ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                    November 2017  |  Vol. 12  No. 21
   
Title: Critical study of sub-surface aquifer layer for groundwater availability based on electrical resistivity survey: A part of Dhalai Tripura, India
Author (s): Jayanta Debbarma, Sanchaita Das, Chandra Debbarma, Malabika Biswas Roy and Pankaj Kumar Roy
Abstract:

In Tripura, there are many rivers and most of the rivers are almost dry due to high amount of silt carries from higher altitude and deposits as well at river bed. Thus quantitative as well qualitative results of surface water is not the sustainable resource for supplying for the different stakeholder and thus groundwater has the alternative source to meet the demand for the high density population in the state like Tripura. Dhalai Tripura located in the north east state of India has a good amount of coarse sand for groundwater development dependent. A critical study is undertaken to assess the groundwater availability in the sub-surface aquifer using vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey at nineteen locations with a total of thirty eight points spread over the area. The study results depict resistivity values ranging between 30 ohm and 150 ohm are found to be good aquifer zone with the thickness varied between 36 m and 44 m. Thus it concludes VES survey could be an alternative method to assess the groundwater potential at present and future scenario by reducing the overall project cost and also to reduce the chances of failure for making bore well in the same or nearby critical areas for all stakeholders.

   

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Title: Distributed Environment: Security mechanism design structure and security implementation for data distribution
Author (s): Jai Pratap Dixit, Neelendra Badal and Syed Qamar Abbas
Abstract:

Distributed Environment is that can evolve their different behaviors based on their changes in data distribution area. In this paper, we discuss security mechanism design issues and propose security metrics issues also in the context of distributed environment. A key premise with design layouts of distributed environment is that in order to detect their changes, authentication and information must be collected by different approaches of monitoring in environment. How design approaches should be done, what steps should be monitored, and the impact of monitoring may have on the security mechanism of the design issues in target system need for carefully considered. Conversely, the impact of security mechanism design layouts on the securing of data distribution environment. We propose a different design issues in security metrics that can be used to quantify the impact of different monitoring on the distributed security mechanism issues of the target distributed environment.

   

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Title: Study of Dimple Texture wear characteristics by experimental method
Author (s): Shiva Rahul Tummala and Arasu
Abstract:

Various approaches has been proposed in order to improve tribological behavior, some of which are lubrication, coating, and surface modification such as texturing, which is the center of attention of this work. Dimple Texture Forming is the proposed area of study. Dimple Texture Forming in friction pairs is one of the wear reduction techniques. In most of the contact mechanisms, the materials chosen for two contacting parts are different; the reason behind this is wear happens on both the parts since they are of same material. For example, in case of shaft and bearing, it is difficult to replace the shaft since it is cost effective, whereas bearing can be replaced easily; so shaft is made of different material compared to bearing. But if we can use dimples texturing on any of the mating parts, same material can be used for both the contacting parts, and this is the main area of study in this work. By texturing the surface with Dimples, the value of surface roughness throughout the surface remains constant at peak; this eliminates the surface roughness variations on the surface of an un-textured surface, since it will be peak only at some places and varies throughout. In this work, different geometries of the Spherical and Elliptical Dimple Textures were formed using Laser Surface Texturing. The tribological performance of the sliding pair mainly depends on shape geometry and density of the patterned micro-texture features (dimples). The effect of these micro-dimples on friction properties were experimented by using Pin on Disc Tribometer ASTM G99 for a Brass disc mated with Brass pin (same material for both pin and disc). Concurrently, Un-textured surface frictional properties were also tested using Pin on Disc Tribometer ASTM G99. Compared to a smooth surface without texturing, some textured surfaces successfully indicated the Reduction of coefficient of Friction. Spherical dimples with 150 microns diameter and 75 micron depth provided the minimum coefficient of friction from the experiments. There was valid evidence proving that dimple shape and geometry was the optimum texturing solution to increase tribological properties. Results also indicted that optimum texture density might exist at which the surface shows the best Friction and Wear behavior.

   

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Title: Electronic and optical properties of Bi2Se3 topological insulator: A promising absorbing layer for broadband photodetection
Author (s): Abdullahi Lawal, A. Shaari R. Ahmed and Norshila Jarkoni
Abstract:

Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is a van der Waals compound which has been excellently reported as thermoelectric material. Linear dispersion near Fermi energy level is an exciting feature to consider, a promising candidate for photonic device within broadband wavelengths. For this application, detailed knowledge of its structural, electronic and optical properties is very essential. The electronic properties were determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations implemented in Quantum-Espresso simulation package which uses plane wave basis and pseudopotential for the core electrons. Optical properties are computed by solving Bethe-Salpeter equation of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as implemented in Yambo code. The band structure results show the semi conducting behavior of Bi2Se3. Taken into account the effects of electron-hole interaction by solving Bethe-Salpeter equation, the calculated optical properties are in better agreement with available experimental results. The exciton energy shows that the title material can absorb light within infrared region.

   

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Title: Investigation of process parameters on electrochemical micro machining of Cu-Zn-Sn alloy
Author (s): N. Jayakumar, R. Rajavel, A. R. Sivaram, P. Ramanathan and K. Srividhya
Abstract:

Electrochemical micro machining (EMM) is one among the advanced manufacturing techniques to drill holes of minute sizes, especially drilling holes with a diameter of below 1 mm. EMM offers quite a few advantages that include superior machining rate, enhanced precision and control and a wider group of materials that can be machined. These are pretty tough to accomplish through conventional machining process. In this investigation, parametric study of EMM was conducted to congregate the requirements of proficient micromachining. Machining voltage, Electrolyte concentration, and Pulse on time are the key process parameters that are significant for EMM. Performance of micro machining was observed during material removal rate (MRR) and over cut. The outcome of this examination illustrated that machining voltage and electrolyte concentrations are very important in affecting the performance characteristics.

   

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Title: Optimal speed control based on adaptive second order sliding mode and modified HSC MPPT algorithm for wind turbines
Author (s): Morad Hafiane, Jalal Sabor and Mohammed Taleb
Abstract:

Accurate control of the wind turbine at its optimal rotational speed for a given wind speed is required to extract maximum power from the wind turbine generator system in the absence of aerodynamic pitch control. Due to inherent wind turbine nonlinearities and unpredictable wind speed fluctuations, precise control is a difficult task to undertake. This paper presents a command strategy of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) which based on a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm with a modified Hill Climb Searching (HCS) and a sliding mode controller with adaptive twisting algorithm in order to achieve accurate tracking under the wind turbine’s nonlinear dynamics and fast wind changes. Simulation results for different situations highlight the performance of the proposed strategy under various wind speed operating conditions.

