ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences              ISSN 1819-6608 (Online)
 

 
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences                      December 2019  |  Vol. 14  No. 24
   
Title: Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements due to the suspension-tread tire vehicle load transmission system
Author (s): Julián Andrés Pulecio Diaz, Myriam Rocío Pallares M. and Wilson Rodríguez Calderón
Abstract:

In this research, we evaluated the mechanical behavior of a flexible pavement for roads with low-traffic volume due to the vehicular load transmission system of suspension-tire treadusing 3D-Move Analysis V2.1 software, which models using a continuum-based finite-layer approach. Weslea 3.0 elastic multilayer software was used for validation. The results led to conclude that if carefully observed, the tensilestrain in the lower fibers of the asphalt layer of the flexible pavement studied are higher in the proposed models of elastic-suspension-tire tread-road roughness and viscoelastic-suspension-tire tread-road roughness, which have a range of change percentage from 6.59% to 17.19% compared with the analytical validation modeling, indicating a possible under-sizing of the asphalt layers. Furthermore, according to the models proposed of elastic-suspension-tire tread-road roughness and viscoelastic-suspension-tire tread-road roughness, the additional parameters of the suspension-tire tread system interfere in the behavior of the asphalt layer of the flexible pavement studied, because if the roughness of the pavement increases, the perturbation of the suspension system and the tensile strain in the lower fibers of the asphalt layer also increase; as shown in the results of the change percentages related to analytical validation modeling (Weslea 3.0), from 13.83% (model elastic- roughness average) to 17.19% (model elastic- roughness rough), and 9.54% (model viscoelastic- roughness average) to 13.04% (model viscoelastic- roughness rough).

   

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Title: Liquid brown coal analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Author (s): Atus Buku, Sudjito Soeparman, I. N. G. Wardana, Slamet Wahyudi and Petrus Peleng Roreng
Abstract:

Based on the results of the testing that has been done it can be concluded that the molecules contained in a liquid coal consists of Naphthalene, dimethyl, Acenaphthylene, trimethyl and dimethyl. These molecules are molecules contained in the liquid fuel. This shows that liquid coal is one the material that could be processed into fuel.

   

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Title: Theoretical modeling of flow for frustum - shaped ceramic water filters via disc-shaped ceramic water filters
Author (s): Yaw Delali Bensah, Lucas N. W. Damoah, Emmanuel Nyankson, Abu Yaya, Daniel Nukpezah, Salifu Tahiru Azeko, Kabiru Mustapha and Ebenezer Annan
Abstract:

In the past two decades, research on household technologies has been on the increase. Ceramic water filters are simple and appropriate technology proven to have capability to provide improved drinking water especially in rural and peri-urban communities. These filters can be fabricated into various shapes with careful consideration of their mechanical robustness. This paper gives an overview of various flow models in estimating flow rate for ceramic water filters, in particular frustum-shaped ceramic water filters. Analytical approach to estimate the quantity of water considering the geometrical shapes; frustum and cylindrical shapes of the Ceramic water filters are adopted. The analytical expressions deduced for the flows are applicable on the assumption that the materials used in the fabrication of the filters are the same, thus same material properties (chemical and thermal properties) and porosimetry characteristics. Also, the comparative flow equation is largely dependent on dimensions of the ceramic water filters. The scholarly articles on flow through ceramic water filters for frustum-shaped filter are theoretically explored.

   

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Title: Temperature and magnetic field effect on back surface recombination velocity in a silicon solar cell under white modulated illumination
Author (s): Mint Sidihanena Selma, Ndeye Thiam, Mor Ndiaye, Youssou Traore, Ibrahima Diatta, Marcel Sitor Diouf, Oulimata Mballo, Masse Samba Diop and Gregoire Sissoko
Abstract:

Back surface recombination velocity of excess minority carriers in a monofacial silicon solar cell, is expressed as temperature, magnetic field, and frequency dependent. With Boode and Niquyst diagrams help, results are obtained and analyzed.

