ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science       ISSN 1990-6145
   
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             ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science             May 2015 |    Vol. 10  No. 5
 
Title:

Effect of salinity stress on seed germination and antioxidative defense system of Catharanthus Roseus

Author (s):

Mohammad Reza Amirjani

Abstract:

In this study the effect of responses of Catharanthus roseus to NaCl stress has been explored. Periwinkle plants were exposed to different concentrations of salt and the effect of treatment on germination, growth parameter and antioxidative defense system investigated. Seeds were presoaked in solutions with different salinity after sterilization. Experimental samples irrigated once every two days with solutions containing given NACl concentration. Increasing the NaCl concentration to 25, 50, 75 and 100 μM salt reduced germination percentage by 8, 29, 41 and 81 percent respectively. Plant fresh and dry weights of treated plants showed a decrease, compare to the control. Ascorbic acid content increased to 42, 56, 129 and 218 percent when treated by 25, 50, 75 and 100 μM salt, respectively, compared to the control. Glutathione concentration showed a significant (P<0.05) increase at all treatments. NaCl caused to significant decrease of SOD activity. Salinity enhanced the activities of catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The MDA content increased with the increasing concentrations of NaCl. MDA content of samples treated by 100 μM NaCl increased up to 45 percent more than the control.

 
       
 
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Title:

Response of brinjal (solanum melongena L.) cultivars to zinc levels

Author (s):

Saleha Tawab, Gohar Ayub, Faiza Tawab, Owais Khan, Nadia Bostan, Ghazala Ruby, Shawana Ahmad and Ume-Kalsoom Afridi

Abstract:

To assess the effect of different degrees of zinc to brinjal cultivars, an experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Nursery, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2012. Two Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used in this experiment. Four levels of zinc (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%) were applied to three brinjal cultivars (Purple, Shimla, Shamli). Both cultivars and zinc levels proved significantly different among growth parameters. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, numbers of fruits per plant, fruit weight and total yield were significantly increased by zinc levels. Maximum plant height (131.89 cm), number of leaves per plant (437.78), number of fruits per plant (9.00), fruit weight (280.11 g) and total yield   (15.33 t/ha) were recorded for plants treated with 0.2% zinc, while least number of leaves per plant (231.33), number of fruits per plant (5.33), fruit weight (143.89 g) and total yield (4.51 t/ha) were recorded in control treatments. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight and total yield was significantly different among cultivars. Maximum number of fruit per plant (7.42), fruit weight (210.583 g) and total yield (10.21 t/ha) were recorded for cultivar Purple. The growth and yield parameters indicates that cultivar Purple applied with 0.2% zinc showed best results and hence recommended for the brinjal growers in Peshawar valley.

 
 
 
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Title:

An hybrid, extremely simple, steering solution for tractors with continuously variable transmission ratio

Author (s):

Luca Piancastelli and Leonardo Frizziero

Abstract:

The implementation of an electrically controlled dual drive inherently stable heavy duty tracked vehicle is introduced in this paper. The proposed solution makes it possible to obtain a CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) by using two single stage planetary gearings for each sprocket. An additional motor is added to the annular gear. By controlling the motor speed, it is possible to vary the transmission ratio continuously and to obtain also continuous reverse speed.  The torque of the electric motor and the engine are added.  It is then possible to obtain extremely high torque at very low speed. This track steering mechanism is simple, continuous, efficient and additive; this means that, when transitioning to a turn, the mean track velocity remains the same.  It is also additive, since keeping both tracks moving helps prevent the tracked vehicle from getting stuck. Driving in a straight line is easy. Neutral steering can be achieved.  Finally, the energy from the slowed track can be transferred to the sped up one in a regenerative way. An example is proposed in this paper to clarify the concept.

