenues through stimulation. The brittle shale also has low breakdown pressure and no fracture healing as compared to ductile shale. The integration of laboratory and geophysical methods (determination of P and S waves from well logs) are recommended for accurate estimation of brittleness index (BI) for shale gas reservoirs.

   

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Title: Improving the efficiency of manufacturing fine-grained concrete through the use of man-made sands and composite binders
Author (s): Kalys Shadykanov
Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to substantiate the need for utilization of man-made sands and sands of mechanical origin obtained from local rocks as a result of mining, processing into crushed stone and sawn materials. The use of waste products contributes to the expansion of the raw materials base of the construction industry, increase in the number of composite binders when used as a filler, large-scale propagation of fine-grained concrete for various products along with minimization of material and energy costs, expanding the practice of using stone-crushing, stone-sawing products and managing new technologies for environmental conservation. The decision to utilize man-made waste materials (sands) of mechanical origin is particularly important for large-scale expansion of the production of fine-grained concrete for a region where no metal (reinforcement steel) is manufactured.

   

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Title: Proposal of an algorithm based on cellular automata to eliminate noise in digital images
Author (s): Karen V. Angulo-Sogamoso, Danilo G. Gil-Sierra and Helbert E. Espitia-Cuchango
Abstract:

A cellular automaton is a processing system that makes decisions based on the information of its neighbors. Implementing a cellular automaton can have a direct relationship with the form of digital images representation, whereby it is possible to perform image processing applications using this concept. Due to this, this document presents the proposal of an algorithm based on cellular automata for the elimination of impulsive noise in digital images, which makes use of the adaptation mechanism to adjust to the environment conditions (in this case, the image) at the moment that the information acquired by the cellular automaton is insufficient to make a decision about the pixel under evaluation. In addition, thanks to the consideration of related works, an evaluation method can be established to observe the performance of the proposed algorithm against two algorithms presented by other authors. Tests are carried out with four images that have different characteristics. In evaluating the images exposed to different noise levels, the results obtained show that the proposed algorithm presents better according to the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM), since at noise levels between 10% and 90% improvements in noise reduction range between 15% and 68%.

   

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Title: Performance improvement of Diaphragm Wall at high rise building by value engineering utilization
Author (s): Albert Eddy Husin
Abstract:

Diaphragm Wall (D-Wall) is a retaining wall which is also used for basement floor walls which are part of a lower structure which contributes 8% of the total cost of high-rise building construction is a job that has a high enough level of difficulty so that it has the potential to experience cost overrun. According to World Bank data that 63% of 1,778 projects experienced Over-run Cost Value Engineering (VE) used to produce more efficient and effective costs and time so as to increase profit and revenue for contractors and owners. Statistical analysis uses the Relative Importance Index (RII) method to get the ranking of the 10 most influential factors on cost savings including: Location, Picture completeness and specification, Cost efficiency, Improving function value, Better project value, Mature planning, Hole ground collapse drill, Low productivity tools, Cost Model and price fluctuations. From the results of the study Analysis of the case study obtained cost optimization of 18.83%.

   

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