   

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Title: Effect of heat and mass transfer on two immiscible viscous fluids through two vertical parallel plates in the presence of chemical reaction with radiation
Author (s): S. Lakshmipriya and A. Govindarajan
Abstract:

This paper expressed, Effect of heat and mass transfer on two immiscible fluids through two vertical parallel plates in the presence of chemical reaction is discussed. Two different temperatures are maintained in the two plates. The flows of momentum, energy and concentration equations are solved by ODE method by using regular perturbation technique. The different parameters in the velocity fields are discussed numerically and graphically.

   

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Title: Matrix analysis of plane trusses by substructuring
Author (s): Myriam Rocío Pallares M., Lauren Melissa Sánchez González and Andres Felipe Jordán Guzmán
Abstract:

A typical case of a plane truss [1] is analyzed using a substructure analysis through the stiffness method proposed by Przemieniecki with the purpose of showing its advantages in engineering calculation when this strategy is used [2]. The results obtained are compared with the Ansysâ simulation software, in order to make important conclusions about the complexity reduction of the problem, and reduction of the cost when using computational techniques, since it is a topic of interest to structural designers in the research area. The substructure analysis using a finite elements software, such as Ansysâ, prove to have significant advantages on calculation used in research, since it allows to determine large structures using software that come with less features (such as the student version), in which structural division is possible, with the purpose of solving simultaneously several models from each divided part; hence, saving time and money is possible, since there is not a necessity for having full versions that come with more features for calculation.

   

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Title: Disaster risk mitigation of oil and gas pipelines project in Java island Indonesia
Author (s): Nova Nevila Rodhi, I. Putu Artama Wiguna and Nadjadji Anwar
Abstract:

The pipelines are one of the most necessary parts of infrastructure in the oil and gas industry. It has function as support the process of oil and gas transmission and distribution. The activities of oil and gas pipelines project that is so long and passing through several regions certainly creates a risk that has a negative impact on the environment, especially if the pipeline project is in a densely populated area. The risks can be caused by leakage of pipeline. The risks of the pipeline project are also explained in various relevant research results. The results of the study cite the project in oil and gas pipelines has very complex risk. In other head, it project make some dangerous thing namely a disaster. At present, oil and gas companies have applied risk management to minimize the risks that exist, but in practice the risks still have a negative impact. This is one of the ineffective risk management applications. This study is intended to analyze risk mitigation efforts in the oil and gas pipeline project on the island of Java. From the results of research conducted based on literature studies that can be carried out regarding risk mitigation in the oil and gas pipeline project, it can support environmental, social and economic factors and natural disasters. Data was obtained using a questionnaire distributed to the oil and gas pipeline project. Most of the factors that must be discussed are social aspects (40%) and other factors contribute 31% for disasters, 15% for the economy, 14% for the environment. These factors must be calculated in the design as a priority.

   

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Title: Simplified von Neumann stability analysis of wave equation numerical solution
Author (s): Aslam Abdullah
Abstract:

Research on numerical stability of difference equations has been quite intensive in the past century. The choice of difference schemes for the derivative terms in these equations contributes to a wide range of the stability analysis issues - one of which is how a chosen scheme may directly or indirectly contribute to such stability. In the present paper, how far the forward difference scheme for the time derivative in the wave equation influences the stability of the equation numerical solution is particularly investigated via a simplified von Neumann stability analysis. The stability analysis of the corresponding difference equation involving four schemes, namely Lax’s, central, forward, and rearward differences, were carried out, and the resulting stability criteria were compared. The results indicate that the instability of the solution of wave equation is not always due to the forward difference scheme for the time derivative. Rather, it is shown that the stability criterion is still possible when the spatial derivative is represented by an appropriate difference scheme. This sheds light on the degree of applicability of a difference scheme for a hyperbolic equation.