   

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Title: The role of TiC on the hardness and wear resistance of AA 7075 using GTA
Author (s): R. Prashanth, A. Shanmugasundaram, J. Abhinavaram, S. Jagadeesh, Sanjivi Arul and R. Sellamuthu
Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to improve the hardness and wear resistance of AA 7075 by reinforcing Titanium Carbide (TiC) particles onto the aluminium alloy surface using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as a heat source. Based on the number of trails, optimum GTA heat source parameters are finalized with reference to the proper fusion of base metal. After TiC is deposited onto the surface, three step post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was employed to improve the hardness and wear resistance. The material was solution treated followed by water quenching and artificially aged. The Dry sliding wear tests were conducted using a pin on disc wear testing equipment and the wear rates were calculated by using weight loss method. An inverse relationship was found between wear rate and hardness. The increase in the microhardness was found to be 33 %. The wear rate increased with increase in the load but reduced with respect to increasing sliding velocity. The variation of COF with hardness was found to be almost constant. A detailed material characterization of as received AA 7075, after TiC reinforcement and after heat treating AA 7075 substrate was done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), line - Energy dispersive X - ray spectrometry (Line-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques.

   

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Title: Experimental studies on Sisal Fibre Reinforced concrete with Groundnut Shell Ash
Author (s): Kanchidurai S., Nanthini T. and Jai Shankar P.
Abstract:

Fibre reinforcement usually increases the performance of the concrete in many aspects, this paper deal addition of Sisal Fibre Reinforcement (SFR) in concrete to improve the performance at the same time reducing cement consumption by replacing with Groundnut Shell Ash (GSA). These materials not just lessen the emanation of carbon dioxide gas in the climate additionally utilized as a substitute for the bond to take care without bounds demand. In the present work, GSA replacement for cement is 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%; SFR is added for each set percentage of GSA as 1, 2 and 3% by its weight. Na2CO3 treatment was carried out to reduce the potential deterioration of SF. The compressive strength, flexural bending strength, deflection of the beam and economic consideration for M25 concrete specimen was done. Totally 120 numbers concrete 150 x150 mm cube and 9 number of 100 x 150 x 800mm flexural member cast and tested. It is recommended up to 10% of replacement of cement by GSA and 2 % addition of SF provide optimum values from investigation and economic consideration.

   

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Title: ICI cancellation using normalized minimum mean square error in MIMO-OFDM systems
Author (s): R. Santhakumar and N. Amutha Prabha
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Today’s world emerges with wireless communication technology. The network performance can be improved by using efficient signalling and receiver techniques to increases the data rate. As the data rate increases, the occurrence off channel interference is high. The channel estimator is preferred to detect and reduce the interference. Multi Input Multi Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is implemented to enhance the high speed data transmission and to achieve high spectral efficiency. During signal transmission, the performance degradation caused due to inter carrier interference (ICI). To overcome the ICI, Normalized Minimum Mean Square Error (NMMSE) channel estimator provides high signal receiver rate and low bit error rate with less delay. The performance achievable rate increases and reduces channel attenuation. It also proved that the channel overhead is low due to high bandwidth at receiving end compared with the conventional estimators.

   

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Title: Transverse slab reinforcement design of concrete bridge deck: A review
Author (s): Najiyu abubakar, Redzuan Bin Abdullah, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh and Mohamad Salleh Yassin
Abstract:

This paper reviews the current design practices of transverse slab reinforcement design in concrete bridge deck, which consist of concrete deck slab on wide concrete T-beam. The conventional bridge design method results in the provision of excessive transvers steel reinforcement in the concrete bridge deck slab due to the fact that, the slab is assumed to bear the applied vehicular loadings alone without considering the contribution of the wide T-beam flanges. Thus, the design which is based on bending and failure proved to be too conservative. Through critical review, issues regarding some design approaches were discussed. It has been found that, designing the deck slab in transverse direction would enable the vehicle wheel loads to be supported by the wide T- beam flange and performance enhancement can be achieved by compressive membrane action resulted from the natural stiffness of the wide girder flanges. The presence of this membrane forces provides a punching shear capacity, which is far beyond the flexural design capacity for the new bridge deck system. This capacity would result in substantial reduction of the transverse reinforcement within the slab.

   

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Title: Integrating SSSC with variable structure observer based optimal controller for damping frequency oscillations of deregulated power system
Author (s): A. Ganga Dinesh Kumar and N. V. Ramana
Abstract:

In this paper design of integrated static synchronous series capacitor (SSSC) and variable structure system observer (VSSO) based optimal controller for damping of frequency oscillations in Multi Area Power System (MAPS) under deregulated environment is presented. A Thermal-Thermal power system is considered for simulation study. SSSC is a series connecting device which is connected with tie line of the system. The low frequency oscillations of system are minimized by designing the gain of SSSC. The high frequency oscillations are minimized by designing observer based optimal controller. The design of VSSO matrix is a function of transformed System matrix obtained from optimal sliding mode control law. The performance of deregulated system with integrated control strategy (SSSC+ VSSO based Controller) is tested and simulation results are presented and compared to Neuro Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (NFSMC) and PI controller.

   

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Title: Antibacterial activity and the hydrophobicity of silver nanoparticles loaded fabrics of nylon
Author (s): Eli Rohaeti and Anna Rakhmawati

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study antibacterial and hidrophobicity properties of nylon 6, 6 which coated nanoparticles - silver and hexadecyltrimetoxcysilane (HDTMS). The nanoparticle - silver was prepared with chemical reduction method by using tri-sodium citrate as reducing agent and PVA as stabilizer. Nanoparticle - silver is deposited on fabrics of nylon 6, 6 as antibacterial agent and HDTMS is coated on those as hydrophobic agent. The fabrics of nylon 6, 6 are characterized by analyzing the functional groups using ATR-FTIR, hydrophobic properties by measuring contact angle, and antibacteria properties by measuring clear zone. The addition of HDTMS compound can decrease intensity of absorption bands of functional groups but increase hydrophobicity property of nylon 6, 6. Nylon 6, 6 which coated nanoparticle silver and HDTMS has the highest antibacterial properties. The antibacterial properties of nylon 6, 6 before and after modification against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Eschericia coli 32518 are different. All samples have demonstrated a clear zone in inhibiting of growing bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 at all the incubation time.

