ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                    November 2018  |  Vol. 13  No. 22
   
Title: Numerical modeling and investigation of hydrokinetic turbine with additional steering blade using CFD
Author (s): Rudy Soenoko, Putu Hadi Setyarini and Femiana Gapsari
Abstract:

The rapid increase in global energy needs has generated a considerable attention to the generation of energy from renewable energy sources. Hydrokinetic turbines is a vertical axis type water turbine that is very simple and appropriate for remote areas. A hydrokinetic turbine has a good performance and is capable of producing considerable torque at high water speeds. The activity in this study is to model a small hydrokinetic turbine simulated with a CFD software, by varying the position of the turbine runner in each 5°runner rotation so as to obtain the pressure value between the two blades as an indicator of the force magnitude occurring or generated. In a previous study a vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine model was tested in the laboratory compared to the results with a simulated test with CFD. The laboratory test turbine performance result has a same or similar performance result calculate from the CFD simulation. From the simulation results it is seen that there are only two blades being pushed by the water flow. It is suggested to add a steering blade on the turbine output area, in order to increase the blade number to be pushed by the water flow rate. By attaching a steering blade on the output part of the turbine, the water prevents from leaving the turbine and deflected to push another blade, resulting in more water-boosting blades. To ensure that this step will produce a better result, the first step to do is simulating the turbine with a steering blade. The results obtained in every 5° runner position is that there is an increase in water pressure between the two blades. This phenomenon shows that there is an increase in the turbine performance. One of the simulation results is, at a runner position a = 20°, the water pressure between blade two and blade three rises from 8.15e + 009 Pa in the turbine without a steering blade, to 4.69e + 010 Pa in the turbine with a steering blade. While the water pressure between blade five and the blade six, that had a very low water pressure of 4.86e + 008 Pa, rose to 2.30e + 010 Pa, after being given a steering blade. This shows that the steering blade addition would give an additional water boost to some blades.

   

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Title: Mechanical and statistical analysis of polypropylene composites derived from mixed clay-oil palm fruit particles
Author (s): A. Yaya, J. Daafuor, E. Bowen-Dodoo, V. D. K. Domeh, E. Nyankson, B. Agyei-Tuffour, J. K. Efavi, V. A. Apalangya, R. Owoare, B. Onwona-Agyeman and E. Annan
Abstract:

The work presents a combined experimental and analytical study of the influence of clay mixed with oil palm fruit and oil palm wood particles as reinforcements in polypropylene composites. Sample morphology was characterized via Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the mechanical response determined via tensile and compressive testing. Statistical modeling was employed to validate the experimental results. SEM images show the particles are uniformly dispersed in the polypropylene matrix. The polypropylene matrix tensile strength increases with increasing amounts of reinforcement, with highest reinforcement seen for oil palm wood particles of 1.51MPa. The implications of the results are discussed to enhance the understanding of the clay-oil palm wood particulates as potential reinforcement materials for structural and constructional composites fabrication.

   

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Title: Computer vision assistant for train rolling stock examination (RSE) using level set models
Author (s): Krishnamohan Kaja, Raghava Prasad and M. V. D. Prasad
Abstract:

Rolling stock Examination (RSE) is automated with computer vision sensors and programming models in development of a fully automated ARSE model to assist human examiners. Four algorithms are being tested in this work. We start with Chan Vese Level Sets (CV_LS); Morphological Differential Gradient based Level Sets (MDG-LS), which are global segmentation models. In the next part, we propose shape prior level sets (SP_LS) and Invariance Shape Prior Level Sets (ISP_LS), which are local segmentation methods. This work compares these proposed models in the aspects of segmentation quality to correctly identify a bogie part and to extract a defective part. Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) is the measure to correctly identify a bogie part. Image Quality Index (IQI) measures quality of segmented bogie part form all the 4 algorithms. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) tests the ability of the proposed algorithms to identify defects in the bogie parts. ISP_LS is the best local segmentation algorithm for both bogie part detection and defect identification on rolling stock visual information at 4 different times of the day.

   

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Title: Influence of cutting parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in machining SS304 using carbide and ceramic inserts
Author (s): Murugesan R. and Veeranaath V.
Abstract:

Aeronautical metals, such as titanium alloys and nickel centred blends, display reduced cutting characteristics in the red to their outstanding physical possessions which include low thermal conductivity and high hardness at elevated temperatures. For these hard to turn metals, the demand for High Speed Machining (HSM) is swelling in edict to achieve great output and to save turning price. For uses it is vital to custom firm and devoted turning setups and mechanisms with exact plans and choices. The method to ensure constant stock for each operation and tool is a prerequisite for HSM and acts as a basic criteria for high productivity and process security. As machining speed is reliant on machining and insert parameters, this type of machining should be well defined as true machining overhead a certain level. So the rate at which feeding is done is inversely proportional to the tool dimension if the other parameters are unaltered. To recompense for a lesser span the rotating speed must be improved to keep the equal machining speed. The main area of concern insert hotness and insert attire depends on the machining speed and spindle speed. Thus, the studies investigates the relationship between insert hotness and inserts attire during turning of SS304 and examine the deviation of surface finish and cutting forces for two diverse kinds of machining inserts and also a model is developed for authentication.

   

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Title: Study heat diffusion of different prosthetics during manufacturing process
Author (s): Ali Sabri Abbas and Sarah Duraid Dawood
Abstract:

During the process of manufacturing the prosthesis sockets in the lamination process, a chemical reaction occurs between the mixture of materials used in the lamination process after being placed inside a mold covered with layers of PVA, Perlon stockinet and with the existence of materials to strengthen the socket or not. This chemical reaction causes the emission of heat from within the sample. The emission continues until the sample is cooled by natural convection, which lasts for 30 minutes or less depending on the amount of hardener material used in the laminating process. The current work focused on observing the thermal distribution occurring on the surface of the hot sample during the cooling period, in order to see areas with high thermal concentration from other regions. Then put the thermal gradient map for the whole sample that helps to understand thermal stress which is used to evaluate the stresses induced by some thermal load, which is in the form of thermal images that's taken by using a thermal camera known as FLIR i7, which shows thermal distribution on each side of the sample. For more results, three molds were made for different levels of amputation (above knee amputation (AK), below knee amputation (BK) and Syme amputation. Then use the thermal camera to obtain thermal distribution images for each sample.