   

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Title: An effective automated control system for low temperature and high humidity mushroom house
Author (s): Mohd. Syahrin Amri, Nurazreen Insyirah, Mohd. Farriz Md Basar, Amar Faiz, Faizal Yaakob, Mohamad Haniff Harun, Mohd. Yuhazri Yaakob and Mohd. Syukor Ahmad
Abstract:

Low temperature, high humidity and good ventilation are the important components towards developing mushroom house and produce a healthy mushroom growth. For conventional mushroom house, exhaust fans and humidifier or also known as mist spray were normally used in the mushroom’s house and being manually switched on or off by users. The objectives of this project are to control the mushroom house temperature at below 30°C and humidity above 60% by developing an automated control system using Arduino Uno with solar system for power source. Researchers had designed an automated control system with additional custom cooling pad added to the existing exhaust fan and humidifier systems. This is to further reduce the mushroom house temperature and increase the humidity which the overall system will be monitored and controlled through mobile phone application. Data logger had been used to monitor daily performance and results showed from 12.00 p.m to 5.00 p.m the temperature and humidity had entered the critical condition oyster mushroom in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka whereby it reached high temperature (>30°C) and lower humidity percentage (<60%) and this may cause the mushroom dry and subduing the mushroom growth. The implementation of automated control system with combination of custom cooling pad, exhaust fan including humidifier had given significant lower mushroom house temperature and higher humidity level which control to ideal mushroom growth environment automatically. Results showed with automated control system the average temperature had been successfully reduced from max 38.7°C to min 29.4°C while the humidity average performance had been significantly increased from min 52.7% to 79.4%. The mushroom house had been successfully developed towards ideal mushroom growth condition with the assist of automated control system.

   

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Title: Design and implementation of an UV radiation monitoring system to the Neiva-Huila municipality
Author (s): Paola Andrea David Narváez, Albeiro Cortés cabezas and Dixon Salcedo
Abstract:

Overexposure to solar Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the main causes of skin cancer in people; in that sense, knowing the levels of radiation during the course of the day is of vital importance for all outdoor activities. Therefore, in this work we developed an ultraviolet radiation monitoring system, which allows knowing in real time the index of ultraviolet radiation in the municipality of Neiva. The system recorded the measurements made in a database and deployed through a web application; it allows knowing all present and past records captured by the system. In addition, through a mobile application this information can be accessed in real time and create alarms that alert users when the UV radiation index exceeds a predefined value by the user. Finally, in order to corroborate the reliability of the system, a validation of the system was carried out, comparing the data obtained by the designed system with the data from the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (in Spanish IDEAM) automatic weather station, generating high expectations in the operation of the designed system under normal environmental conditions.

   

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Title: Effect of temperature and frequency on the electrical properties of polystyrene composite containing oil shale particles
Author (s): Abeer Adaileh and Husam Miqdad
Abstract:

The electrical properties of prepared oil shale/polystyrene composites with concentration 30 wt. % of oil shale were studied in this paper, under various measuring conditions including temperature and applied electric field frequency. The dependence of AC-electrical properties of oil shale/polystyrene composites on frequency and temperature were studied using the AC impedance technique. The impedance measurements were performed in the frequency range (100 kHz - 1.5 MHz) and its thermal behavior was studied within the temperature range (30ºC - 90ºC). Impedance, dielectric constant and AC-conductivity showed frequency and temperature dependencies. The relaxation time were determined as a function of temperature. The study includes application of some models to explain the observed results. The universal power law of the AC conductivity behaviour is satisfied for a certain concentration and at different temperatures.

   

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Title: Comparison between Viola-Jones algorithm and semantic segmentation for face parts detection
Author (s): Javier O. Pinzón-Arenas and Robinson Jiménez-Moreno

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison between two face detection methods and their parts, which for this case are the two eyes and the mouth, which are the Viola-Jones (VJ) algorithm and the semantic segmentation based on convolutional neural networks (SegNet). To make the comparison, the training of the proposed SegNet is carried out using a database of previously labeled faces, to be later tested to verify its operation, where 97.55% of average accuracy and a mIoU of 76.64% are obtained. As for the VJ algorithm, an improved version for Matlab is used, which is able to detect the parts of the face even when it has an inclination of up to 20°. The tests are carried out with 10 images of the CelebA dataset, in such a way that each algorithm identifies the complete face, the right and left eye independently, and finally the mouth. In the event that any part of the face has been removed, the algorithm should not detect that section, since if it does it is counted as a false positive. In the tests, VJ obtained an overall accuracy of 79.38%, a low percentage compared to that obtained by SegNet, which was 97.97%. This allows to see the capacity of the proposed network to identify the parts of the face and estimate when there is no information of any of the parts to be detected.