   

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Title: Design and development of an oil preheating system to study the performance of a diesel engine
Author (s): Rajesh Nayak, Indrajith and Chandrakant R. Kini
Abstract:

When a diesel engine is cranked while the engine is cold, there is surface to surface contact between the moving parts of the engine such as the crank shaft and its journal bearings, the crank pin and the big end journal bearing of the connecting rod etc. The lubricating oil in the sump requires some time to absorb heat from the combustion process of the engine and reach its optimum operating temperature and viscosity and form a complete lubrication film between all the moving and contact surfaces of the engine. There is high friction and wear between the moving components of the engine until the lubrication film has been formed .It is estimated that approximately 40% of the total wear in an engine during its operating lifespan occurs when the engine is idling to reach its optimum operating temperature. Therefore if oil can be pre heated to its optimum operating temperature before cranking the engine, the oil will form a complete lubrication film in a shorter period of time and it would be possible to reduce idling time, wear and tear between components, fuel consumption, emissions and save time and money in terms of running costs of the engine during the long term operation of the engine. The objectives of this project are to fabricate an oil pre heating system to suit the operating requirements of a 2 cylinder 4stroke Kirloskar diesel engine and to conduct performance tests on the Kirloskar engine equipped with the oil pre heating system to study and analyze the effect of pre heating oil its efficiency parameters.

   

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Title: Optimal placement of Unified Power Quality Conditioner using Particle Swarm Optimization method
Author (s): M. Laxmidevi Ramanaiah and M. Damodar Reddy
Abstract:

This paper elucidates a Particle Swarm Optimization method (PSO) for optimal placement of Unifed Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for loss reduction and voltage profile improvement in the radial distribution systems. UPQC comprises of a series and a shunt compensator. The shunt compensator delivers reactive power to meet the load reactive power demand. The series compensator takes part in voltage compensation. This paper gives an insight into the usefulness of UPQC in which the series compensator also shares part of the reactive power in steady state conditions such that the UPQC is utilized optimally. PSO is utilized to decide the optimal location and rating of UPQC. The proposed optimization method is applied to standard distribution systems.

   

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Title: Excess molar volumes, speeds of sound and viscosities for binary mixtures of 2-methylaniline with selected di- and tri – chloro substituted benzene at various temperatures - Comparison with Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory
Author (s): Muvva Raghavendra, A. Venkatesulu, K. Sambasiva Rao, K. Ravindhranath
Abstract:

The densities (p), speeds of sound (u), and viscosities (η)are reported for binary mixtures of 2-methylaniline with di- and tri- chloro substituted benzenenamely,1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene over the entire composition range at T = (303.15 - 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure 0.1 MPa. The excess properties such as excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility and deviation in viscosity are calculated from the densities, speeds of sound and viscosities. The excess functionsare correlated by the Redlich – Kister equation. The partial molar volumes, partial molar isentropic compressibilities, excess partial molar volumes and excess partial molar isentropic compressibilities are calculated for all the binary systems throughout the composition range and at infinity dilutions. The VE results are analyzed in the light of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory. Analysis of each of the three contributions namely, interactional, free volume and P*contribution to VE has shown that the interactional contribution is positive for all systems and the free volume and P* contributions are negative for all the mixtures. The variations of these parameters with composition and temperature are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions prevailing in these mixtures.

   

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Title: Analysis of departure from nucleate boiling in bundle using a subchannel analysis code
Author (s): Taewan Kim
Abstract:

The accurate prediction of the departure from nuclear boiling is critical in securing the safety of boiling systems. Especially, the departure from nucleate boiling has a particular importance in reactor core of a nuclear power plant system since the phenomenon itself can indicate the soundness of the nuclear fuel cladding against the failure. The departure from nucleate boiling in the core has been analyzed by means of subchannel analysis codes. Thus, it is of importance to assess the prediction capability of subchannel analysis codes for departure from nucleate boiling against experimental data. In this study, the subchannel analysis code, FLICA4, has been assessed against bundle experiments conducted at NUPEC experimental facility. The assessment has been conducted for steady-state cases and the results indicate that FLICA4 predicts slightly lower departure from nucleate boiling power. Considering the accuracy of Groeneveld look-up table and the uncertainties in the experimental data, it is concluded that the prediction by FLICA4 is conservative and acceptable. An assessment of the critical heat flux models of FLICA4 has been carried out. The Groeneveld look-up table and the W3 correlation have been examined. The results reveal that the Groeneveld look-up table predicts more conservative departure from nucleate boiling power with better accuracy than the W3 correlation. Therefore, it is recommended to employ the Groeneveld look-up table to estimate the critical heat flux.

   

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Title: Designing a building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV) for residential façade: Case study in Egypt
Author (s): Nermin Mokhtar Farrag and Shaimaa Omran
Abstract:

Residential buildings consume more than 40% of the electricity in Egypt. Limited energy resources impact critically the energy usage in buildings. Moreover, there is an increasing demand for development of sustainable buildings. Incorporating solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into buildings which are referred to as building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) systems is an attractive solution to alleviate the energy problem. It is considered a good alternative to centrally located utility and at the same time replaces conventional building elements. This paper investigates the implementation of a BIPV system for a residential villa in Egypt, highlighting the energy produced by such system and accordingly the reduction in emissions.

   

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Title: Enhancement of security related to ATM installations to detect misbehavior activity of unknown person using video analytics
Author (s): K. Kajendran and A. Pravin
Abstract:

Almost everyone in the world use Automated Teller Machine (ATM) to either withdraw or deposit money from the bank account. However, most ATM Machines are prone to security risk, security breach, even though every ATM is equipped with CCTV installation. Some of security risk involves at ATM centre includes damaging ATM machine and decamping with cash, damaging CCTV camera to erase the identity of who involved in the crime, installing skimmer machine to capture debit card details and PIN number to create fake debit card, attacking ATM users and looting their valuable money withdrawn from ATM machine, murdering security guard for the purpose of looting ATM, withdrawing money by using fake ATM card. ATM crime is on the raise in the recent years due to its remote location. To enhance ATM security and to protect ATM centre form untoward incidents, new form of security framework needs to be identified. This paper presents a solution to identify unusual activities at ATM premises. For efficient detection of unusual activity in the ATM premises, this paper proposes a new mechanism of different window size to capture action rich frame that helps us to identify unusual activity and alert anticrime cell to avert ATM crime. This paper also proposes idea of recognizing unusual sounds such as breaking ATM machine with rod, screaming sound of customer, bursting sound of pistol within ATM centre which generates high decibels than decibels generated by normal human conversation and alert bank personal about ongoing crime that helps to catch culprit red handed. This mechanism allows the system to send notification message to bank authorities about ongoing troublesome activities, even CCTV camera damaged by criminal.