   

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Title: Investigations of optical, electrical and thermal properties of piezo PMMA/PVDF membrane as electrical and advanced energy saving materials
Author (s): Asra Ali Hussein, Ammar Emad Al-kawaz and Zahraa Najah Salman
Abstract:

Present work is aimed at developing electrical and energy storage component based on PMMA/PVDF blend. The film of PMMA/PVDF was prepared using solution casting method with a verity weight percentage of PVDF. Physical properties such as (absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and real and imaginary dielectric constants) have been studied. Some expository strategies, for example, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), were used to assess the compatibility of these two polymers. Results show that the (absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and real and imaginary dielectric constants are increased by increasing PVDF content. As well as the absorbance increased with increasing the amount of PVDF while transmittance decrease. Moreover, the electrical conductivity has been increased with increasing PVDF content.

   

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Title: Spatiotemporal monitoring of methane over Iraq during 2003-2015: Retrieved from atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS)
Author (s): Faten G. Abed, Ali M. Al-Salihi and Jasim M. Rajab
Abstract:

Observations of methane (CH4) retrieved from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua platform from 2003-2015 show a strong, plume-like enhancement of CH4 over central and southern-east parts of Iraq during August - September, with the maximum occurring in early September and minimum in March - May over western, southwest, and north-east regions. The percentage change differences results shows the highest differences occurred over the central and southern regions and the smallest differences occurred over the western and southwest regions. To better validate the retrieved data from AIRS three stations at different locations were chosen for trend analysis. The mean and standard deviation in Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah was (3.610 ± 0.042, 3.818 ± 0.048, 3.824 ± 0.055) x1019 Mole.Cm-2 respectively for monthly long term trend analysis. Annual trend analysis shows positive trends, and ranged between (0.0083 and 0.0097) Mole.Cm-2.y-1 for Mosul and Basrah, respectively. Monthly trend analysis have positive trends (0.0092) Mole.Cm-2.y-1 for Mosul and (0.0107) Mole.Cm-2.y-1 for Baghdad and Basrah. The annual linear growth rate were (2%) for Mosul, and (3%) for Baghdad and Basrah, and monthly linear growth rates were (5%) for Mosul and Baghdad, and (6%) for Basrah. Further daily long term trend shows significant linear increase of (3.7 %) caused a trend of (0.0107 × 1019) Mole.Cm-2.y-1 in Baghdad. The standard deviation of variation in daily average CH4 as a percentage deviation from the mean for the departure from the mean was (1.62%), (0.06×1019 Mole.Cm-2). And the day to day variation with a clear seasonal change shows standard deviation of enter sequential changes was (0.053 × 1019) Mole.Cm-2. These results indicate that Satellite observations efficiently show the temporal variations of the CH4 values over different regions.

   

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Title: Time delay model for a predator and two species with mutualism interaction
Author (s): Y. Suresh Kumar, N. Seshagiri Rao and B. V. Appa Rao
Abstract:

The present paper focus on to know the dynamical behavior of a three species system made up of a predator together with mutualism interaction between two species in the limited resources, where as the predator is depending on both the mutual species. In this model the time delay is proposed to the predator and the first mutual species to recognize the sustainability of the system in long run. Local asymptotic stability of diverse existing positive equilibrium solutions is investigated to understand the dynamics of the system. Further the global stability is established using appropriate Lyapunov functional at positive interior equilibrium solution. Finally numerical simulation is execute to examine the delay impact that can lead to transformation from stable to unstable or unstable to stable culminate Hopf bifurcation.

   

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Title: Face recognition system based-on imperialist competitive algorithm and neural network (ICANN)
Author (s): Hassan Jassim Motlak, Ehab Abdul Razzaq Hussein and Ali Shaban Hassony
Abstract:

This paper presents smart security system based-on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm Neural Network (ICANN). The proposed system consists from high-resolution camera, motion sensors, and control system. The Camera installed up side of security main gate, park's entry, and office's gate connected with motion sensors. The comparison process start in case person detected by motion sensor. The comparison process between saved image of authorized person with image of suspected person take it by (USB full HD camera), if there is a matching between them, the decision of control system will open the gate if there is no matching the gate stay in closed case. In addition to that, all gates controlled by central control office to send alarm in suspected cases. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) used for features extraction and ICANN for image detection and all software recognition process is based-on (Math Lab). The results obtained from the simulation system shows faster more accurate than other traditional methods. Moreover, the results show efficient and reliable security system with accuracy around 96%. Practical system shows excellent agreement with that obtained by simulation results.

   

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Title: Shock absorber and spring contribution reduces vertical vehicle loads that burden the road structure
Author (s): Simon Ka’ka, Syukri Himran, Ilyas Renreng and Onny Sutresman
Abstract:

Driving comfort for riders and passengers is a key target to be achieved. Fluctuations in vehicle loads, bumps, perforated surfaces, and other road damage will greatly affect the vehicle suspension working system. This study aims to (1)examine more about the effect of vertical dynamic load of vehicles and changes in dimensional barriers on the road surface in its path.(2) obtain the amount of vibration and load reduced by the working of the spring and shock absorber. Load changes arising from the number of non-permanent passengers always burden the vehicle suspension in a fluctuating manner. Experimentally these load fluctuations are replaced by pneumatic actuator forces of varying magnitude based on the regulatory pressure of the regulator. The deviations generated by the varying load work are measured by placing a proximity sensor along the spring movement. The vertical dynamic load transformation up to the road surface is measured using a "Load cell" mounted under the wheels of the vehicle. Characteristics of vertical dynamic vibration occurring due to several dimensional barriers, U (cm) obtained using mathematical modeling method with 2 DOF suspension system transfer function. The results showed a condition on the body and wheels of vehicles experienced a brief overshot for 0.14 seconds with deviation of 0.178 m. From the graph shows that the rate of deviation that occurs is large enough that Y2d = 1.03 m / s caused by a sudden shock that occurred on the wheels of the vehicle. This condition does not last long that is only duration t = 0.22 s, because of the reaction of the spring and shock absorber that can dampen the vibration not less than 25% to the vibration caused by the vertical load of the body and the axle of the vehicle.