   

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Title: Comparative study of permeability in sandstones and shales - using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) technique
Author (s): Maqsood Ahmad and Nur Eliza Bt Khairul
Abstract:

The various types of pores distributions and pore throats in shale and sandstone samples could be easily investigated and evaluated by Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) techniques. The focus of this research was to figure out the pore size distribution, particularly in correlation with permeability, from MICP measurements. In this project, the rock samples were taken from Sarawak Basin in Malaysia, in the form of chips. In general, MICP profiling is very dependent on simple size due to both conformance and accessibility of pores. Due to conformance, a correction approach was applied in which we considered the samples’ pore volume compression before it was intruded into samples. Mercury injection is used to help in determining the numerous properties of tight shale storage, because there are instances where cuttings from a drilled formation may be limited, and the source rock needed may not be available to be evaluated unless a whole core is taken. Core profiles and cuttings may seem like more plausible choices in calibrating well logs. The distribution of pores and their identification in a single sample may provide the required information on the permeability, porosity and bulk volume of the formation. It could be seen in the results that MICP is highly applicable to capture and figure out the pores size distribution and density in a shale and sandstone sample. From that point of view, the transportation of the gas from the source rock, through the fractures flow paths, into production wells could be understood. Therefore, MICP is a recommended method in analyzing the formation’s permeability via its pore size distribution. However, the objective of this study could not be fully envisaged as it has been observed that there are several limitations when it comes to studying shale gas, and these limitations are not only from the unavailability of equipment but also the problem about the number of samples available.

   

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Title: Spatial and temporal variation of Ozone in Iraq
Author (s): Waleed I., A. L. Rijabo Yusra and M. Abdullah
Abstract:

The Ozone data obtained from (TOMS) Instrument and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used to study the temporary and spatial variabilities of Total Ozone Column (TOC) over 18 different Cities in Iraq ,located from (Lat. 37.1o - 30.5o N) and (Long. 42.7o E - 47.8o E) during the period (1998 - 2017). The mean monthly values of TOC show a Maximum values in March and Minimum values in October in all stations. The results showed that the Maximum values of SD and CV was obtained in winter months and Minimum values were obtained in summer months for all stations. The Time Series for the monthly values of TOC during the period (1998 - 2017) showed a Negative trend in all stations except in Nasiriya and Basra. The monthly (TOC) spatial behavior is found to be higher over the Northern part of Iraq than in the central and Southern part.

   

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Title: Control of UAV based on fuzzy logic in a controlled environment
Author (s): Faiber Robayo Betancourt, Fernando Campos A. and Valentina Pinzón S.
Abstract:

This work shows the design and implementation of the height control system for the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) quad rotor AR. Drone 2.0 making use of a fuzzy logic in a previously established environment. This device has a height control system both in simulation and in the real platform. Three controllers are developed by fuzzy logic whose parameters are obtained from the drone's sensors in such a way that it allows to control height and angles of orientation (Pitch, Roll and Yaw) as long as certain levels of battery charge are considered so that the system do not become unstable. For the visualization and interaction with the drone, a Matlab interface is designed and implemented. It allows communication between the user and all system functions in such a way that the mode of execution can be chosen, following the reference parameters autonomously, store data for a later analysis, visualize the displacements to observe the efficiency, among others.