   

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Title: EEG based diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder using Static and Dynamic Neural Networks
Author (s): Laxmi Raja and M. Mohana Priya
Abstract:

Electroencephalography (EEG) signals can be used to monitor the brain activities of all human beings. As a result, it can be used to detect abnormalities in the brain functioning. In this study, using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) EEG signals of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children were classified. Two neural network models namely Pattern Recognition Neural Network (Pattern Net) and Layered Recurrent Neural Network (LRN) were used. Auto regressive (AR) Burg and LRN combination were found to have the highest classification accuracy rate of 94.62%. Moreover, Bit Transfer Rate (BTR) of the signals were calculated for each network in order to evaluate the Human Machine Interface system performance. Maximum BTR of 6.08 bit/sec was achieved for AR Burg and LRN combination. The proposed method has obtained promising results. For the study, real-time dataset which was obtained from ASD children of various special schools in Coimbatore has been used.

   

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Title: Modeling the behavior of the CPU and the GPU versus the clusters number variation for sequential and parallel implementations of BCFCM algorithm
Author (s): Noureddine Ait Ali, Bouchaib Cherradi, Ahmed El Abbassi, Omar Bouattane and Mohamed Youssfi
Abstract:

Image segmentation plays a crucial role in the medical imaging analysis to diagnosis diseases. The FCM algorithm is a widely used technique in this field and still being under improvement by researchers either at accuracy or at time execution. BCFCM (bias field correction FCM) is a robust variant of FCM that segment and corrects the intensity in homogeneity artifact on medical images. However the algorithm is always a time consuming problem because of the powerful treatment requirement. GPU-based parallelism is one of the used solutions to enhance his efficiency in terms of execution time. In this paper we have studied and modeled the behavior of CPU and GPU hardware against the sequential BCFCM and the parallel PBCFCM implementations. The modeled results for i7 3.5 Ghz CPU and GTX 760 GPU considering the clusters number variation show interesting behaviors and are in good accordance to experimental ones.

   

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Title: Interior climate control of MIMO greenhouse model using PI & IP controllers
Author (s): Lammari K., Bounaama F. and Draoui B.
Abstract:

Climate control techniques in greenhouses are to improve plants requirements and prevent unnecessary power consumption. Several parameters may affect the growing of plants: internal air temperature, inside vapor pressure and Co2 concentration. The equilibrium of these settings is obtained by choosing the appropriate monitoring actions. Here we developed a dynamic and complex nonlinear coupled (MIMO) system of a horticultural greenhouse by using the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In this paper the most widely used proportional -integral (PI) controller was compared to the new integral -proportional (IP) controller.

   

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Title: Project estimation of development of complex technical systems at the designing stage under conditions of interval uncertainty using genetic algorithm
Author (s): A. E. Kolodenkova, V. V. Korobkin and E. A. Khalikova
Abstract:

Existing R & D advancements are accompanied by increase in complexity of developed engineering systems and facilities, involved in major critical industries, such as nuclear plant industry, oil and gas production, aircraft and defense industry, transport, and so on. At current stage the development of complex engineering systems (CES) is a labor consuming process, since it is related with significant expenditures of material and financial resources under risks stipulated by uncertainty of internal and external factors of project environment, it involves scientific researches, designing and experimental activities, field tests, and development of documentation. Increase in CES complexity results in increased designing times, decreased quality of CES, violation of CES designing terms, or just in project failure. Thus, high quality designing of CES under conditions of uncertainty is an urgent and significant problem for numerous modern enterprises. This work, aiming at elimination of risks, decrease in managerial errors adopted by project directors under conditions of interval uncertainty of initial data, proposes to apply estimation of time and cost of CES designing on the basis of genetic algorithm comprised of analysis of possible designing alternatives.

   

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Title: Least makespan scheduling algorithm for the hierarchical combined jobs with jobshop characteristics
Author (s): Y. -J. Lee
Abstract:

This paper aims to present the scheduling algorithm to minimize the makespan for the combined systems which has jobshop characteristics. Given the flow and hierarchy structure and the deterministic operation time of each job are given respectively, we derive the extended scheduling algorithm by modifying an existing jobshop algorithm. In addition, we present the algorithm application procedure to satisfying several different operation cases. Our proposed algorithm can be used to build the scheduling policy for the assembly industries with different flow structure and jobshop characteristics.

   

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Title: Consistent and energy competent routing protocol for mobile Ad Hoc networks
Author (s): M. Udhayamoorthi, P. Manimegalai and S. Karthik
Abstract:

The intention is to focus on the most thriving network i.e. the mobile ad hoc networks. The autonomous nature and the restricted energy capabilities of nodes regular path breakages occur which create improved energy indulgences. The aim of the design is a dependable and energy competent routing with nodes with improved energy levels. The scheme focuses on the minimization of energy utilization during path breakages by adapting an on demand local path revival scheme through a collection of supporting nodes termed as holdup nodes. The collaboration of the holdup nodes will minimize the energy utilization and considerably improves the consistency. The behavior of the designed scheme is estimated in terms of energy utilization, packet delivery ratio and end to end delays over the contradictory node and its packet size. The energy optimization and consistency is accomplished based on the designed scheme which offers an ultimate solution to the upcoming transmissions in mobile ad hoc network for a prolonged time.

   

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Title: Software for monitoring and control of Enzymatic extracts: A tool for research
Author (s): Fernando Gonzalez-Fernandez, Claudia Lorena Garzon-Castro and Erlide Prieto
Abstract:

A key aspect in bioprocesses is the monitoring and control of the physical variables that affect it. Hence, the tailor-made software development, capable of: reading, storing and graphing information of process variables is of vital importance to users. This article presents the development of SICOAVENZ (Automatic Variable Control System for Enzymatic Reactions), an application that communicates with a data acquisition board, to which sensors and actuators that allow interaction with a bioreactor are connected, in which an enzymatic extract is obtained. The software was developed under object-oriented programming using C # (C Sharp). Where it is shown that implementing low-cost systems using efficient, easy-to-manage and potentially scalable software architectures, is possible. It was also possible to develop a software that allows: 1) control pH and temperature variables, 2) keep a constant record of the behavior of these variables, 3) generate reports in Microsoft Excel, 4) handle information according to the role (Administrator or User) and 5) to observe through a video camera the experiment in progress. This development is characterized because it can: 1) have a wide range of application in different fields of action, 2) ensure reproducibility of the process and 3) give independence to scientific personnel.