   

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Title: Optimal load shedding under contingency conditions using voltage stability index for real-time applications in power systems
Author (s): Raja Masood Larik, Mohd. Wazir Mustafa, Manoj Kumar Panjwani and Kashif Naseer Qureshi
Abstract:

Power systems operating under stress may approach a collapse point resulting in blackouts. To avoid this problem corrective measures such as load shedding are required. Conventional techniques are fail to provide optimal load shed. This paper focuses on optimal load shed as well as enhancing the system voltage profile using a hybrid optimization algorithm based on the well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). GA has traditionally been known for its accuracy while the PSO algorithm is popular for its fast convergence time. GA algorithms require longer convergence times due to the complex nature of their cost functions; therefore, in this work PSO is applied to the GA construction to solve this problem. This result in a fast and accurate algorithm named GAPSO. This paper focuses on optimal load shed by using hybrid optimization termed as GAPSO. The proposed algorithm is utilized to minimize the total amount of load shed on the weak buses. Weak buses are identified using the Fast Voltage Stability Index. The performance of the proposed technique was assessed by simulations in MATLAB/SIMULINK under the IEEE-30 and IEEE-57 bus meshed networks. The proposed technique was also compared to the GA and PSO algorithms individually and it outperform both in terms of optimal load shed which is comparable to GA while a convergence time is comparable to PSO. Proposed technique is not only robust against system failures but is also efficient enough for real time applications.

   

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Title: Soret effect on unsteady MHD free convective two immiscible fluid flow through a horizontal channel with heat and mass transfer
Author (s): L. Sivakami and A. Govindarajan

Abstract:

Unsteady MHD Free convective two immiscible fluid flow through a Horizontal channel with Heat and mass transfer have been studied in this paper. The effect of Soret is also taken into account. The equations are solved analytically and numerically with the appropriate boundary conditions for each fluid and the solutions have been studied. The governing equations of the flow were transformed into ordinary differential equations by a regular perturbation method and the expression for the velocity; temperature and concentration for each fluid flow were obtained. The effects of various parameters like Grashof numbers for heat and mass transfer, Prandtl number, Viscosity ratio, Conductivity ratio, Radiative parameter, Soret number etc. on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been presented graphically.

   

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Title: Triboelectrification of sliding objects against floor in hospitals
Author (s): El-Sherbiny Y. M., Ali A. S. and Ali W. Y.
Abstract:

The increased use of polymeric materials in hospital floorings raised the issue of electrostatic charges and its implications. Electrostatic charges generated from friction of engineering materials show a negative effect on their applications particularly in health related issues. Electrostatic charges accumulating on human skin are dangerous and cause serious health problems. The present work investigates the electrostatic generated charge from dry and wet rubbing of disposable- Anti-Skid polypropylene shoe covers “Non Slip Medical”, and rubber against polymeric flooring materials. Decreasing normal load in dry rubbing of polypropylene against epoxy floor decreased measured friction. Friction values at light loads maintained good adhesion of the sliding objects against floor µ = 0.5. It was enough for safe use at dry rubbing condition. Sliding of hospital foot wear on dry floor generated higher electrostatic charge. Wet rubbing, however, generated charge values higher than these measured for repeated alternate contact and separation. Water wetted contacts resulted in lower values of friction and electrostatic charge relative to those obtained in dry contact situations. Water molecules in wet contacts facilitated the conduction of generated electrostatic charges at the contact interfaces, thereby resulted in lower measurements for wet contacts. Accordingly it was recommended to look for new materials and coatings maintaining values µ = 0.5 to prevent slip and fall, with lower electrostatic charges.

   

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Title: Performance analysis of different array configurations for smart antenna applications using firefly algorithm
Author (s): K. Sridevi and A. Jhansi Rani
Abstract:

Voluminous studies have already been conducted on smart antennas. Mostly these studies dedicated to Uniform linear array, Rectangular array and circular array configurations. This paper aims at the investigation of the beam forming capabilities of uniform hexagonal array (UHA) and planar uniform hexagonal array (PUHA) configurations as compared to circular array by controlling amplitude excitation only using firefly algorithm. Results are compared with that of Particle swarm optimization technique. Comparisons are made in the context of adaptive beam forming capabilities of the three array configurations.

   

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Title: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius model in batik pattern generation by using random walk
Author (s): Purba Daru Kusuma
Abstract:

This paper discusses the development of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves model as batik pattern. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is a papaya like tree that is popular in Indonesia. Even this plant leaf are similar to the papaya leaf, basically this plant is different from the papaya family. In the other side, papaya leaf pattern has been used as a plant based traditional batik pattern because its specific finger like leaf morphology. So, developing other finger like leaf batik pattern by using computational technology is challenging. In this research, besides developing the leaf model, the plant branching model is developed too. The reason is to make difference between the Cnidoscolus aconitifolius with the common papaya tree that does not have branching characteristics. This model is developed by using random walk as its basis method. After the basic model is developed, this model then is used to generate batik pattern computationally in web based batik pattern generation application. Based on the tests, there are several research findings. The inter petiole distance has negative correlation with the number of generated leaves. The lobe angle deviation has positive correlation with the leaf circular width. The sting hair step angle deviation has positive correlation with the lobe width. Small value of the sting hair step angle deviation can produce Picuda like leaf. Medium value of the sting hair step angle deviation can produce Estrella like leaf.