   

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Title: Design of circular microstrip antenna array for X- band application
Author (s): Huda Sh. Gally, H. A. Hussain and Ali M. Jasim
Abstract:

In this work the circular microstrip antenna arrays has been designed for X-band application by using the HFSS simulator. Arlon AD320A (tm) material with dielectric constant 3.2 and height of a substrate material is 1.7mm. The coaxial feed has been used for feeding the circular patch antenna. The design of microstrip antenna array configurations was 1x2 at 9.18 GHz were presented. The simulation results show improvements in average gain (7.6 dB) while in the single antenna (6.6 dB), band width of antenna array is not change about the band width of single antenna (18%) and show reduction of mutual coupling with increasing the separation between two elements (d) in antenna array.

   

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Title: Participative decision-making automation fuzzy decision-making in territorial intelligence
Author (s): Youssef Amraoui and Aziz Soulhi
Abstract:

This research work presented in this article aims to model participatory decision-making in an environment of territorial cooperation or territorial partnership. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the decision-making automation aid model for territorial actors and territorial experts of the participative decision. The realisation of this model is founded on fuzzy set theory, which is used to solve complex and uncertain system problems. The originality of this model lies in the fact that, in the process of territorial cooperation and territorial partnership, the influence of the characteristics of social and economic development, the disparities and weaknesses, the leadership and the interest in the service provided by each of them are taken into account. It uses territorial expertise as a source of knowledge to control each actor’s contribution to the realization of territorial development projects.

   

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Title: On the growth of solutions of higher order complex linear differential equations
Author (s): Eman A. Hussein and Ayad W. Ali
Abstract:

In this work, we proved, under certain conditions on coefficients, that any non-constant solution of the n-th order complex linear differential equations f(n) + An-1 (z) f (n-1) +...+A1 (z) f'+ A0 (z)f=0 has infinite order. We obtained two results, the conditions in the first result are that if p(A0) < p(A1) < ∞ and T (r,A1)~logM(r;A1) as r ͢ ∞ outside a set of finite logarithmic measure. The conditions in the second result are p (Aj)>1 , 1 ≤ j ≤ n-1, and 0 < p (A0) = p<1/2.

   

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Title: Hydrodynamic effects of secant slider bearings lubricated with second - order fluids
Author (s): S. Sampathraj, T. Bharathi, V. Sudha and Sundarammal Kesavan
Abstract:

The constitutive equations governing the flow of secant slider bearings are analysed. The bearing is lubricated with second order fluid. An attempt has been made to solve the equations governing the model and the characteristics of secant slider bearings are presented. An expression for the fluid film pressure is derived. The results reveal that second order fluids enhances the performance characteristics of lubrication indicating that second order fluids are better than Newtonian fluids.

   

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Title: Survey on VANET’s layered architecture, security challenges and target network selection schemes
Author (s): C. Suganthi Evangeline and Vinoth Babu Kumaravelu
Abstract:

Vehicular Adhoc Network termed as VANET is a special type of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), where vehicles are the mobile nodes, which move with highly predictable mobility patterns. VANET solutions should be based on building new infrastructure and to implement new applications on transportation vehicles. Vehicle Traffic Safety Applications (TSA) can be the first step for safer roads. By increasing road safety, we can reduce and prevent the number of road accidents. The five layered architecture of VANET is formed from optimizing the seven layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and its functionalities are dealt in this work. High mobility and dynamic topologies always lead to intermittent the Quality of Service (QoS), higher delay and packet dropping issues in the network. It is prime importance to ensure VANETs security as their deployment in the future must not compromise the safety and privacy of their users. The vehicles in VANET always need to be connected with the target network. Many decision making schemes are surveyed and presented in this work. This survey also deals with the study of QoS in VANET’s layered architecture and its related security threats in each layer of protocol stack.