   

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Title: An efficient Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm for the cell formation problem
Author (s): K. V. Durga Rajesh, P. V. Chalapathi, M. Nageswara Rao, Eshwar Krishna, K. Anoop and Y. Neeraj
Abstract:

CM (Cellular Manufacturing) is an essential GT (Group Technology) application that has been used in several real-world industrial applications. The problem of cell formation is considered as the first most important criteria in the design CMS (Cellular Manufacturing Systems) in order to minimize lead time and setup time to maximize productivity. In this paper, an efficient SFHA (Sheep Flock Heredity algorithm) is suggested for problem solving where the number of cells is not fixed a priori. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a set of 10 benchmark problems is used; the results are then compared with other methods by considering Grouping Efficacy parameter. From the results we can say that algorithm which is proposed has performed well on the standard problems.

   

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Title: Mobile aided improved trilateral localization by adopting random way point pattern
Author (s): P. Saleem Akram and T. V. Ramana
Abstract:

Localization plays a prominent in WSNs. It is essential because if one node contains information collected from physical entity to transfer and the location of other node which is meant to receive is not known then the information gathered becomes useless. The basic idea in localization involves placing GPS in each and every node in the network to know its location. It results in increase of cost. Moreover the efficiency of GPS is not Satisfactory in monitoring indoor applications. In localization, the distance between nodes is essential which will be calculated by using RSSI method. RSSI is adopted in many of the localization algorithms because of its low cost and simplicity. In ranging, Classical Trilateral algorithm is considered but it results distance errors due to instability in equations. The proposed mobile aided Trilateral method results in increasing the network lifetime, reducing the time of estimation, improving the signal strength besides minimizing the energy consumption of nodes. In this method the mobile node moving in random manner gathers the information of neighbouring nodes which will be further useful in Trilateral minimum condition method to localize the unknown nodes position. In this method the distance calculations are performed by mobile node resulting in the minimization of energy usage and distance error associated with neighbouring nodes. As a result the proposed mobile aided method produces the best results in case of signal strength and life time of network when compared to previous Classical Trilateral methods.

   

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Title: Manually controlled enhanced wireless intelligent fire fighting robot
Author (s): Sandip Gupta Farogh Ahmad S. Sundar and Shanmugasundaram M.
Abstract:

Expanding human populace and innovative improvement has prompt increment in flame mishaps and dangers. Unavoidable conditions and physical constraints of person make fire extinguishing a testing and demanding assignment. Fire extinguishing is an exceptionally unsafe undertaking and it might likewise include death toll. Robotics is the rising answer to ensure the safety of the surroundings and human lives. Fire extinguishing robot is an equipment model which can be utilized for extinguishing the fire amid flame mischances. It can decrease the blunders and constraints confronted by the people during the extinguishing process. Our outlined robot can seek the zone, find the fire and extinguish it before it turns out to be out of control. It can explore the building while effectively checking for fire. It can be operated remotely by any individual from anyplace on the planet using mobile phone or a laptop. With the assistance of Internet of Things and machine talking application, it can alert and notify the client about the status of the situation at that particular location. The robot which we have proposed in this paper has discovered its application in flame dousing operations amid flame mishaps where the likelihood of the servicemen to enter the fire inclined region is less.

   

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Title: A novel scheme for optical millimeter wave generation using MZM
Author (s): Poomari S. and Arvind Chakrapani
Abstract:

This paper proposes a radio-over-fiber system which employs a frequency multiplier scheme to generate optical millimetre wave (MMW) based on external modulation performed using two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators. By adjusting the direct current bias voltages of intensity modulator, modulation voltage and phase, the frequency quadrupling optical MMW signal is generated. The performance of the scheme is verified by transmitting the signal along the fiber over a distance of 40 km in terms of bit error rate (BER) performance and received power. The eye diagram is wide open and BER values are low for a data rate of 2.5 Gbps.

   

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Title: Review of solar thermal storage techniques
Author (s): Ali Mohammed Hayder, Azwan Bin Sapit and Qahtan Adnan Abed
Abstract:

For some time, solar energy has occupied ranked prime position in the renewable energy research field, due to the fact that it is an inexhaustible energy source. However, the main problem of solar energy is that it is an ‎intermittent source, due to it ‎‎dependence on the period of solar radiation. Consequently, ‎thermal energy storage is considered a ‎perfect ‎option to solve this problem. A thermal ‎energy storage unit works to enhance the ‎conservation of energy and hence, improve the ‎performance of the solar heating system. This paper reviews the literature concerning the ‎usefulness of using the most important two core components in solar heat applications: thermal solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems. It includes a ‎review and discussion of the different kinds of thermal solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems, including a latent ‎heat storage system, a sensible heat storage system, ‎and a hybrid ‎heat storage system. The thermal energy storage systems are studied in terms of ‎efficiency, thermal losses, the thermal conductivity of the material used for ‎storage, and ‎output temperature. The conclusions in this work suggest that latent ‎heat storage through phase change material (‎PCMs) is better than sensible heat storage, due to the higher ‎thermal energy storage density ‎of PCMs. The conclusions also indicate that the use of paraffin wax as a PCM gives ‎a better ‎performance compared to other phase change materials. In addition, the ‎thermal performance of the solar heating system can also be enhanced by increasing the thermal conductivity of ‎paraffin wax by adding other materials.‎

   

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Title: Mitigation of interferences in LTE systems
Author (s): Amutha Prabha N., Abhishek Gudipalli and Vidhya Sagar G.
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A channel independent pre-coding for MIMO-OFDM systems with insufficient cyclic prefix (CP) is proposed by using the notion of interference nulling. The proposed pre-coding is more bandwidth efficient than the conventional zero-padded (ZP) or CP added MIMO systems, such as, ZP-only and CP-OFDM, when the number of receiver antennas is not more than the number of transmitting antennas. OFDM is an enticing modulation technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over radio waves. Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) for MIMO-OFDM system is still a demanding area and a difficult issue. A novel phase offset scheme to reduce PAPR in Alamouti coded OFDM systems without side information (SI) is by multiplying different phase rotation sequences by their corresponding phase offsets at the transmitter. Moreover, at the receiver, a MED decoder is also proposed, and the phase offset with the minimum Euclidian distance is selected as the sign of phase rotation sequence used at the transmitter. In this way, the SI can be obtained by estimating the phase offset, since they are one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the proposed scheme does not need to reserve bits for the transmission of the SI, resulting in an increased data rate.