   

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Title: Low energy consumption rate in home sensors using prime nodes
Author (s): Hesham Abusaimeh
Abstract:

Many of conventional home and industrial automation systems have substantially spurred the appearance of the embedded devices with wireless sensors in order to execute their functionality in the wireless sensor networks or to build inter-device wireless communication. To facilitate the adaptation of wireless sensor networks (WSN) to industrial applications, concerns about problems of battery power and energy resources must be addressed to fulfill real time requirements. In fact, the network has many wireless nodes that depend on their batteries as power supply to stay connected and operate well. The main reason of spending the nodes power is the data transmission and reception operations via the wireless signals. Many researches have been conducted to enhance the remaining energy of the home devices that are based on sensors and to increase these home sensors lifetime. A novel method has been presented in this paper to optimize consuming power in these home sensors. This issue can be done by, enhancing the functionality of some home devices by making them as central nodes (prime nodes) for the other home sensors by reducing their consumption rate. This will lead to eliminate some transactions of transmissions and receptions of the home sensors. Hence, powerful home sensors are employed to have the capability to live longer and have more power supply to be used in various home application. Large scale of home sensors are used in the simulation conducted in this research in order to make it accurate. The simulation results clarify the efficiency of the proposed mechanism in term of low power consumption rate of the home devices with the availability of the prime home sensor nodes that have the capability to live longer.

   

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Title: Effect of fluid gap cell size in a suction valve on performance of a linear compressor
Author (s): Y. N. Jang and Y. L. Lee
Abstract:

Fluid gap cell is used for CFD analysis of compressor valve. The effect of the fluid gap cell on compressor performance prediction is still insufficient. Therefore, in this study, the performance change in the compressor was investigated by varying the fluid gap cell size from 100 µm to 10 µm. As the fluid gap cell size decreases, the maximum valve lift increases and the second valve opening lift becomes steeper. Also, the smaller the fluid gap cell size, the more accurately the valve flow rate is predicted when the valve is at closing. However, it has little effect on the PV diagram. In summary, the fluid gap cell size affects valve lift and valve suction flow rate changes but has little effect on CW, CC, and EER. Therefore, a 100um fluid gap cell can be used if you are only interested in overall compressor performance. Otherwise, it would be better to use a fluid gap cell of 25 µm or below.

   

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Title: A simplified method for energizing the solenoid coil based on electromagnetic relays
Author (s): Munaf Fathi Badr
Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present a simplified, relatively inexpensive and rapid response electrical control system which has been used to energize the solenoid coil. The suggested approach involves using electromagnetic relays as main control elements in the control model to meet the requirement of specified proposed control system of the solenoid. The selected solenoid operated in two positions and the control circuit can be easily applied to actuate the solenoid coil in two conduction states either ON or OFF. The laboratory work has been taken place to conduct the theoretical calculations with practical implementation of the solenoid control circuit in conjugated with computer simulations using the required software package such as Matlab were also done to compare the theoretical and practical results. The obtained results showed that the ability of employing the electromagnetic relays in the proposed control circuit of solenoid with fast response and high reliability.

   

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Title: Piezoelectric ceramic for energy harvesting system: A review
Author (s): N. X. Yan, A. A. Basari, K. S. Leong, N. A. A. Nawir and S. Hashimoto
Abstract:

Nowadays, piezoelectric energy harvesting technology has been studied and developed significantly by a lot of researchers. Energy harvesting is a process that an ambient waste energy can be collected and conserved or stored for useful purposes. Piezoelectric transducer is one of the devices that can be used for vibration energy harvesting system. It has a high ability of energy conversion to convert mechanical vibration into electrical energy compared to others. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the piezoelectric energy harvesting system is discussed and presented, including the principles of the piezoelectricity, mechanical configurations of the piezoelectric and techniques employed to the piezoelectric energy harvester. The integral ideas and performance of the reported piezoelectric energy harvester will be reviewed in this paper as well.

   

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Title: Some ways to reduce the dynamic loads of agricultural machine-tractor aggregates
Author (s): A. S. Ovchinnikov, N. G. Kuznetsov, D. D. Nekhoroshev, D. S. Gapich, D. A. Nekhoroshev, S. D. Fomin, B. P. Zagorodskikh, V. M. Slavutsky, M. N. Shaprov, A. I. Ryadnov and A. N. Tseplyaev
Abstract:

One of the ways to increase the efficiency of the transmission system of an agricultural tractor traction concept is to introduce a clutch coupling with a pneumatic-hydraulic elastic element into the transmission. Installation of an elastic element in the form of a pneumo-hydraulic accumulator (PHA) in the clutch is associated with the need to implement a calculated loading regime for any technological operation on the same engine operating mode, as well as the need to mitigate impact phenomena. In this case, it should be possible to change its stiffness depending on the technological operation being performed. This can be done by justifying the working area of the elastic characteristics of the PHA under operating conditions. It is determined by the possible range of variation (oscillation) of the tractor pulling force. It is within its limits that the elastic properties of the shaft line must be manifested, which ensure the stabilization of the loading regime. Numerous studies machine-tractor aggregates show that the maximum deviations of the pulling force P from its average value are under extreme conditions up to 35%.

   

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Title: Robust face recognition for blurred images with iterative graph based restoration using linear collaborative discriminant regression classification (LCDRC)
Author (s): Hema Sree P., Laxminarayana P. and Subba Rao K.
Abstract:

Face Recognition using images obtained from the unconstrained environment is the challenge, yet to be resolved. This situation is due to cluttered background and poor lighting conditions or illumination. Capturing images from a long distance, atmospheric turbulence, out of focal length and camera in motion are also the reasons behind the drastic decline in the performance of face recognition. A novel three-step formula has been proposed in this paper to address the issues from existing methodologies and provide the consistent accuracy in final face recognition. First and foremost, the query image of a face is thoroughly analyzed to know the blur presence and its type. Later, the model images are also blurred to the same extent as of query image and face recognition is done using deblurring both model and query images by Iterative Graph based image restoration technique. The accuracy of the face recognition using the proposed algorithm is consistent under different levels and types of blurring. The performance of the proposed method (for blurring and deblurring the models) is validated for different classification algorithms namely Collaborative Representation Classification (CRC), Relaxed Collaborative Representation (RCR) and Linear Collaborative Discriminant Regression Classification (LCDRC). LCDRC outperformed the existing peers in accuracy and robustness. The best recognition rate of 96.25 % is obtained for blur face images using this proposed method.