 
 
 
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Title:

Effect of density on weeds seed production and biomass and sorghum yield rotated with different plants

Author (s):

Elnaz Ghotbifar and Mehrdad Yarnia

Abstract:

The present study aimed at evaluating effect of crop rotation and planting density on sorghum yield, weed seed production and biomass. The experiment was conducted as split plots using completely randomized blocks design with three replications. The factors included prior cultivation at five levels: lentil, maize, wheat, bean, and rapeseed as main factor and sorghum density as secondary factor at four levels including 50 plants/m2 (row spacing = 4 cm), 25 plants/m2 (row spacing = 8 cm), 17 plants/m2 (row spacing = 12 cm), and 12 plants/m2 (row spacing = 16 cm). According to the results, maximum length of panicle, 1000 kernel weight, and biomass of sorghum was seen in densities of 12 and 17 plants/m2. In these treatments, there was not any significant difference between densities of 12 and 17 plants/m2. However, more density resulted in significantly decrease of these traits. Sorghum biomass in densities of 25 plants/m2 and 50 plants/m2 was 37.3% and 34.4% less than that of 12 plants/m2, respectively. The highest biomass per area unit (1636g/m2) was seen in wheat rotation and density of 50 plants/m2. After this treatment, maximum biomass (1213 and 1170 g/m2), was seen in bean and rapeseed rotations in the density of 50 plants/m2.

 
 
 
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Title:

Variance components and heritability of some growth parameters in purebred Nigerian indigenous chickens

Author (s):

C. C. Ogbu, E. N. Nwachukwu and C. C. Nwosu

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to evaluate growth performance (body weight, BW; body weight gain, BWG; feed intake, FI; and feed:gain ratio, F:G) in a population of purebred Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC) and to determine the variance components and additive genetic heritability of BW, BWG, and F:G in this population. Data were collected from a total of 500 purebred NIC (G1 generation) produced from 5 sire groups (1 cock:10 hens) established from a foundation stock (G0 generation) made up of mature hens and roosters (≥ 39 weeks of age) maintained in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu. On hatching, the chicks were identified according to sire group using wing bands. They were brooded and reared together on deep litter from hatch to 8 wk of age and thereafter separated into sire groups and then reared to sexual maturity (20 wk). Data on BW, BWG, FI and F:G were collected from hatch to 20 weeks of age and subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using a sire model (paternal half-sib analysis). Sire component of variance was determined for BW, BWG, and F:G and used to calculate the additive genetic heritability for the traits. There were significant (P˂0.05) sire effect on BW, BWG, and F:G across the age periods but not FI. Sire (σs2) and additive genetic (σA2) variances increased rapidly during the early phase of growth (0-12 wk) compared to later age periods. Additive genetic heritability (hA2) ranged from 0.28 0.24-0.71 0.47, 0.63 0.53-0.77 0.58 and 0.56 0.50-0.79 0.61 for BW, BWG, and F:G, respectively. It was concluded that BW, BWG and F:G varied significantly in NIC population and would respond to selection for genetic improvement.

 
 
 
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Title:

The role of agricultural extension services in tomato production in district Mansehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Author (s): Ahmad Abrar Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah, Muhammad Mumtaz, Inamullah Laila Khurshid, Muhammad Binyamin, Fazal Rabi and Nadia Bostan
Abstract:

The present study was initiated to investigate the role of agricultural extension services in the area, regarding tomato. The study was conducted in four villages of Pakkhal plain of district Mansehra. The sample of 120 respondents was selected through proportional allocation sample technique. The respondents were categorized in different groups on the basis of their age, education, land holding size. It was revealed that majority (33%) of the respondents were belonged to age group of 25-35 year. In the category of literate farmers majority (28%) of respondents were those who got their education up to middle level. In the field study it was observed that majority (55%) of farmers were unsatisfied from the role and services of agricultural extension department. The main source of information / awareness of majority farmers about tomato cultivation was due to their ancestral and relatives. The agricultural extension services and role was found poor in the study area.

 
 
 
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