   

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Title: The variations of the 13c and 18o in the middle Permian rocks, Volga river outcrops, Russia
Author (s): N. G. Nurgalieva, M. P. Arefiev and V. V. Silantiev
Abstract:

Data on stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen of the Permian carbonate rocks play an important role to create geochemical frame of the Permian formations. The stable isotopes records reflect changes in chemical composition of carbonate rocks in dependence on regional and global factors in history of the Permian period. Variations of stable isotopes across the Middle Permian rocks correlate with the stratigraphic boundaries and paleo environmental changes.

   

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Title: Effect of double fuzzy logic controller (DFLC) based on power system stabilizer (PSS) on a tie- line two generators system
Author (s): Hayfaa Mohammed Hussein, Marizan Sulaiman, Rosli Omar and Mohd. Shahrieel Mohd Aras
Abstract:

This research was proposed a new type of power system stabilizer based on fuzzy set theory, to improve the dynamic performance of a multi-machine power system. To have good damping characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions, speed deviation and it is derivative of a machine are chosen as the input signals to the fuzzy stabilizer on that particular machine. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) Two area symmetrical systems connected via tie-line are measured to show via performance of these controllers. This research presents the analysis of change of speed (∆ω), change of angle position (∆δ) and tie - line power flow (∆p). In tie-line system two generators control arrangement single fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) have been used as a primary controller, whereas double fuzzy logic controller (DFLC) used as a secondary controller. In addition to this, the system shows comparative between two controller single and double fuzzy controller has been used for the system to achieve the best results using Simulink/MATLAB. Double fuzzy controller has a greater effect on the tie-line system and become more smoothing than single fuzzy controller because has increased the damping of the speed ??, angle rotor ?d and power ?p.

   

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Title: Evaluating damage to reinforced concrete during mechanical compression and bending tests
Author (s): Denis D. Dann, Tatyana V. Fursa, Konstantin Yu. Osipov and Maxim V. Petrov
Abstract:

The article proposes a method for evaluating damage to reinforced concrete subjected to uniaxial compression and four-point bending. The method is based on measuring and analyzing the parameters of electric and acoustic emissions and electric response to impact. It is established that the main signs marking the start of the cracking process are: the appearance of high-amplitude acoustic and electromagnetic emission signals changes in the spectral composition of the electrical signal, and the increased attenuation coefficient of the electric response's energy. Continuous or recurrent monitoring can be used to assess deterioration processes in reinforced concrete subjected to mechanical stress.

   

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Title: Design and analysis of pre mixed and non premixed combustion of FBC gasifier using wooden chips blended with waste transformer oil
Author (s): Sriram V., Vemula Kishore Kumar, Ramakrishna and Britto Joseph G.
Abstract:

Gasification is seen as an important technology for expanding the use of biomass and waste oil as an alternate fuel. The Fluidized Bed Combustion is used to efficiently combusts low-grade solid fuels, significantly reduces NOX and SOX emissions, and increases the heat recovery efficiency between solids and gases discharged from the process. The blending ratio was calculated by using practical analysis method. The FBC Gasifier of capacity 4 kg has been designed, and fabricated. Locally available wood chips blended with waste oil and used for gasification with proper blending ratio. Then the proximity and ultimate analysis of fuel has carried out for the fuel. The fuel was filled in the FBC gasifier then the fuel was burnt by supplying air from the air blower and it produces the smokes. This smokes are contains the producer gases. Finally composition of producer gas was analysed and temperature profile of reactor was also analysed under this study.

   

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Title: Grid computing for distributed neural networks: An approach
Author (s): Abhishek Gudipalli and M. Saravanan
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In this paper, we report the first evaluation of cooperation computing for artificial neural networks in distributed environment. Several performance-relevant factors are considered, including architecture of computing service, workflow and cooperation strategy. Evidence on basic processes and performance of such strategies of cooperation computing are reviewed. We also present a theoretical analysis of distributed-training strategies of neural networks for structure-distributed and data-distributed. We prove a strategy of distributed computing based on data-distributed is more feasibility for distributed neural networks, which makes training the neural networks more efficient. In the final, we concluded the evaluation by briefly considering selected open questions and emerging directions in construction of grid computing for distributed neural networks.

   

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Title: Application of artificial intelligence in energy efficient HVAC system design: A case study
Author (s): Priyabrata Adhikary, Sumit Bandyopadhyay and Susmita Kundu
Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (Artificial Neural Network-ANN, Fuzzy Expert System - FES, Genetic Algorithm - GA etc.) are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they can handle noisy and incomplete data are able to deal with non-linear problems and, once trained, can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. They have been used in diverse applications in control, robotics, pattern recognition, forecasting, medicine, power systems, manufacturing, optimization, signal processing and social/psychological sciences. They are particularly useful in system modelling, such as in implementing complex mappings and system identification. This study presents application of ANN in HVAC system design problem. It can also be used for the estimation of cooling or heating loads of buildings. In all those models, multiple hidden layer architecture has been used. Errors reported in these models are well within acceptable limits, which clearly suggest that artificial intelligence (ANN) can be used for modelling other fields of energy too. To the best of the author’s knowledge these novel approaches for application of Artificial Intelligence or Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in energy efficient HVAC system design is absent in thermal engineering or fluid mechanics literature due to its assessment complexity.

   

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Title: Harmonic reduction using hybrid power filter for three phase four wire system
Author (s): Mohit Singh Ahlawat R. Balasubramanian and K. Parkavi Kathirvelu
Abstract:

In this paper a hybrid filter which is a combination of series active filter and shunt passive filter is designed to mitigate the harmonics present the distribution system feeding unbalanced load. The control scheme is established on the PQ theory which is also knows as instantaneous theory. The control strategy is applied to eliminate the harmonics present in the load current of balanced and the unbalanced loads. The conventional PI controller has been implemented in the voltage and current loop of active power filter. In this topology, the passive filter compensation performance has been improved by series active filter. The proposed control strategy with the designed hybrid power filter is simulated in MATLAB simulink software and the results are presented.