   

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Title: Study of performance of heat exchanger using water and sand for zinc roof cooling with automatic water spraying
Author (s): Jefrey I. Kindangen and Markus K. Umboh
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of a heat exchanger using water and sand as a cooling medium to cool the surface of the zinc roof by spraying water automatically. The heat exchanger consists of cooling coil made of 3/4” diameter copper formed the sinusoidal curve and planted 10 cm of depth in 1 x 1 x 0.2 m acrylic container filled with water or sand. Water is automatically sprayed onto the surface of the zinc roof and then flowed into a heat exchanger. Comparing the performance of a heat exchanger using water and using sand shows that they basically have a performance that can lower the water temperature used for spraying onto zinc roofing surfaces. The water-to-water heat exchanger that uses water as a cooling medium is more effective in the morning until noon, while the water-to-sand heat exchanger that uses sand as a cooling medium will be more effective during the day until late afternoon. In general, the water-to-water heat exchanger is more able to lower water temperatures compared to the water-to-sand heat exchanger. This system essentially demonstrates its usefulness and capacity as one of the passive cooling strategies that can lower the zinc roof surface temperature which in turn lowers the indoor air temperature.

   

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Title: A corpus for Amazigh transcribed to Latin OCR systems’ evaluation
Author (s): Khadija E. L. Gajoui, Fadoua Ataa Allah and Mohammed Oumsis
Abstract:

Corpora, initially created as resources for linguistic research, are attracting more and more the attention of machine learning researchers who are examining the potential of these corpora for training/ testing optical character recognition (OCR) systems. Following the last logic, this paper is concerned with research on OCR of printed historical and recent document written in Amazigh transcribed to Latin. It focuses, especially, on building a representative corpus dedicated to this language. In this paper, we describe the construction procedure of this corpus in tree levels, which are: line, word and character. Then we conduct a comparative evaluation of the corpus using an OCR system based on Long Short Term Memory approach. The comparison of the corpus is depending on the recognition rates and convergence in term of iteration number. Evaluation shows that the corpus level line gives the best result compared to the other levels with an error rate of 10.3%.

   

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Title: Laser-field technology of hardening
Author (s): Bashmakov D. A. and Galiakbarov A. T.
Abstract:

Modern methods of materials laser processing are being actively introduced into production. However, their wide application in engineering is hampered by the high energy intensity of the processes and the unexplored of complex fast processes of such processing technologies. This work is devoted to hybrid laser technologies for material processing, in particular laser-field hardening of metals. A theoretical study of the laser interaction with a metal is carried out, it is shown that the reflection coefficient of laser radiation and the depth of its penetration depend on the electrical conductivity of the skin layer. The main interrelations between the quality parameters of the treated layer and the parameters of the laser-field technological complex are revealed. Investigations on laser hardening in the electrostatic field of steels, widely used in engineering, have been carried out (Steel 10, 45, 65G). It is shown, that the superposition of the electrostatic field on the treatment zone leads to an increase in the depth and hardness of the quenched layer due to the directed motion of electrons in metals.

   

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Title: Evaluation of the performance of a hybrid MIMO Beamforming system for the cancellation of interference
Author (s): Martin D. Bravo Obando, Leonardo Motta Vargas and Xiomara A. Tejada Vera
Abstract:

In this paper the performance of a hybrid MIMO scheme is evaluated with Beamforming, where the hybrid MIMO scheme presents a diversity gain and multiplexing at the same time, and it includes the beamforming with the purpose of strengthening more the transmission. The results obtained show that the hybrid MIMO structure with beamforming improves on average 5.4dB the quality of the information received, with schemes of modulation 4QAM, 16QAM and 64QAM.

   

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Title: Modified Nonlinear Predictive PI controller for a conical tank level process
Author (s): T. Bhuvanendhiran, S. Abraham Lincon and I. Thirunavukkarasu
Abstract:

A Modified Nonlinear Predictive PI (MNPPI) control technique is a combination of two well-known control strategies of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. This combination provides better control performance when compared to MPC and PID controllers. In this paper, the Modified Nonlinear Predictive PI control strategy is designed, implemented to a nonlinear process and performance indices such as IAE, ISE, IATE, settling time, rise time, over shoot are compared to other controller. It’s observed that, the designed controller shows lesser rise time and settling time along with ensured stability.

   

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Title: Simplified model for design RCC box culverts by STAAD.Pro
Author (s): Abdul Kareem M. B. Al-Shammaa
Abstract:

Reinforced concrete box culvert consists of top slab, bottom slab and two vertical side walls built monolithically which form a closed hollow rectangular or square single cell or multiple cells. Culverts are required to be used under earth embankment to construct and pass roads or railways at the moment for crossing of water from both sides of earth embankment. Current of great rivers and their tributaries in my country have encouraged me to go ahead to find simplified method for design box culvert. This research focuses on analysis and design of single cell by software “STAAD.Pro” on a segment in one meter length from culvert barrel to produce a plane structure like instead of space structure. The structure is subjected to various types of loads and supported by a bed of springs instead of soil interaction according to Winkler's modeling. The author believes that he is able to create a method which is quick, accurate and optimal solution for design RCC box culvert. This paper was carried out using ACI-code 2011 with SI units.

   

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Title: Khmer handwritten text recognition with Convolution Neural Networks
Author (s): Bayram Annanurov and Norliza Mohd. Noor
Abstract:

This paper presents a pilot study on Khmer handwritten symbols recognition using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The motivation for this study is to develop a recognition system for digitizing large corpora of Khmer handwritten documents. Image data consists of six handwriting sample sets, each of which consists of 33 consonants (root radicals) and 17 vowels, total of 561 syllables. A CNN-based model was trained for offline recognition of root radicals where one CNN was trained for recognition of a particular consonant. All 33 networks have been combined into an assembly. The recognition results are compared against artificial neural network (ANN)-based classifier with full feature set and ANN -based classifier with dimensionality reduction. Feature correlation two-dimensional Fourier transformation (FT2D) and Gabor filters are used for dimensionality reduction. Recognition rate of Khmer handwriting (alphasyllabary system) is increased to 94.85% with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN).