   

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Title: Experimental assessment on the spinal effect due to leg length discrepancy: A review
Author (s): Nurul Azira Azizan, Khairul Salleh Basaruddin, Ahmad Faizal Salleh, Wan Mohd. Radzi Rusli and Abdul Razak Sulaiman
Abstract:

Despite enormous advances in evaluating the spinal curvature over the past few decades, however, to find assertions relating to the abnormality of equivalent leg length or leg length discrepancies (LLD) in this same context are uncommon. Therefore, this review highlights the techniques and uses archival data from previous studies on the secondary effect of spinal abnormality effect due to LLD. A combination of several electronic databases search strategy such as Science direct, Scopus and PubMed were used to perform the references lists of reviewed articles. Extracted data included natural and artificial LLD, participants’ selection, methodology for measuring spinal curvature and biomechanical disorder contribute to the changes of spine. This study only considered in English fully-text language and excluded any other language. This information might help others for better understanding in the future investigations.

   

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Title: Planning and mathematical processing of test results for obtaining organomineral and polymerorganic waterproofing material
Author (s): Zhangyl Abilbek, Panabek Tanzharikov, Tashimova Aliya, Nurzhamal Ermukhanova and Kerimbekova Zaurekul
Abstract:

This paper describes the process of mathematical modeling and planning of the technology of obtaining organic-mineral and polymerorganic waterproofing material based on oil waste such as asphalt resin paraffin deposits (ARPD). The feature of this work is to systematize complex changes in the physico-mechanical properties of samples of waterproofing materials obtained on the basis of asphalt resin paraffin deposits, polymer and organic mixture in the systems of "organomineral" and "polymerorganic", as well as for optimization of component compositions for the production of waterproofing materials used the method of planning and mathematical processing of results tests. In addition the results of experimental laboratory testing of the components on the physical and mechanical properties of the material made from polymerorganic and organomineral mixture are presented.

   

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Title: Performance analysis of zero-forcing processing for MIMO multi-relay communication networks
Author (s): Apriana Toding and Syafruddin Syarif
Abstract:

We consider the problem of zero-forcing processing is studied for multi-input multi-output multi-relay communication system in which MIMO source-destination pairs communicate simultaneously. It is assumed that due to severe shadowing effects which communication links can be established only with the aid of relay node. The aim is to design the relay amplification matrix to maximize the achievable communication sum-rate through the relay, which in general amplifying-and-forward relaying mechanisms are considered. Zero-forcing (ZF) processing is employed at destination to maintain low-complexity. The performance analysis of the proposed algorithm is demon- started through numerical simulations can be significantly improved.

   

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Title: Face recognition using combination of codebooks from fragmented patterns
Author (s): Anwar Yahya Ebrahim
Abstract:

In this study, the proposed approach is based on extracting small fragments of face by Adaptive Window Positioning (AWP) procedure was used for attribute extraction, which efforts on the face image into 16 small fragments of size (16x16) such that it is big enough to include ample data about the style of the person and small enough to ensure a good identification achievement. positioning windows over the face image and clustering similar face image fragments into clusters – the codebook. Fragments are then collected separately to obtain two codebooks, primary and secondary. Once the codebooks are generated, each face samples are represented by as a probability distribution of the patterns in the codebook. Then represents the combination of codebook designs for each person such that the number of categories in each codebook differs as a task of the face image. Two faces are then matched by calculating the dimension between their respective codebooks. Experimental outcomes illustration face recognition using windowing technique with combination of codebook is more efficient than other. The highest average estimation proportion of 98.15% is got for 80 individuals’ of publicly available ORL dataset including differences in illumination, posing, and expressions.

   

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Title: Weather prediction using Neural Network Backpropagation
Author (s): Anusha N., Sai Seeta M. G. K. M. and Bhavana Lakshmi M.
Abstract:

Rainfall is one of the main attributes of climate changes in atmosphere. In this paper a method is proposed using Neural Network Backpropagation (BPP) for quantitative prediction of Rainfall rate. The architecture of Neural Network Backpropagation is built on N different attributes as input layer. This model is trained using five parameters as inputs in input layer and data over five years (2011-2016) received from Indian Meteorological Department. The configured Neural Network is applied on some portion of collected data of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. In this study, we predicted the rainfall rate using Neural Network Backpropagation. The error is determined which can be less than the existing models and this achieved by handling outliers by applying K-Means algorithm which enhances the performance of Neural Network Backpropagation.

   

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