   

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Title: Modelling and analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat from hot flue gases of Chulha
Author (s): Saravanna J. Y., Rahul Kantamnen, Nizvan Fasil, Seralathan Sivamani, Hariram V., Micha Premkumar T. and Mohan T.
Abstract:

The study on heating water for domestic applications by using low grade waste heat recovered from the exhaust flue gas of Chulha is analyzed theoretically as well experimentally. Two different material combinations are considered for the hot fluid domain (shell) and cold fluid domain (pipe). Theoretical analysis is carried out to estimate the time required to heat the water from its room temperature to 75oC by transfer of heat energy. Numerical investigations are carried out to validate the findings obtained theoretically. Time required in raising the water temperature from its room temperature of 27oC to 75oC is 8 hr for a stainless steel shell - stainless steel pipe combination WHRS. This heating time is reduced by around 4 hr using stainless steel shell - copper pipe combination WHRS. Using biogas as a fuel for the Chulha, the cost of heating the water is reduced to 1.90 Paisa per kg and the cost saved per year on biogas by a typical Indian household is estimated to be 3580 in Indian rupees. Numerical simulation showed a good agreement between the simulation results and theoretical analysis. This WHRS can be used to recover the low grade waste heat released through chimney exhaust flue gas by domestic applications like fireplace, domestic water heating boiler thereby reducing the conventional energy consumption as well as minimizing the environmental degradation.

   

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Title: Survey by Airborne Laser Scanner of open large structure: A case study of Pompeii Amphitheatre
Author (s): Massimiliano Pepe
Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show the potential of Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) in the survey of large and open structures in the Cultural Heritage field. Nowadays, this technology is becoming spread in the field of Cultural Heritage thanks to the possibility to obtain a large number of points in a short time. In fact, the latest generation of ALS sensors are able to acquire up to several million measurements per second and to generate an elevated point density. In addition, if this sensor is combined with digital camera, it is possible to obtain even RGB colour information. In this paper are described the features, methods and techniques for acquisition by ALS system. In particular, it is presented a wide analyse of the three dataset (calibration, laser distance measurements and Position-Orientation System data). The assembly of these datasets allows obtaining the correct georeferncing of the point clouds. A case study of a survey carried out by ALS system on the archaeological site of Pompeii (Italy) is presented. In this case, all the steps necessary to realize the survey are described (planning, acquisition and post-processing task). Also, starting from the point clouds, in CAD environment a classic representation (in a suitable scale) of Roman amphitheatre is showed.

   

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Title: Three-coding test compression technique for SoC based design
Author (s): Chakrapani K., Saravanan and S. Muthaiah R.
Abstract:

Testing a system-on-chip (SoC) result in serious challenges due to the growth of volume and test power consumption of test data sets. Several compression techniques for test data came into light for reducing volume of the test data and its scan power. This paper mainly concentrates on increasing the compression ratio and power consumption for scan vectors through new three coding compression technique. This encoding scheme includes block merging along with three types of coding techniques to obtain efficient compression of scan test sets. This paper review the impact of compressed test data on consumption of power and test application time are also considerable. The actual test data is decoded with Simple decoder architecture. Experimental Results on ISCAS89 benchmark circuit shows the effective ratio of proposed method compared with prior works.

   

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Title: Specifics of calculating the stability of mine workings when applying drilling and blasting
Author (s): Aleksandr Evgenyevich Sudarikov and Viktoriya Anatolyevna Merkulova
Abstract:

The article describes the aspects of mine workings when there are cracks in the rock massif of several systems. The research is intended to determine the massif stability around rocks. A methodology to determine strength parameters of rocks in the presence of cracks was proposed. The undertaken studies allowed developing reasonable data sheets for supporting mine workings in various mining and geological conditions. Processing of mathematical modeling results by using statistical methods allows significantly facilitating the calculation of maximum load acting on the support without resorting to direct modeling within the specified range of rock strength parameters. In this manner, it becomes possible to use this approach in a mining company without complex preparation of initial data to accompany the mathematic modeling.

   

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Title: Meta material inspired Tri-Band antenna with SRR and shorting stub
Author (s): B. L. Prakash, B. T. P. Madhav, T. Lokesh, Y. Rajitha Sri, N. V. D. S. Aditya and M. Venkateswara Rao
Abstract:

Two novel meta-material inspired antennas are proposed in this paper which can be applied for Mobile Satellite Services (MSS), Airport surveillance radars, WIMAX and S - Band applications. Antenna 1 has two triangular split ring resonators and fed by Co-planar Wave Guide (CPW). After Modelling and Simulating antenna1, three frequency bands 2.1~2.3GHz, 3.0~3.4GHz and 6.5~6.7GHz are obtained. To improve the characteristics, antenna 2 is proposed whose shape is modified by adding two Complementary rectangular shaped split ring resonators in the ground of antenna1. After Modelling and simulating antenna 2 it is observed that it enhances the properties of antenna 1 with improved characteristics. Antenna 2 has radiation efficiency of 0.998, front to back ratio of 1.0049 and peak directivity is 1.17.

   

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Title: Evaluating the effect of crumb rubber and super plasticizer on the properties of roller compacted concrete using response surface methodology
Author (s): Musa Adamu, Bashar S. Mohammed and Nasir Shafiq
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and the addition of super plasticizer by weight of cement in roller compacted concrete (RCC) pavement was studied and analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). Roller Compacted Rubber Crete (RCR) is used as the terminology for RCC where fine aggregate is partially replaced with crumb rubber. Before testing, the mixes (experimental work) were designed using RSM with the central composite design applied. After executing the experimental works, regression analysis was used to obtain the model equations for Vebe time, compressive strength, and flexural strength. The RSM regression analysis showed that Vebe time decreases addition of crumb rubber and super plasticizer, compressive and flexural strength decreases with increase in crumb rubber and increases with the addition of super plasticizer. Therefore, the addition of super plasticizer can be used to mitigate the negative effect of crumb rubber on the compressive and flexural strength of RCR. The RSM regression analysis also showed that there is a good correlation between the predicted models and the experimental results. Then, multi-objective optimization was achieved when Vebe time is minimized, compressive and flexural strengths maximize. Based on the results of optimization, an optimum mixture can be achieved with a 10% volume replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and 1.51% addition of super plasticizer by weight.