   

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Title: Optimization of SPI controller for hardware embedded systems using finite state machines
Author (s): Edwar Jacinto G., Fernando Martinez S. and Holman Montiel A.
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This article shows the design and implementation of a finite state machine that describes the operation of the SPI protocol in a standard way, which is a serial protocol used for transfers with peripherals with low / medium bandwidth, all the technical detail of a specific application, and emphasis is placed on making a description with a low level of abstraction to reduce the amount of hardware resource used, arriving at a general-purpose IP CORE type solution. The state machine controls the sequence of the communication that comply with the protocol. By having a design of low complexity, it achieves to be easily adaptable for a number of plates (shields) that proliferate in a significant number of academic and commercial applications.

   

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Title: Inorganic and organic N variations in Setiu River Basin, Malaysia
Author (s): Suhaimi Suratman, Yet Yin Hee and Norhayati Mohd. Tahir
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The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the variations of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N)-based nutrients based on seasonal changes in the Setiu River Basin, situated at the southern part of the South China Sea (Malaysia). In addition, fractionation of the dissolved organic N (DON) was also determined. Results showed an increase of these nutrients was observed from the upstream to the downstream stations due to the impact of anthropogenic activities. It was found that during the wet season, runoff from the land increased the nutrient concentrations in the water column. High molecular weight DON is the main fraction of DON, constituting more than 60% of the total DON.

   

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Title: MHD natural convection flow past a moving vertical plate with ramped temperature
Author (s): Siva Reddy Sheri, Vijaya Bhaskar and Anjan Kumar Suram
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An investigation has been carried out numerically to study MHD natural convection flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting, radiative and heat absorbing fluid past a moving vertical plate with ramped temperature. Solutions of the governing partial differential equations for primary velocity, secondary velocity and temperature are obtained by using Finite element method. The influence of Magnetic parameter , thermal Grashof number , Hall current parameter , viscous dissipation and thermal radiation parameter on primary velocity, secondary velocity and temperature are computed numerically and represented graphically. Effect of pertinent flow parameters on shear stress and rate of heat transfer are displayed in a tabular form. Various comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

   

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Title: Periodic time spread pulse signals with perfect autocorrelation
Author (s): A. V. Titov and G. J. Kazmierczak
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This paper considers periodic single pulse signals (PSPS) of pulse duration T and time repetition NT, where N (N>1) are positive integers. This paper examines a new previously unknown property of these signals that have perfect periodic autocorrelation on the interval NT. It is shown that PSPS can be represented as the linear composition of several orthogonal periodic pulse signals with zero cross correlation, and once represented as such, these signals can be transformed into periodic time spread pulse signals where the pulses are spread over the entire interval NT. These transformed signals have the same energy and autocorrelation properties as the corresponding original PSPS. The results of this study advance the theory of pulse signals and can be applied to any electronic periodic pulse signal system including radar, radio navigation, communication and telemetric systems.

   

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Title: Effects of radiation and thermal diffusion on MHD heat transfer flow of a dusty viscoelastic fluid between two moving parallel plates
Author (s): B. Mallikarjuna Reddy, D. Chenna Kesavaiah and G. V. Ramana Reddy
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An anticipated outcome of present analysis is effects of radiation and thermal diffusion on MHD heat transfer flow of dusty viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid between two parallel plates with constant suction on the upper plate and constant injection on the lower plate, first order chemical reaction, variable temperature and uniform mass diffusion taking into an account. The governing partial differential equations which describe for motion of the problem change into dimensionless equations and solved by using perturbation technique. The various analytical quantities for the velocity profiles (for dusty fluid and dust particles), temperature profiles, concentration profiles and skin friction coefficient are examine and depict graphically in detail.

   

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Title: Real time particulate matter concentration measurement using laser scattering
Author (s): Chee F. P., Angelo S. F., Kiu S. L., Justin S. and Jackson C. H. W.
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Particulate Matter (PM) is the sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air. It can be classified into PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 based on the size of the particles. Smaller particles are extremely hazardous as they can penetrate into our respiratory system causing adverse health effects. In this paper, a real time, portable and cost effective PM sensor system is designed for the monitoring of air particulate matter concentration. To achieve the objectives, a particulate matter monitoring device was constructed using PM Sensor SEN0177, Temperature and Humidity Sensor DHT11, Arduino Mega, DS1307 RTC and TFT LCD for data visualization. The system can simultaneously measure the concentration of PM at varying sizes. Besides, it is also equipped to measure RH and ambient air temperature. Built in real time clock and data logging system was also included as added function. The system employs a real time monitoring system for particulate matter using laser scattering technique and interfaced using MIE theory algorithm. The completed prototype was tested with TE 600 PM10 Air Sampler and General consumer for accuracy test. The system offers particulate matter detection based on laser scattering principle with a considerable accuracy of 87.7% in comparison when being compared with the TE6001 PM10 air sampler. The main advantage of this system is its ability to provide real time monitoring to obtain in situ data on the PM concentration together with RH and temperature readings which are crucial factors in the air quality monitoring.

   

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Title: Performance assessment of BIM managers using Multi-Source feedback method - A pilot study
Author (s): Faiq M. S. Al-Zwainy
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In order to assure an objective assessment of BIM managers' performance, standards to assess the skills and competence of construction professionals in using Building Information Modeling (BIM) got to be set. This paper aims at creating some rating criteria to assess the performance of BIM managers in Iraq through a pilot study. A new technique of performance assessment known as Multi-Source or 360° feedback method was employed for this purpose aided by a questionnaire form specially designed to match the technique and the purpose. The Center of Engineering Consultancy at the Ministry of Industry and Minerals was chosen to implement the pilot study for it is the first firm that initiates the application of BIM in Iraq. It was found that performance assessment of the BIM managers is quite different among constituents (bosses, peers, staff, contractors and clients) especially when compared to the BIM managers' self-assessment which was always over-estimated. The highest degree of assessment was found to be (3.975) out of (5) degrees for the best BIM manager. This indicates the necessity of adopting such objective approach in the organization culture instead of personal judgment of bosses. As a result, the use of Multi-Source feedback method in assessing the performance of BIM managers proved to be successful and can be used in other firms in the Iraqi construction sector.

