ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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             ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science             March 2015 |    Vol. 10  No. 3
 
Title:

A research about microwave effects on the weed plants

Author (s): Hasan Sahin and Ramazan Saglam
Abstract:

This study aims to investigate and detect the germination (through the usage of microwave) inhibition level of the weed seeds that cause significant production losses in agricultural areas. Cress and arugula seeds were used as weed seeds in research. Weed seeds which were planted in equal depths (8-10 mm) into the soil-turf compound that was prepared to investigate the effects of microwave energy on the weed seeds germination were exposed to microwave for 126 s, 70 s and 50 s in the conveyor belt developed specifically for this study. Microwave tunnel is composed from a conveyor belt with the capability of being adjusted to four different speeds and that has a 2800 W output power consisting of four magnetrons each with 1 kW. To detect the effects of microwave on the germination of weed seeds, samples not exposed to microwave were also germinated and the results were compared. In this phase of the study, the temperature that the soil reached during the microwave radiation process was measured for each pot and then recorded. After the microwave application, the germination states of the samples irrigated through certain intervals were observed on the basis that it would be kept in the incubator under temperatures of 23-25 C and moisture by 75-80%. According to the results, an inhibition close to 100% was detected in the germination of weed seeds exposed to microwave for 126 seconds. Also, the cress seeds to which microwave had been applied for 50 seconds showed an germination ratio of 96%, whereas the non-exposed cress seeds had a germination ratio of 65%, which is really interesting. This situation was commented that the thermal effect of microwave had increased the germination ratio and germination speed of seeds.

 
       
 
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Title:

An extremely compact high ratio continuously variable power transmission for small hybrid tractors

Author (s): Luca Piancastelli, Leonardo Frizziero and Giacomo Bertozzi
Abstract:

The planetary gear hybrid powertrain (PGHP) is known as one of the most compact speed reduction system. The PGHP introduced in this paper varies continuously the reduction ratio by using an additional external, speed controlled, power source to the traditional thermal engine. A continuous variable transmission (CVT) can be obtained in this way. An extremely large variation of the reduction ratio can be obtained even by a single stage planetary gearing. An example of a 2 wheel drive (2WD) tractor is introduced herein along with all the calculation necessary for the dimensioning of the gearing system. The efficiency of this system is extremely high since the motor power is added to the engine one.

 
 
 
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Title:

Plasmid mediated methicillin and vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolated from northern India

Author (s): Kalpana Chaudhari and Harish Kumar Bajaj
Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine plasmid mediated methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus along with plasmid profiling and detection of vancomycin resistance genes. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology and Fermentation Technology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India. The molecular detection of gene was completed in Molecular Diagnostic Research Laboratory, Chandigarh. The clinical specimen was collected from two tertiary care hospitals of Allahabad from September 2012 to May 2013. Altogether 59 S. aureus isolates were isolated among which 20 MRSA were screened. Acridine orange in concentration of 0.1mg/ml was used for plasmid curing. Plasmid cured VRSA isolates were subjected to plasmid profiling by agarose gel electrophoresis followed by detection of vanA and vanH gene. In vitro plasmid curing of 20 methicilin resistant, one vancomycin intermediate (MIC: 8g/ml) and three vancomycin resistant (MIC: 16-32g/ml) strains removed resistance markers from eight MRSA and two VRSA isolates, respectively. Vancomycin resistance plasmid was successfully transferred to MSSA. Plasmid borne vancomycin resistant strains harboured 23kbp plasmid. Vancomycin resistance vanA and vanH gene was identified on molecular basis. It was concluded that plasmid mediated methicillin resistance exists less frequently but in case of VRSA, Both the mechanisms of thickening cell wall and plasmid acquisition imposed equal impact on emergence of VRSA.

 
 
 
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Title:

Vegetation analysis and community structure of mangroves in Alabel and Maasim Sarangani province, Philippines

Author (s):

Ella Mae C. Natividad, Vivian S. Hingabay, Harold B. Lipae,  Elani A. Requieron, April Joy Abalunan, Paolo M. Tagaloguin, Remedios S. Flamiano,  Joycelyn C. Jumawan and Jess H. Jumawan

Abstract:

A study was conducted in order to establish and describe the mangrove community and vegetation of the mangrove forest in Alabel and Maasim, Sarangani province. It was evident that the studies for mangrove vegetation were really few in Sarangani bay. Thus, this study will serve as baseline information. Sampling plots (10m x 10m) were established into sea ward, middle ward and landward. Individual plants found within the plot were identified and counted. Mangrove vegetation analyses were determined using relative density, relative frequency, relative dominance and importance value.  Community structure was analysed using multivariate analysis performing non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (nMDS), cluster analysis and one way ANOSIM. Mangrove communities in Alabel and Maasim, Sarangani province have identified 12 species; A. marina, L. racemosa, P. acidula, A. floridum, X. granatum, B. gymnorrhiza, B. cylindrical, C. decandra, C. tagal, R. apiculata, R. mucronat and S. alba out of 39 true mangroves reported in the Philippines. Vegetation analysis in Alabel showed that species with the highest importance value was A. marina (84.72%) and S. alba (158.72%) in Maasim sampling site. Cluster analysis showed moderate similarity among plots observed from the same site than plots from different sites. All the 21 sampling plots in Alabel and 20 in Maasim were clustered based on similarities and formed into 3 groups with 40% similarity. Data ordination in nMDS revealed that characteristic similarity of same sites was analogous with ANOSIM of (R=0.317, P=0.001) but very minimal similar characteristics were observed in Alabel sampling plots to Maasim sampling plots. Results shows A. marina and S. alba as species with highest importance value with mangrove structure showing no distinct characteristics on the two sites.

 
 
 
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Title:

The effects of tomato pulp powder supplementation on performance and some blood parameters in Japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

Author (s):

Hossein Jouzi, Nasrollah Vali and  Javad Pourreza

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding tomato pulp powder on performance and some blood parameters of Japanese quail. A total of 180 one day old quail chicks with an average weight of 18.50 g were divided into five treatments with 3 replicates. The treatments were divided as basal diet with no tomato pulp powder kept as control, and for others 2% (T1), 4% (T2), 6% (T3) and 8% (T4) of tomato pulp powder were used, respectively. The live body weight gains and feed consumption of birds were measured individually feed conversion efficiency were calculated weekly. At the end of the trial for investigating the effect of using tomato powder supplementation on performance of quails, two birds from each replicates were slaughtered and some blood samples were taken for blood parameters determination. Data showed that using of tomato pulp powder didnt increased feed intake (FI) in comparison to control groups. Also body weight BW (g/d) and Pre-slaughter weigh (g) were higher in T2 than other experimental groups compared to the control. There were significant differences (p<0.05) for feed coefficient (FC) among treatments. Data showed that using of tomato pulp powder could reduce wings, Breast, drumstick and carcass yield (g) and also showed that triglyceride, cholesterol, Zn, Cu and Fe level had decreased in the T1, T2, and T3 except T4. There were significant differences (p<0.05) for triglyceride and protein levels amount treatments. Data from this study showed that dried tomato pulp may be used as ingredient in quails ration up to level of 4-6% without harming weight gain and feed conversion of birds.

 
 
 
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Title:

Evaluation the meat composition and immunity parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed by dietary oil source, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplement

Author (s):

Mojtaba Nazari Farsani, Sayed Mohammad Ali Jalali, Mohesn Jafarian Dehkordi

Abstract:

To study the effects of dietary oil sources, L-carnitine and Ractopamine supplement on the meat filet composition, hematological and immunological parameter of rainbow trout, 288 fish (initial body weight 90 5 g) were fed by 8 dietary treatments as a 222 factorial experimental design. Dietary treatments contained fish oil or soybean oil and two levels of L-Carnitine (0 or 1 g.kg-1) and ractopamine (0 or 10 mg.kg-1) supplement and fish fed for 8 week feeding trials. At the end of experiment, fish filet composition (protein, fat and ash), liver fat and hematological parameter (hematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin, phagocytosis and etc,) and also concentration of immunoglobulin M (Ig M) in blood of fish were measured. Results showed that replacement of fish oil by soybean oil significantly increased crud protein percentage of fish filet, lipid content of liver and hematocrit, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, phagocytosis activity and phagocytosed particles in blood fish as comparison of fish oil dietary treatment (p<0.05). Dietary L-carnitine supplementation reduced heterophils and phagocytosed particles but no change other hematological parameter and filet fish composition (p<0.05). Ractopamine supplement significantly reduced hematocrit, monocyte and Ig M but increased phagocytosed particles (p<0.05) in blood fish. Addition of L-carnitine plus ractopamine to soybean oil diet reduced fat content of filet and increased it in fish liver. Also addition of L-carnitine or ractopamine to fish oil diet increased lymphocyte and reduced Ig M in fish blood. Data of the present experiment showed that immunological and hematological response of rainbow trout to L-carnitine and ractopamine supplement were affected by dietary oil sources.

 
 
 
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