   

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Title: Review on energy efficient green communication networks for wireless and mobile communication
Author (s): T. Kalyani, Anuradha Thotakuri and Mahendra Vucha
Abstract:

Recent advancements in Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), such as smart phones, smart watches, smart glasses, personal wearable communication and healthcare devices, have changed us to move towards the smart society. By strengthening the mobile and wireless networks, two or more devices can communicate with each other and exchange information and display necessary information anytime anywhere. However, the rapid development in wireless communication technology leads to imbalance of the resource utilization and also increases the unnecessary energy consumption of the PDA’s greatly. The emerging technologies are efficient only when they are consistent and compatible with our living planet nature. So, the environment should be utmost priority while developing technologies for communication system in wireless communication which is the most creative and arising field for PDA’s. Green communication helps in balancing the resources, sharing information, routing adaption and spectrum efficiency. Thus, green communication had become emerging research area for future mobile and wireless networks. So this article demonstrates the review of various green communication techniques adopted in wireless communication. This article also describes energy efficient methodologies used in wireless communication.

   

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Title: Biosugar production from oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) using viscozyme
Author (s): Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Nor Azimah Mohd Zain and Madihah Salleh
Abstract:

In this study, the performance of HNO3 and NaOHpretreatmentson oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was evaluated based on the residual carbohydrate. The best pretreatment condition was ascertained for reducing sugar and biosugar produced after saccharafication with viscozyme. The pretreatment with 2 % (v/v) HNO3 improved cellulose concentration from 33.14 % to 60.0 %, while hemicellulose, lignin and ash were reduced by 25.59 %, 10.0 % and 25.9 % to 10.0 %, 5.33 % and 3.0 %, respectively. Enzymatic treatment using 1g solid loading, produce highest production in terms of arabinose 10.5 g/l, glucose (1.1 g/L) and xylose (0.42 g/L) was obtained under agitation. Whilefor 10 grams solid loading, highest level of bio-sugar was obtained with arabinose (0.8 g/L) and glucose (1.6 g/L). FESEM-EDX and FTIR images before and after saccharification successfully showed the effect of enzymatic treatment on the mesocarp fiber.

   

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Title: UAV 3D formation flight using the relative state space method
Author (s): Tagir Z. Muslimov, Rustem A. Munasypov
Abstract:

In this paper the problem of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 3D formation flight was solved using the relative state space method. Using this method, the UAVs formation becomes an autonomous decentralized multi-agent system since the system functional order is generated by the interaction of its agents. The solution was tested in MATLAB/Simulink using full dynamic models of the vehicles.

   

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Title: Saturation dynamics of aluminum alloys with hydrogen
Author (s): Belyaev Sergey V., Baranov Vladimir N., Gubanov Ivan Y., Kulikov Boris P., Lisiv Elena M., Bezrukikh Alexander I., Leonov Victor V., Kirko Vladimir and Koptseva Natalia P.
Abstract:

This work presents research results on the dynamics of the saturation of aluminum and its alloys with hydrogen in a flow chart for preparing melts in the manufacture of flat-shaped ingots at UC RUSAL. It is demonstrated that one of the main sources of the saturation of an aluminum melt with hydrogen is its interaction with atmospheric moisture during open metal pouring in the course of its transportation from an electrolyzer to a mixer. According to the results of the conducted works, new technical solutions have been proposed whose introduction will ensure, in the long term, a considerable decrease in hydrogen content in aluminum ingots and low-alloyed aluminum alloys.

   

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Title: Design and implementation of hybrid cascaded energy efficient Kogge Stone adder
Author (s): J. Vignesh, E. Gajendran, Sameeruddin Khan, N. Balakumar and S. R. Boselin Prabhu
Abstract:

Addition plays a vital role in all arithmetic operations. It is used widely in many VLSI systems such as application specific DSP architecture and microprocessor architecture. The energy efficient designs have gained more recent attention and for highly employed functional units, especially for the adders. The energy consumption of an adder depends on the circuit minimizing, the addition procedure, the recurrence structure and the wiring complexity. Weinberger and Ling are the two most commonly used binary addition algorithms that are used in adders. This paper gives the performance evaluation of addition algorithms on Kogge-Stone arrangement and have been observed to save energy by the proper selection of addition algorithms in 16-bit adders. The design of Kogge-Stone adder has been carried out by using TANNER EDA tool. The efficiency of the adder design can be improved by prefix selection, the algorithm, computational sum and logic depth. When compared to Weinberger algorithm, the number of gates used is less in case of the proposed ling recurrence algorithm.

   

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Title: Petrographic investigations and reservoir potential of shallow marine sandstone: A case study from Nyalau Formation, Sarawak Basin, Malaysia
Author (s): Muhammad Atif Iqbal, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Salim, Numair A. Siddiqui, Hassan Baioumy and Syed Haroon Ali
Abstract:

Reservoir potential and heterogeneity are critical important factors for exploring shallow marine sandstone reservoirs. Shallow marine sandstones are crucial hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs around the globe and in Southeast Asia. The integrated analysis consisting of petrographic characteristics and reservoir properties for Nyalau Formation from Bintulu area have been discussed in this case study. The field observations, helium porosimetry on core plugs, thin sections study and petrographic approach provides insight into the factors responsible for variations in porosity and permeability in shallow marine sandstone. The results indicate that Nyalau Formation is comprised of five different facies well exposed in Bintulu area, Sarawak basin, Malaysia. The identified facies based on sedimentary structures and lithology are, trough cross-bedded sandstone, laminated sandstone, bioturbated sandstone and massive sandstone facies. It is analyzed that total clay content, grain size, grain shape and grain sorting impact the reservoir in different ways. The trough cross-bedded and massive sandstone facies have low clay content and medium grained, subrounded and well sorted having porosity around 20-25 % and permeability 15-20 millidarcies. The laminated and heterolithic sandstone facies are fine grained, poor to moderately sorted, high clay amount and subangular are comprised of low porosity (8-12 %) and low permeability (0.5-2 millidarcies). The bioturbated sandstone facies is highly disturbed due to burrow activity and having very low porosity (5 %) and low permeability (0.5-1 millidarcies). By integrating these parameters, it is concluded that trough cross bedded and massive sandstone facies have best reservoir quality among all facies of Nyalau Formation.

   

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