   

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Title: Investigation of mechanical properties of PMMA composite reinforced with different types of natural powders
Author (s): Sihama Issa Salih, Jawad Kadhim Oleiwi and Arkan Saad Mohamed
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Poly Methyl Methacrylate were widely accepted material in dental and medical field due to the excellent biocompatibility and easy fabrication, however exhibit inferior mechanical properties. In current research, two groups of PMMA nano composites samples were fabricated by using hand lay-up method at laboratory temperature. used for manufacturing of the maxillary complete or partial denture base. These samples consist of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin as a matrix material, was strengthen by two different natural powder in nanometer size (pomegranate peels (PPP) and seed powder of dates Ajwa (SPDA)) in individually form, with selected weight fraction ratio (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 & 1.6 wt. %). Some mechanical properties and analytical physical properties (FTIR, SEM) were investigated. The result showed a considerably improvement in the values of these properties for both groups of bio composite specimens comparing with neat PMMA. All bio composite specimens reinforced with pomegranate peels powder in nanometer size showed the highest properties as compared with the bio composite specimens strengthened by nano seed powder of dates ajwa. The highest value of flexural strength, flexural modulus, max. shear stress, impact strength and fracture toughness were 114MPa, 5.124GPa, 3.562MPa, 13.75KJ/m˛ and 8.276 MPA.m˝ respectively, for bio composite specimens reinforced with pomegranate peels powder, while for bio composite specimen reinforced with seed powder of dates Ajwa 105MPa, 4.187GPa, 3.316MPa, 10KJ/m˛ and 6.389 MPA.m˝ respectively. On the basis of these results, it can be conclusion that the addition of natural fillings nanoparticles (pomegranate peels powder and seed powder of dates ajwa) to bio PMMA material, is one of the promising materials in use to improve the strength of fracture to the base of dental kits.

   

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Title: RFID based automated gate security system
Author (s): Asha N., A. S. Syed Navaz, J. Jayashree and J. Vijayashree
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Here has been rising enthusiasm for secure structure that must be attempted and genuine and smart respond for the organizations and companions. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is one of the consistent and speedy techniques for perceive the material dissent. In the long-back the institutionalized distinguishing pieces of proof are more perfect when stood out from RFID because of their cost yet now day by day's RFID are viably open and are more beneficial to use. Research has revealed some exceptional enhancements which make its programming significantly shorter and less requesting is an immediate consequence of supplanting microcontroller with Arduino. Arduino makes the circuit and programming a significant measure easier to get it. Paper relies upon security access and control system using RFID and Arduino with GSM module. A segment of the sensors are used like PIR, LPG for spillage area. Security get to system is astoundingly beneficial to use at home, office and business structures.

   

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Title: Development of edible film from semi refined iota carrageenan for sustainable food packaging
Author (s): Danar Praseptiangga, Sarah Giovani, Dimas Rahadian Aji Muhammad and Godras Jati Manuhara
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Due to its chemical and mechanical properties, iota carrageenan exhibits great potential as a material for assembling polysaccharide-based edible film. In this research, the physical and chemical properties of commercial semi-refined iota-carrageenan derived from Eucheuma denticulatum were evaluated. Edible films with varying concentrations of semi-refined iota-carrageenan combined with glycerol as the plasticiser were prepared and characterised. Results showed that both the physical and chemical properties of semi-refined iota-carrageenan were in accordance with the international standard. Increasing the semi-refined iota-carrageenan concentration (from 1% to 2%, w/v) significantly enhanced the thickness and tensile strength (TS) of edible film (p < 0.05). Degression in the percentage of elongation-at-break (EAB) and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) with higher concentrations of semi-refined iota-carrageenan was observed; thus, incorporation of 2% semi-refined iota-carrageenan is recommended for producing edible film.

   

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Title: An information system for registration and consultation of liver profile tests in the hospitals of the Department of Huila - Colombia
Author (s): Albeiro Cortes Cabezas and Yamil Armando Cerquera Rojas
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Hospitals in the Department of Huila in Colombia need hospital information systems that allow them to guarantee the integrity and readability of patients' information and also make it possible for health information to be available at any point of care, regardless of the institution provider of services where the patient is cared for. Unfortunately, the Huila hospitals do not yet have these information systems; which is why health care staff use old-fashioned, complex and unstructured methods to store data about all types of results and tests performed so that can be examined and analyzed by a physician and then he cans make decisions. In this project an information system was implemented to optimize the process of conducting the hepatic profile tests in Huila hospitals in order to improve the organization of the results, making access to these results much more comfortable and efficient. The HL7 standard set was used as a guide for good interoperability and to make the system scalable. Access can be made through any web browser or any device due to a responsive web design was used. The information system allows access to the data of a specific patient and it is possible to export information from the database to obtain different statistics.

   

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Title: Development and substantiation of layout of dust emissions purification systems used at mobile asphalt plants
Author (s): Dmitry P. Borovkov, Elena O. Cherevychenko, Konstantin O. Chichirov and Evgeny G. Ezhov
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This paper describes properties of dust particles emitted in the course of asphalt plants operation, and analyzes design of various type dust collection systems used for dust emission purification. Two layouts of the dust systems including dust collectors operating with application of swirling flow and with application of centrifugal dust concentrators are proposed. A comparative analysis of both schemes efficiency is carried out.

   

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Title: A performance evaluation of YMAC a medium access protocol for WSN
Author (s): Jose de Jesus Salgado Patron and Albeiro Cortes Cabezas
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This article studies the main performance characteristics of the YMAC protocol, a medium access control protocol for sensor networks (WSN) that uses multiple frequency channels for data transmission. YMAC was designed taking into account the energy shortage characteristics of the sensor nodes and seeking to achieve good performance under various traffic conditions. Our contributions through this work are as follows: first, a physical layer model corresponding to the radio transmitter/receiver CC2420 was implemented in Qualnet®, including a model of energy consumption and a model of the YMAC protocol based on the specifications of the authors; second, a detailed performance analysis of the protocol was made based on different metrics.

   

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Title: Mobility improvement of heavy tracked vehicles: The "pan" tank experience
Author (s): Luca Piancastelli, Stefano Cassani, Federico Calzini and Eugenio Pezzuti
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This paper shows that the sinkage of the tracked vehicle is the most important parameter in its mobility. Power and fuel consumption follow cubic power law with sinkage. So the usual strategy to increase power is not the more convenient way to improve vehicle off road performance. The Ground Pressure (GP) is the critical parameter. Power requirement goes with the cubic power of sinkage. GP above 0.9 daN/cm2 should be avoided at all costs. The best way to obtain this result on an existing design is to increase track length. However it is easier to work on track width. The easiest modification is to add "Duckbill extensions" in the outer part of the shoe. This system was used on the Sherman Tank when additional armor was added. With modern technology it is perfectly possible to perform experimental tests with new shoes. This can be done by manufacturing prototypes of high stress nitrided steel shoes, usually with 300M high strength steel. Comparative fuel consumption is a good index of vehicle performance. Also wheel diameter and width can be increased to improve off-road performance. Specialized tracks for different terrains should also be designed. The gravity center should be kept slightly rearward. This attitude should not be excessive to keep the pressure value more even possible along the track. In any case the vehicle naturally assumes the backward inclination due to terrain compression. Another important improvement is the addition of computer controlled directional control to improve the accuracy of trajectories. This is particularly important for tracked vehicles where turning involves extremely high energy consumption.

   

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Title: A novel design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna for Bluetooth applications
Author (s): Ahmed Shakir Al-Hiti
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Bluetooth is a protocol used for data transmission in short range communication from fixed or mobile devices. This technology is designed for low power consumption having short range based on low cost transceiver microchip in each device. Bluetooth devices use Radio communication system, so it is possible for these devices to communicate even when they are not in line of sight of each other but residing in the defined range. Like other wireless devices, Bluetooth device needs to have antenna in order to transmit data signals through the air to the destination and receive transmitted signals from the source. In this paper, the antenna has been designed by substrate of Fire Resistance 4 (FR4) material having dielectric constant of 4.4 with a conducting radiating patch on the substrate and a conducting ground plane on the bottom side of substrate. The ground plane has been partially reduced to improve the antenna bandwidth. The antenna has been analyzed in terms of various antenna parameters such as return loss (Db), gain (Db), directivity (dBi) and return loss by Vector Network Analyzer. The antenna has been designed utilizing Microwave Studio (CST) and also fabricated by Network analyzer E5071C. The antenna design is appropriate to be utilized to Bluetooth applications. It has been noticed that the practical outcomes got through analysis the fabricated antenna that matches with the CST simulator outcomes.

   

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Title: Production of magnesium oxalate from Sea Bittern
Author (s): Hanem A. Sibak, Shadia A. El-Rafie, Shakinaz A. El-Sherbini, M. S. Shalaby and Rania Ramadan
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The present study illustrates the details for precipitation of magnesium from Bittern as magnesium oxalate. The target of study is to prepare magnesium oxalate as a precursor for high purity MgO production. Bittern solution is considered as a byproduct in saline, but it is an ore reserve for many useful elements commercially produced at present based on dolomite, sea water. Its rich composition in various elements; especially magnesium salts gives bittern increasing economical concern for different industrial applications. In the present study, the mechanism of magnesium oxalate precipitation from bittern was investigated using oxalic acid. The global reaction kinetics of magnesium oxalate precipitation from seawater was determined using different molar ratios and varied pH (1-6). The effect of temperature on system kinetics was examined at temperatures between 15 to 80°C. The effect of molar ratio on reaction conversion was investigated from 1:1 to 1:1.8 (magnesium to oxalic acid). The optimized parameters were found to be feasible to produce pure magnesium oxalate with 99% conversion at stoichiometric molar ratio at room temperature with pH=4. The effect of different calcinations temperature was studied from 450°C to 1100°C. All necessary instrumentation and chemical analysis needed for final products characterization have been executed including, XRD, XRF, , and SEM analysis.

   

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Title: Enhancing the engineering properties of cohesive soils using Portland cement
Author (s): Orabi S. Al Rawi and Mohammed N. Assaf
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Different kinds of engineering problems could be occurred as a result of constructing foundations over cohesive soils. The majority of these problems are concerning the soils' volumetric changes that may lead the structure to be partially or totally failed; and accordingly, the idea of this research was shined in order to select a suitable global method to improve the properties of these soils in Jordan, and consequently to minimize their bad effects on structures that were erected on them. The methodology of this research was divided into two stages. The first of these was reviewing for the available literature related to the most applicable global methods in stabilizing fine grained soils; whereas, the second stage was focused on carrying out several laboratory tests to measure the influence of mixing different ratios of Portland cement material with fine grained soil (obtained from an excavated site in the Capital Amman) on the engineering characteristics of the original soil; and then to recommend the best mix ratio to be adopted in stabilizing fine grained soils in Jordan. Out of the conducted laboratory tests (Atterberg limits, permeability, and unconfined compression) the results of these tests showed that the plasticity indices had been decreased with increasing the percentages of mixing Portland cement and then a decrease trend in the soils' degree of expansiveness is expected to be occurred. Increasing of cement percentages had also showed a decrease in the coefficient of permeability of the soil. Moreover, a significant increase in the values of unconfined compressive strength were noticed as a result of mixing more cement ratios. Considering the results of this research, it was concluded that mixing about 5% of Portland cement with a cohesive soil had a pronounced enhancement on the engineering characteristics of the fine grained soil after being mixed, and therefore could improve its overall engineering behavior.

   

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